# Alan Turing The Enigma

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### Alan Turing The Enigma

Author | : Andrew Hodges |

Publsiher | : Random House |

Total Pages | : 768 |

Release | : 2012-11-30 |

Genre | : Biography & Autobiography |

ISBN | : 9781448137817 |

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The official book behind the Academy Award-winning film The Imitation Game, starring Benedict Cumberbatch and Keira Knightley Alan Turing was the mathematician whose cipher-cracking transformed the Second World War. Taken on by British Intelligence in 1938, as a shy young Cambridge don, he combined brilliant logic with a flair for engineering. In 1940 his machines were breaking the Enigma-enciphered messages of Nazi Germany’s air force. He then headed the penetration of the super-secure U-boat communications. But his vision went far beyond this achievement. Before the war he had invented the concept of the universal machine, and in 1945 he turned this into the first design for a digital computer. Turing's far-sighted plans for the digital era forged ahead into a vision for Artificial Intelligence. However, in 1952 his homosexuality rendered him a criminal and he was subjected to humiliating treatment. In 1954, aged 41, Alan Turing took his own life.

### Alan Turing The Enigma

Author | : Andrew Hodges |

Publsiher | : Princeton University Press |

Total Pages | : 768 |

Release | : 2014-11-10 |

Genre | : Biography & Autobiography |

ISBN | : 9780691164724 |

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A NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER The official book behind the Academy Award-winning film The Imitation Game, starring Benedict Cumberbatch and Keira Knightley It is only a slight exaggeration to say that the British mathematician Alan Turing (1912-1954) saved the Allies from the Nazis, invented the computer and artificial intelligence, and anticipated gay liberation by decades--all before his suicide at age forty-one. This New York Times–bestselling biography of the founder of computer science, with a new preface by the author that addresses Turing's royal pardon in 2013, is the definitive account of an extraordinary mind and life. Capturing both the inner and outer drama of Turing’s life, Andrew Hodges tells how Turing’s revolutionary idea of 1936--the concept of a universal machine--laid the foundation for the modern computer and how Turing brought the idea to practical realization in 1945 with his electronic design. The book also tells how this work was directly related to Turing’s leading role in breaking the German Enigma ciphers during World War II, a scientific triumph that was critical to Allied victory in the Atlantic. At the same time, this is the tragic account of a man who, despite his wartime service, was eventually arrested, stripped of his security clearance, and forced to undergo a humiliating treatment program--all for trying to live honestly in a society that defined homosexuality as a crime. The inspiration for a major motion picture starring Benedict Cumberbatch and Keira Knightley, Alan Turing: The Enigma is a gripping story of mathematics, computers, cryptography, and homosexual persecution.

### Alan Turing

Author | : Andrew Hodges |

Publsiher | : Unknown |

Total Pages | : 586 |

Release | : 1985 |

Genre | : Mathematicians |

ISBN | : 0045100608 |

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### Alan Turing

Author | : Nigel Cawthorne |

Publsiher | : Arcturus Publishing |

Total Pages | : 128 |

Release | : 2014-09-14 |

Genre | : History |

ISBN | : 9781784280420 |

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Spring 1940: The Battle of the Atlantic rages. Vulnerable merchant convoys are at the mercy of German U-boats controlled by a cunning system of coded messages created by a machine called Enigma. Only one man believes that these codes can be broken - mathematician and Bletchley Park cryptanalyst Alan Turing. Winston Churchill later described Turing's success in breaking the Enigma codes as the single biggest contribution to victory against Nazi Germany. Unheralded during his lifetime, Turing is now recognized as the father of modern computer science and as possessing one of the greatest minds of the 20th century. Drawing on original source material, interviews and photographs, this book explores Turing's groundbreaking work as well as revealing the private side of a complex and unlikely national hero.

