Alcohol and Its Biomarkers

Alcohol and Its Biomarkers
Author: Amitava Dasgupta
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 312
Release: 2015-02-18
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780128004098

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Alcohol and Its Biomarkers: Clinical Aspects and Laboratory Determination is a concise guide to all currently known alcohol biomarkers, their clinical application, and the laboratory methods used to detect them. Pathologists can use this resource to understand the limitations and cost factors associated with each method for determining certain alcohol biomarkers. In addition, interferences in these determinations are discussed, so that clinicians can understand the causes of falsely elevated biomarkers and pathologists and laboratory scientists can potentially eliminate them. The book focuses on the analytical methods used to detect alcohol in blood and urine, the limitations of alcohol determination using enzymatic methods, and the differences between clinical and forensic alcohol measurement. Chapters also cover cutting-edge alcohol biomarkers for potential use. Focuses on the analytical methods used for detecting alcohol in blood and urine along with the pitfalls and limitations of alcohol determination using enzymatic methods Explains the difference between clinical and forensic alcohol measurement Includes a brief overview of the benefits of consuming alcohol in moderation and the hazards of heavy drinking

Neuroscience of Alcohol

Neuroscience of Alcohol
Author: Victor R. Preedy
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 736
Release: 2019-03-19
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780128131268

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Neuroscience of Alcohol: Mechanisms and Treatment presents the fundamental information necessary for a thorough understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol addiction and its effects on the brain. Offering thorough coverage of all aspects of alcohol research, treatment and prevention, and containing contributions from internationally recognized experts, the book provides students, early-career researchers, and investigators at all levels with a fundamental introduction to all aspects of alcohol misuse. Alcohol is one of the world’s most common addictive substances, with about two billion individuals worldwide consuming it in one form or another and three million annual deaths that are associated with alcohol misuse. Alcohol alters a variety of neurological processes, from molecular biology, to cognition. Moreover, addiction to alcohol can lead to numerous other health concerns and damage virtually every organ system in the body, making diagnosis and treatment of individuals addicted to alcohol of critical importance. Integrates cutting-edge research on the pharmacological, cellular and molecular aspects of alcohol use, along with its effects on neurobiological function Discusses alcohol use as a component of dual-use and poly addictions Outlines numerous screening and treatment strategies for alcohol misuse Covers both the physical and psychological effects of alcohol use and withdrawals to provide a fully-formed view of alcohol dependency and its effects

Alcohol Drugs and Impaired Driving

Alcohol  Drugs  and Impaired Driving
Author: A. Wayne Jones,Jorg Gustav Morland,Ray H. Liu
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 700
Release: 2020-06-15
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9781000048568

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Alcohol, Drugs, and Impaired Driving addresses many theoretical and practical issues related to the role played by alcohol and other psychoactive drugs on driving performance, road-traffic safety, and public health. Several key forensic issues are involved in the enforcement of laws regulating driving under the influence of alcohol and/or other drugs, including analytical toxicology, pharmacology of drug action, as well as the relationships between dose taken, concentration levels in the body, and impairment of performance and behavior. Our knowledge of drunken driving is much more comprehensive than drugged driving, so a large part of this book is devoted to alcohol impairment, as well as impairment caused by use of drugs other than alcohol. For convenience, the book is divided into four main sections. The first section gives some historical background about measuring alcohol in blood and breath as evidence for the prosecution of traffic offenders. The important role of the Breathalyzer instrument in traffic-law enforcement, especially in Australia, Canada, and the USA is presented along with a biographical sketch of its inventor (Professor Robert F. Borkenstein of Indiana University) with focus on the man, his work and his impact. The second section discusses several issues related to forensic blood and breath-alcohol alcohol analysis as evidence for prosecution of traffic offenders. This includes how the results should be interpreted in relation to impairment and an evaluation of common defense challenges. Because most countries have adopted concentration per se laws, the main thrust of the prosecution case is the suspect’s measured blood- or breath-alcohol concentration. This legal framework necessitates that the analytical methods used are "fit for purpose" and are subjected to rigorous quality assurance procedures. The third section gives a broad overview of the current state of knowledge about driving under the influence of non-alcohol drugs in various countries. This includes adoption of zero-tolerance laws, concentration per se statutes, and clinical evidence of driver impairment based on field sobriety tests and drug recognition expert evidence. The fourth section deals with epidemiology, enforcement, and countermeasures aimed at reducing the threat of drunken and drugged driving. All articles have appeared previously in the international journal Forensic Science Review, but all are completely updated with current data, references, and the latest research on developments since the articles were published. This book contains a convenient collection of the best articles covering recommendations for blood and breath testing methods, public policy relating to such methods, and forensic and legal implications of the enforcement of measures to counter driving under the influence.

