Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technologies for Improved Environmental Performance

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technologies for Improved Environmental Performance
Author: Richard Folkson
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 784
Release: 2014-03-19
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780857097422

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Most vehicles run on fossil fuels, and this presents a major emissions problem as demand for fuel continues to increase. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technologies gives an overview of key developments in advanced fuels and vehicle technologies to improve the energy efficiency and environmental impact of the automotive sector. Part I considers the role of alternative fuels such as electricity, alcohol, and hydrogen fuel cells, as well as advanced additives and oils, in environmentally sustainable transport. Part II explores methods of revising engine and vehicle design to improve environmental performance and fuel economy. It contains chapters on improvements in design, aerodynamics, combustion, and transmission. Finally, Part III outlines developments in electric and hybrid vehicle technologies, and provides an overview of the benefits and limitations of these vehicles in terms of their environmental impact, safety, cost, and design practicalities. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technologies is a standard reference for professionals, engineers, and researchers in the automotive sector, as well as vehicle manufacturers, fuel system developers, and academics with an interest in this field. Provides a broad-ranging review of recent research into advanced fuels and vehicle technologies that will be instrumental in improving the energy efficiency and environmental impact of the automotive sector Reviews the development of alternative fuels, more efficient engines, and powertrain technologies, as well as hybrid and electric vehicle technologies

Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels

Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels
Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems,Committee on Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 394
Release: 2013-04-14
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780309268523

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For a century, almost all light-duty vehicles (LDVs) have been powered by internal combustion engines operating on petroleum fuels. Energy security concerns about petroleum imports and the effect of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on global climate are driving interest in alternatives. Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels assesses the potential for reducing petroleum consumption and GHG emissions by 80 percent across the U.S. LDV fleet by 2050, relative to 2005. This report examines the current capability and estimated future performance and costs for each vehicle type and non-petroleum-based fuel technology as options that could significantly contribute to these goals. By analyzing scenarios that combine various fuel and vehicle pathways, the report also identifies barriers to implementation of these technologies and suggests policies to achieve the desired reductions. Several scenarios are promising, but strong, and effective policies such as research and development, subsidies, energy taxes, or regulations will be necessary to overcome barriers, such as cost and consumer choice.

Technologies and Applications for Smart Charging of Electric and Plug in Hybrid Vehicles

Technologies and Applications for Smart Charging of Electric and Plug in Hybrid Vehicles
Author: Ottorino Veneri
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 307
Release: 2016-12-30
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9783319436517

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This book outlines issues related to massive integration of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles into power grids. Electricity is becoming the preferred energy vector for the next new generation of road vehicles. It is widely acknowledged that road vehicles based on full electric or hybrid drives can mitigate problems related to fossil fuel dependence. This book explains the emerging and understanding of storage systems for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles. The recharging stations for these types of vehicles might represent a great advantage for the electric grid by facilitating integration of renewable and distributed energy production. This book presents a broad review from analyzing current literature to on-going research projects about the new power technologies related to the various charging architectures for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles. Specifically focusing on DC fast charging operations, as well as, grid-connected power converters and the full range of energy storage systems. These key components are analyzed for distributed generation and charging system integration into micro-grids. The authors demonstrate that these storage systems represent effective interfaces for the control and management of renewable and sustainable distributed energy resources. New standards and applications are emerging from micro-grid pilot projects around the world and case studies demonstrate the convenience and feasibility of distributed energy management. The material in this unique volume discusses potential avenues for further research toward achieving more reliable, more secure and cleaner energy.

Clean Fuels for Mobility

Clean Fuels for Mobility
Author: Gabriele Di Blasio
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2022
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: 9789811687471

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NOx Emission Control Technologies in Stationary and Automotive Internal Combustion Engines

NOx Emission Control Technologies in Stationary and Automotive Internal Combustion Engines
Author: B. Ashok
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 486
Release: 2021-11-09
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780128242285

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NOx Emission Control Technologies in Stationary and Automotive Internal Combustion Engines: Approaches Toward NOx Free Automobiles presents the fundamental theory of emission formation, particularly the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and its chemical reactions and control techniques. The book provides a simplified framework for technical literature on NOx reduction strategies in IC engines, highlighting thermodynamics, combustion science, automotive emissions and environmental pollution control. Sections cover the toxicity and roots of emissions for both SI and CI engines and the formation of various emissions such as CO, SO2, HC, NOx, soot, and PM from internal combustion engines, along with various methods of NOx formation. Topics cover the combustion process, engine design parameters, and the application of exhaust gas recirculation for NOx reduction, making this book ideal for researchers and students in automotive, mechanical, mechatronics and chemical engineering students working in the field of emission control techniques. Covers advanced and recent technologies and emerging new trends in NOx reduction for emission control Highlights the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on engine performance parameters Discusses emission norms such as EURO VI and Bharat stage VI in reducing global air pollution due to engine emissions