### Alan Turing Enigma

Author | : Anna Revell |

Publsiher | : Independently Published |

Total Pages | : 113 |

Release | : 2017-08-10 |

Genre | : Gay men |

ISBN | : 1522072128 |

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Alan Turing: Enigma: The Incredible True Story of the Man Who Cracked The Code If you have ever used a computer, you owe that joy to Alan Turing. Turing is known by many as the Father of the Modern Computer for his conception of the theoretical stored-memory machine (known as the Turing Machine) and for the subsequent implementation of this idea in the creation of some of the world's first working computers, the Automatic Computing Engine, and the Manchester Mark 1. Impressive as they are, though, Turing's contributions to computer science are not necessarily his most famous or influential projects. Alan Turing was one of the most significant figures in the Allied victory of World War Two, thanks to his ingenious code breaking skills and the invention of the British Bombe at Bletchley Park. In his later life, Turing even dabbled in artificial intelligence, and biology, creating concepts that are still being investigated today. Until recently, Alan Turing had often been overlooked as an important figure in history. Thanks to in-depth biographies like Andrew Hodges' Alan Turing: The Enigma, and film depictions of Turing's life, like The Imitation Game, based on Hodges' book, Alan Turing is quickly becoming a household name, as people begin to recognize that his contributions to various fields were so influential they actually changed the course of human history.

### X Y Z

Author | : Dermot Turing |

Publsiher | : The History Press |

Total Pages | : 320 |

Release | : 2018-09-03 |

Genre | : Biography & Autobiography |

ISBN | : 9780750989671 |

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It’s common knowledge that the Enigma cipher was broken at Bletchley Park, but less is known of the background: an exhilarating spy story of secret documents smuggled across borders, hair-raising escapes, Gestapo interrogations and betrayals. At the heart of it is the decisive role of Polish mathematicians and French spymasters who helped Britain’s codebreakers change the course of the Second World War. X, Y & Z is the real story of how Enigma was broken.

### Prof Alan Turing Decoded

Author | : Dermot Turing |

Publsiher | : Pitkin |

Total Pages | : 304 |

Release | : 2015-09-15 |

Genre | : Biography & Autobiography |

ISBN | : 9780750965248 |

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Alan Turing was an extraordinary man who crammed into a life of only 42 years the careers of mathematician, codebreaker, computer scientist and biologist. He is widely regarded as a war hero grossly mistreated by his unappreciative country and it has become hard to disentangle the real man from the story. It is easy to cast him as a misfit, the stereotypical professor. But actually Alan Turing was never a professor, and his nickname ‘Prof’ was given by his codebreaking friends at Bletchley Park. Now, Alan Turing’s nephew, Dermot Turing, has taken a fresh look at the influences on Alan Turing’s life and creativity, and the later creation of a legend. For the first time it is possible to disclose the real character behind the cipher-text: how did Alan’s childhood experiences influence the man? Who were the influential figures in Alan’s formative years? How did his creative ideas evolve? Was he really a solitary, asocial genius? What was his wartime work after 1942, and why was it kept even more secret than the Enigma story? What is the truth about Alan Turing’s conviction for gross indecency, and did he commit suicide? What is the significance of the Royal Pardon granted in 2013? In Dermot’s own style he takes a vibrant and entertaining approach to the life and work of a true genius.

### Alan Turing The Enigma

Author | : Andrew Hodges |

Publsiher | : Princeton University Press |

Total Pages | : 768 |

Release | : 2014-11-10 |

Genre | : Biography & Autobiography |

ISBN | : 9781400865123 |

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A NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER The official book behind the Academy Award-winning film The Imitation Game, starring Benedict Cumberbatch and Keira Knightley It is only a slight exaggeration to say that the British mathematician Alan Turing (1912-1954) saved the Allies from the Nazis, invented the computer and artificial intelligence, and anticipated gay liberation by decades--all before his suicide at age forty-one. This New York Times–bestselling biography of the founder of computer science, with a new preface by the author that addresses Turing's royal pardon in 2013, is the definitive account of an extraordinary mind and life. Capturing both the inner and outer drama of Turing’s life, Andrew Hodges tells how Turing’s revolutionary idea of 1936--the concept of a universal machine--laid the foundation for the modern computer and how Turing brought the idea to practical realization in 1945 with his electronic design. The book also tells how this work was directly related to Turing’s leading role in breaking the German Enigma ciphers during World War II, a scientific triumph that was critical to Allied victory in the Atlantic. At the same time, this is the tragic account of a man who, despite his wartime service, was eventually arrested, stripped of his security clearance, and forced to undergo a humiliating treatment program--all for trying to live honestly in a society that defined homosexuality as a crime. The inspiration for a major motion picture starring Benedict Cumberbatch and Keira Knightley, Alan Turing: The Enigma is a gripping story of mathematics, computers, cryptography, and homosexual persecution.