The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guideline for the Pharmacological Treatment of Patients With Alcohol Use Disorder

The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guideline for the Pharmacological Treatment of Patients With Alcohol Use Disorder
Author: American Psychiatric Association
Publsiher: American Psychiatric Pub
Total Pages: 224
Release: 2018-01-11
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780890426821

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Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a major public health problem in the United States. The estimated 12-month and lifetime prevalence values for AUD are 13.9% and 29.1%, respectively, with approximately half of individuals with lifetime AUD having a severe disorder. AUD and its sequelae also account for significant excess mortality and cost the United States more than $200 billion annually. Despite its high prevalence and numerous negative consequences, AUD remains undertreated. In fact, fewer than 1 in 10 individuals in the United States with a 12-month diagnosis of AUD receive any treatment. Nevertheless, effective and evidence-based interventions are available, and treatment is associated with reductions in the risk of relapse and AUD-associated mortality. The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guideline for the Pharmacological Treatment of Patients With Alcohol Use Disorder seeks to reduce these substantial psychosocial and public health consequences of AUD for millions of affected individuals. The guideline focuses specifically on evidence-based pharmacological treatments for AUD in outpatient settings and includes additional information on assessment and treatment planning, which are an integral part of using pharmacotherapy to treat AUD. In addition to reviewing the available evidence on the use of AUD pharmacotherapy, the guideline offers clear, concise, and actionable recommendation statements, each of which is given a rating that reflects the level of confidence that potential benefits of an intervention outweigh potential harms. The guideline provides guidance on implementing these recommendations into clinical practice, with the goal of improving quality of care and treatment outcomes of AUD.

Critical Issues in Alcohol and Drugs of Abuse Testing

Critical Issues in Alcohol and Drugs of Abuse Testing
Author: Amitava Dasgupta
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 560
Release: 2019-01-10
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780128156087

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Critical Issues in Alcohol and Drugs of Abuse Testing, Second Edition, addresses the general principles and technological advances for measuring drugs and alcohol, along with the pitfalls of drugs of abuse testing. Many designer drugs, for example, are not routinely tested in drugs of abuse panels and may go undetected in a drug test. This updated edition is a must-have for clinical pathologists, toxicologists, clinicians, and medical review officers and regulators, bridging the gap between technical and clinical information. Topics of note include the monitoring of pain management drugs, bath salts, spices (synthetic marijuana), designer drugs and date rape drugs, and more. Serves as a ready resource of information for alcohol and drug testing Ideal resource for making decisions related to the monitoring and interpretation of results Includes concise content for clinical laboratory scientists, toxicologists and clinicians

Accelerating the Development of Biomarkers for Drug Safety

Accelerating the Development of Biomarkers for Drug Safety
Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 100
Release: 2009-07-20
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 0309142318

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Biomarkers can be defined as indicators of any biologic state, and they are central to the future of medicine. As the cost of developing drugs has risen in recent years, reducing the number of new drugs approved for use, biomarker development may be a way to cut costs, enhance safety, and provide a more focused and rational pathway to drug development. On October 24, 2008, the IOM's Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation held "Assessing and Accelerating Development of Biomarkers for Drug Safety," a one-day workshop, summarized in this volume, on the value of biomarkers in helping to determine drug safety during development.

Addiction Mechanisms Phenomenology and Treatment

Addiction Mechanisms  Phenomenology and Treatment
Author: W.W. Fleischhacker,D.J. Brooks
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 111
Release: 2003-09-04
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 3211013156

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Substance-related disorders pose an increasing challenge not only to the field of psychiatry but also to public health. The rapid development of our society has also changed the face of substance use and abuse, both quantitatively and qualitatively. In this volume international experts present reviews of the latest research covering many areas ranging from neurobiology to psychological management, as well as different drugs, from alcohol to ecstasy.

From the Symposium on Alcohol Biomarkers Protein Glycosylation and Trafficking

From the Symposium on Alcohol Biomarkers  Protein Glycosylation and Trafficking
Author: International Society for Biomedical Research on Alcoholism
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 1999
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: OCLC:84117890

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Symposium on Alcohol Biomarkers Clinical Significance and Biochemical Basis

Symposium on Alcohol Biomarkers  Clinical Significance and Biochemical Basis
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2001
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: OCLC:59480599

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Hair Analysis in Clinical and Forensic Toxicology

Hair Analysis in Clinical and Forensic Toxicology
Author: Pascal Kintz,Alberto Salomone,Marco Vincenti
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 392
Release: 2015-06-25
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780128017104