The Sustainable City XII

The Sustainable City XII
Author: C.A. Brebbia,J.J. Sendra
Publsiher: WIT Press
Total Pages: 614
Release: 2017-12-20
Genre: Architecture
ISBN: 9781784662172

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Grouping a selection of papers from the 12th International Conference on Urban Regeneration and Sustainability, this book refers to all aspects of urban environment and provides solutions that lead towards sustainability. The series maintains its strong reputation and a substantial number of contributions have been made from a diverse range of transnational delegates, resulting in a variety of topics and experiences. Urban areas face a number of challenges related to reducing pollution, improving main transportation and infrastructure systems and these challenges can contribute to the development of social and economic imbalances and require the development of new solutions. The challenge is to manage human activities, pursuing welfare and prosperity in the urban environment, whilst considering the relationships between the parts and their connections with the living world. The dynamics of its networks (flows of energy matter, people, goods, information and other resources) are fundamental for an understanding of the evolving nature of today’s cities. Large cities represent a productive ground for architects, engineers, city planners, social and political scientists able to conceive new ideas and time them according to technological advances and human requirements. The multidisciplinary components of urban planning, the challenges presented by the increasing size of cities, the amount of resources required and the complexity of modern society are all addressed. The published papers cover the following fields: Urban strategies; Planning, development and management; The community and the city; Infrastructure and society; Eco-town planning; Spatial conflicts in the city; Urban transportation and planning; Conservation and regeneration; Architectural issues; Sustainable energy and the city; Environmental management; Flood risk; Waste management; Urban air pollution; Health issues; Water resources; Landscape planning and design; Intelligent environment; Planning for risk and natural hazards; Waterfront development; Case studies.

Determining Environmental Sensitivities and Uncertainties of Alternative Fuelled Advanced Technology and Conventional Road Vehicles Using Life Cycle Assessment

Determining Environmental Sensitivities and Uncertainties of Alternative Fuelled  Advanced Technology and Conventional Road Vehicles Using Life Cycle Assessment
Author: Ali Murshed
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2021
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: OCLC:1280154823

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The Australian road vehicles, including conventional internal combustion engine running on petrol or diesel, is considered one of the main sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and environmental air pollution globally. Any methods that could be developed to improve environmental performance, thereby reducing GHG emissions, energy demand, particulate matter and human toxicity from vehicle emissions, can greatly benefit society globally. With the advent of alternative fuels and vehicles, new methods to evaluate their environmental benefits need to be developed. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has gone a long way to ensure that environmental evaluations of all types of vehicles and fuels are performed on a consistent, whole-of-life basis. However, a rigorous analysis of the input data for these LCA evaluations, plus their relatability and sensitivity to the results produced, needs to be undertaken to ensure that society, industry and government can make informed decisions based on the analysis of sound and reliable data. This thesis aims to: -- 1. examine the GHG emissions, particulate matter and human toxicity-cancer and non-cancer of transportation over a vehicle's lifetime using the life cycle assessment (LCA) method -- 2. examine the uncertainty of the input data for LCA evaluations -- 3. examine the sensitivity of the input data for LCA evaluations -- 4. apply the results from 1- 3 to a case study -- 5. make recommendations regarding how LCA can be used to evaluate conventional and alternative vehicle types to ensure a reduction of GHG and toxic emissions. -- Internal combustion engine vehicle exhaust emissions are regulated by governments worldwide, and due to this important point, the environmental impact assessment of transportation, including passenger vehicles, public transport buses and heavy-duty truck vehicles is examined over vehicles' lifetimes. Given the recent uptake of alternative vehicles and fuels, there is now a requirement for vehicles' environmental impact to be examined over its lifetime. This thesis examines the environmental impact assessment of the road transport sector in Australia. Decision-makers should heed LCA methods in order to reduce the total effect of vehicle exhaust emissions on the environment and human health. -- The LCA SimaPro software by PRe ́ Consultants has been used to estimate the life cycle energy use and emissions of road transportation using the Australian National Life Cycle Inventory Database (AusLCI). Also, where possible, the case studies developed used Australian emissions sources, detailing the fuel pathway, tailpipe emissions, vehicle manufacture, vehicle maintenance and vehicle disposal over a vehicle's lifetime, as input for the LCA. -- The thesis results indicate that advanced vehicle technologies and vehicles powered by alternative fuels are reducing energy use and emissions by 80%-90% compared to conventional internal combustion engine vehicles that are running on petrol or low sulphur diesel (LSD). Also, the results show that for most vehicles the major contributor to LCA energy use (ranging from 70%-90% of total LCA emissions) occurs during the vehicle operation phase. However, the contribution of the vehicles' manufacture phase for advanced vehicle technologies is higher (up to 90% of total LCA emissions). Furthermore, although battery electric vehicles have zero tailpipe emissions, the power supply generation creates significant emissions to the environment because electricity is usually generated from non-renewable energy sources (fossil fuels) in Australia. -- Additionally, biofuel vehicle LCA results reveal that high biofuel blends, including E85 and pure biodiesel, may be worse options due to the need to change the powertrain design. Consequently, the use of low biofuel blends, including E10 and BD5, is recommended to achieve lower vehicle exhaust emissions without changing the engine design. -- In the case of vehicles' environmental rating, the results indicate that advanced vehicles or vehicles powered by alternative fuels have higher overall ratings or stars (indicating a high ranking), while conventional vehicles have lower scores (indicating a low ranking). -- Furthermore, this thesis uses the environmental impact of public buses (Department of Planning Transport and Infrastructure [DPTI] Trial Buses) in the city of Adelaide, South Australia as a case study. The results indicate that the 1905/micro hybrid bus uses significantly less energy and produces fewer GHG emissions and less air pollution compared to other bus models, including the conventional LSD bus, due to many factors, including low fuel usage, high engine efficiency, the driving cycle and driver skills/behaviour. -- In addition, in order to demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of the data and methods used to model LCA, this thesis used sensitivity and uncertainty analysis techniques to ensure that the input data was sound and thus able to produce reliable LCA results. The results show that the data used to build LCA human toxicity-cancer and non-cancer is the most unreliable. Moreover, the study used sensitivity analysis to examine how these parameters impact the outcomes. The analyses also show that many parameters, including vehicle occupancy rate, fuel consumption, distance travelled, vehicle manufacture, average load and electricity consumption, significantly impact all LCA results. -- Finally, regarding direction for future research, the life cycle of automotive technology should include fuel production, vehicle manufacture, operations and maintenance of the vehicle throughout its lifetime, in addition to scrappage and recycling. The case of an automobile using a new fuel, such as electricity, resulting in little to no air pollution per kilometre travelled but that has much higher environmental impacts when the vehicle is scrapped or recycled, demonstrates why LCA is essential. -- Hence, an important objective of this thesis is to make the LCA process transparent and usable for policy analysts. This is important thanks to the advent of new information, and as future technologies develop, LCA needs to be robust and trusted to provide reliable results.