### Alan Turing His Work and Impact

Author | : S. Barry Cooper,J. van Leeuwen |

Publsiher | : Elsevier |

Total Pages | : 944 |

Release | : 2013-03-18 |

Genre | : Mathematics |

ISBN | : 9780123870124 |

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In this 2013 winner of the prestigious R.R. Hawkins Award from the Association of American Publishers, as well as the 2013 PROSE Awards for Mathematics and Best in Physical Sciences & Mathematics, also from the AAP, readers will find many of the most significant contributions from the four-volume set of the Collected Works of A. M. Turing. These contributions, together with commentaries from current experts in a wide spectrum of fields and backgrounds, provide insight on the significance and contemporary impact of Alan Turing's work. Offering a more modern perspective than anything currently available, Alan Turing: His Work and Impact gives wide coverage of the many ways in which Turing's scientific endeavors have impacted current research and understanding of the world. His pivotal writings on subjects including computing, artificial intelligence, cryptography, morphogenesis, and more display continued relevance and insight into today's scientific and technological landscape. This collection provides a great service to researchers, but is also an approachable entry point for readers with limited training in the science, but an urge to learn more about the details of Turing's work. 2013 winner of the prestigious R.R. Hawkins Award from the Association of American Publishers, as well as the 2013 PROSE Awards for Mathematics and Best in Physical Sciences & Mathematics, also from the AAP Named a 2013 Notable Computer Book in Computing Milieux by Computing Reviews Affordable, key collection of the most significant papers by A.M. Turing Commentary explaining the significance of each seminal paper by preeminent leaders in the field Additional resources available online

### Reflections of Alan Turing

Author | : Dermot Turing |

Publsiher | : The History Press |

Total Pages | : 208 |

Release | : 2021-04-22 |

Genre | : Biography & Autobiography |

ISBN | : 9780750997072 |

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Everyone knows the story of the codebreaker and computer science pioneer Alan Turing. Except When Dermot Turing is asked about his famous uncle, people want to know more than the bullet points of his life. They want to know everything was Alan Turing actually a codebreaker? What did he make of artificial intelligence? What is the significance of Alan Turings trial, his suicide, the Royal Pardon, the £50 note and the film The Imitation Game? In Reflections of Alan Turing, Dermot strips off the layers to uncover the real story. Its time to discover a fresh legacy of Alan Turing for the twenty-first century.