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Hair Analysis in Clinical and Forensic Toxicology is an essential reference for toxicologists working with, and researching, hair analysis. The text presents a review of the most up-to-date analytical methods in toxicological hair analysis, along with state-of-the-art developments in the areas of hair physiology, sampling, and pre-treatments, as well as discussions of fundamental issues, applications, and results interpretation. Topics addressed include the diagnosis of chronic excessive alcohol drinking by means of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), the early detection of new psychoactive substances, including designer drugs, the development of novel approaches to screening tests based on mass spectrometry, and the detection of prenatal exposure to psychoactive substances from the analysis of newborn hair. Unites an international team of leading experts to provide an update on the cutting-edge advances in the toxicological analysis of hair Demonstrates toxicological techniques relating to a variety of scenarios and exposure types Ideal resource for the further study of the psychoactive substances, drug-facilitated crimes, ecotoxicology, analytical toxicology, occupational toxicology, toxicity testing, and forensic toxicology Includes detailed instructions for the collection, preparation, and handling of hair, and how to best interpret results

Detection of Drug Misuse

Detection of Drug Misuse
Author: Kim Wolff
Publsiher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Total Pages: 396
Release: 2017-04-13
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9781782621577

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This book describes recent advances in biomarkers, instrumentation and analysis methodology for identifying drug misuse. It is aimed at healthcare professionals, academics and postgraduates.

The Handbook of Neuropsychiatric Biomarkers Endophenotypes and Genes

The Handbook of Neuropsychiatric Biomarkers  Endophenotypes and Genes
Author: Michael S. Ritsner
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 231
Release: 2009-04-24
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9789048122981

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Neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, Alzheimer’s disease, epilepsy, alcoholism, substance abuse and others are one of the most debilitating illnesses worldwide characterizing by the complexity of the causes, and lacking the laboratory tests that may promote diagnostic and prognostic procedures. Recent advances in neuroscience, genomic, genetic, proteomic and metabolomic knowledge and technologies have opened the way to searching biomarkers and endophenotypes, which may offer powerful and exciting opportunity to understand the etiology and the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of neuropsychiatric disorders. The challenge now is to translate these advances into meaningful diagnostic and therapeutic advances. This book offers a broad synthesis of the current knowledge about diverse topics of the biomarker and endophenotype strategies in neuropsychiatry. The book is organized into four interconnected volumes: “Neuropsychological Endophenotypes and Biomarkers” (with overview of methodological issues of the biomarker and endophenotype approaches in neuropsychiatry and some technological advances), “Neuroanatomical and Neuroimaging Endophenotypes and Biomarkers”, “Metabolic and Peripheral Biomarkers” and “Molecular Genetic and Genomic Markers”. The contributors are internationally and nationally recognized researchers and experts from 16 countries. This four-volume handbook is intended for a broad spectrum of readers including neuroscientists, psychiatrists, neurologists, endocrinologists, pharmacologists, clinical psychologists, general practitioners, geriatricians, health care providers in the field of neurology and mental health interested in trends that have crystallized in the last decade, and trends that can be expected to further evolve in the coming years. It is hoped that this book will also be a useful resource for the teaching of psychiatry, neurology, psychology and mental health.

Studies on the Reliability of Biomarkers for Alcohol Use and Abuse

Studies on the Reliability of Biomarkers for Alcohol Use and Abuse
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 41
Release: 2013
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: 9175490242

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Alcohol

Alcohol
Author: Paolo Boffetta,Albert B. Lowenfels,Harry Burns,Otis Brawley,Witold Zatonski,Jürgen Rehm
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 424
Release: 2013-03-07
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780199655786

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Written by international leaders in the field of alcoholism, this book provides an interdisciplinary source of information on alcoholism that links together science, policy, and public health in order to emphasise the importance of scientific knowledge with deciding public health policy.

Toxicological Aspects of Drug Facilitated Crimes

Toxicological Aspects of Drug Facilitated Crimes
Author: Pascal Kintz
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 312
Release: 2014-03-22
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780124169692

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Toxicological Aspects of Drug-Facilitated Crimes provides readers with an overview of the field of DFC: its history, toxicological effects, analysis, interpretation of results, the roles that age, gender and race may play, and clinical presentations of these drugs. The most commonly used drugs in DFC are addressed (alcohol, cannabis, MDMA, and cocaine), as well as an emerging range of pharmaceuticals (benzodiazepines, hypnotics, sedatives, neuroleptics, histamine H1-antagonists, or anesthetics), which are becoming more widely used, but are more difficult to detect. Edited by a world-renowned expert in the field of Forensic and Analytical Toxicology, Pascal Kintz, this book investigates toxicants of emerging concern and brings together a number of experts in the field to address the most recent discoveries on DFC toxicology. Brings together the latest research on the toxicological analysis of drug-facilitated crimes (DFC), with real-life case studies Provides up-to-date analytical techniques for determining toxicity levels in blood, urine, and hair Covers all types of toxicants involved in DFC, including alcohol, cannabis, MDMA, and a wide variety of pharmaceuticals