### The Essential Turing

Author | : B. Jack. Copeland |

Publsiher | : Clarendon Press |

Total Pages | : 620 |

Release | : 2004-09-09 |

Genre | : Science |

ISBN | : 9780191606861 |

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Alan Turing, pioneer of computing and WWII codebreaker, is one of the most important and influential thinkers of the twentieth century. In this volume for the first time his key writings are made available to a broad, non-specialist readership. They make fascinating reading both in their own right and for their historic significance: contemporary computational theory, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, and artificial life all spring from this ground-breaking work, which is also rich in philosophical and logical insight. An introduction by leading Turing expert Jack Copeland provides the background and guides the reader through the selection. About Alan Turing Alan Turing FRS OBE, (1912-1954) studied mathematics at King's College, Cambridge. He was elected a Fellow of King's in March 1935, at the age of only 22. In the same year he invented the abstract computing machines - now known simply as Turing machines - on which all subsequent stored-program digital computers are modelled. During 1936-1938 Turing continued his studies, now at Princeton University. He completed a PhD in mathematical logic, analysing the notion of 'intuition' in mathematics and introducing the idea of oracular computation, now fundamental in mathematical recursion theory. An 'oracle' is an abstract device able to solve mathematical problems too difficult for the universal Turing machine. In the summer of 1938 Turing returned to his Fellowship at King's. When WWII started in 1939 he joined the wartime headquarters of the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park, Buckinghamshire. Building on earlier work by Polish cryptanalysts, Turing contributed crucially to the design of electro-mechanical machines ('bombes') used to decipher Enigma, the code by means of which the German armed forces sought to protect their radio communications. Turing's work on the version of Enigma used by the German navy was vital to the battle for supremacy in the North Atlantic. He also contributed to the attack on the cyphers known as 'Fish'. Based on binary teleprinter code, Fish was used during the latter part of the war in preference to morse-based Enigma for the encryption of high-level signals, for example messages from Hitler and other members of the German High Command. It is estimated that the work of GC&CS shortened the war in Europe by at least two years. Turing received the Order of the British Empire for the part he played. In 1945, the war over, Turing was recruited to the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in London, his brief to design and develop an electronic computer - a concrete form of the universal Turing machine. Turing's report setting out his design for the Automatic Computing Engine (ACE) was the first relatively complete specification of an electronic stored-program general-purpose digital computer. Delays beyond Turing's control resulted in NPL's losing the race to build the world's first working electronic stored-program digital computer - an honour that went to the Royal Society Computing Machine Laboratory at Manchester University, in June 1948. Discouraged by the delays at NPL, Turing took up the Deputy Directorship of the Royal Society Computing Machine Laboratory in that year. Turing was a founding father of modern cognitive science and a leading early exponent of the hypothesis that the human brain is in large part a digital computing machine, theorising that the cortex at birth is an 'unorganised machine' which through 'training' becomes organised 'into a universal machine or something like it'. He also pioneered Artificial Intelligence. Turing spent the rest of his short career at Manchester University, being appointed to a specially created Readership in the Theory of Computing in May 1953. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in March 1951 (a high honour).

### Natural Wonders Every Child Should Know

Author | : Edwin Tenney Brewster |

Publsiher | : Unknown |

Total Pages | : 365 |

Release | : 1912 |

Genre | : Biology |

ISBN | : OSU:32435066983602 |

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### Alan M Turing

Author | : Sara Turing |

Publsiher | : Cambridge University Press |

Total Pages | : 169 |

Release | : 2012-03-22 |

Genre | : Biography & Autobiography |

ISBN | : 9781107020580 |

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Containing never-before-published material, this fascinating account sheds new light on one of the greatest figures of the twentieth century.

### Turing s Imitation Game

Author | : Kevin Warwick,Huma Shah |

Publsiher | : Cambridge University Press |

Total Pages | : 250 |

Release | : 2016-09-30 |

Genre | : Computers |

ISBN | : 9781107056381 |

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Can you tell the difference between talking to a human and talking to a machine? Or, is it possible to create a machine which is able to converse like a human? In fact, what is it that even makes us human? Turing's Imitation Game, commonly known as the Turing Test, is fundamental to the science of artificial intelligence. Involving an interrogator conversing with hidden identities, both human and machine, the test strikes at the heart of any questions about the capacity of machines to behave as humans. While this subject area has shifted dramatically in the last few years, this book offers an up-to-date assessment of Turing's Imitation Game, its history, context and implications, all illustrated with practical Turing tests. The contemporary relevance of this topic and the strong emphasis on example transcripts makes this book an ideal companion for undergraduate courses in artificial intelligence, engineering or computer science.

### Turing

Author | : B. Jack Copeland |

Publsiher | : Oxford University Press |

Total Pages | : 320 |

Release | : 2014 |

Genre | : Biography & Autobiography |

ISBN | : 9780198719182 |

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Alan Turing is regarded as one of the greatest scientists of the 20th century. But who was Turing, and what did he achieve during his tragically short life of 41 years? Best known as the genius who broke Germany's most secret codes during the war of 1939-45, Turing was also the father of the modern computer. Today, all who 'click-to-open' are familiar with the impact of Turing's ideas. Here, B. Jack Copeland provides an account of Turing's life and work, exploring the key elements of his life-story in tandem with his leading ideas and contributions. The book highlights Turing's contributions to computing and to computer science, including Artificial Intelligence and Artificial Life, and the emphasis throughout is on the relevance of his work to modern developments. The story of his contributions to codebreaking during the Second World War is set in the context of his thinking about machines, as is the account of his work in the foundations of mathematics.