Eurasian Business and Economics Perspectives

Eurasian Business and Economics Perspectives
Author: Mehmet Huseyin Bilgin,Hakan Danis,Ender Demir,Gokhan Karabulut
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 341
Release: 2022-01-03
Genre: Business & Economics
ISBN: 9783030853044

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This book presents selected papers from the 33rd Eurasia Business and Economics Society (EBES) Conference, virtually held in Madrid (Spain) due to the Covid-19 pandemic. The theoretical and empirical papers gathered here cover diverse areas of business, economics and finance in various geographic regions, including not only topics from HR, management, finance, marketing but also contributions on public economics, political economy and regional studies.

Israel s Mediterranean Gas

Israel   s Mediterranean Gas
Author: Sujata Ashwarya
Publsiher: Taylor & Francis
Total Pages: 312
Release: 2019-05-23
Genre: Social Science
ISBN: 9780429536236

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This book examines the internal and external implications of Israel’s natural gas discoveries in the Eastern Mediterranean. The nation’s changed status from being an importer of coal and oil to that of an exporter of natural gas has consequences not only for the energy sector but also for the fragile geopolitics of the region. The book: Explores the challenges and issues of energy economics and governance; Analyses Israel’s gas diplomacy with its neighbours in the Middle East and North Africa and its potential positive impact on the amelioration of the Arab-Israeli conflict; Studies how Israel can avoid the deleterious impact of the Dutch disease once the government’s share of the export revenues start flowing. The author traces a consummate picture of history, politics, and conflicts that shape the economics of energy in Israel and its future trajectories. A major intervention in Middle East studies, this volume will be of great interest to scholars and researchers of energy studies, development studies, strategic studies, politics, diplomacy, and international relations. It will also be of interest to government agencies, think-tanks, and risk management firms.

Advances in Biofuels and Bioenergy

Advances in Biofuels and Bioenergy
Author: Madhugiri Nageswara-Rao,Jaya Soneji
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 292
Release: 2018-07-04
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781789232868

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The worldwide consumption of fossil fuel continues to increase at unsustainable levels, which will lead to progressive scarcity, if immediate and innovative measures are not taken for its sustainable use. This scarcity necessitates the development of renewable and sustainable alternatives for fossil fuels. A possible solution to today's energy challenges can be provided by biofuels. This book intends to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the current status and the future implications of biofuels. Diverse and aptly covered comprehensive information in this book will directly enhance both basic and applied research in biofuels and will particularly be useful for students, scientists, breeders, growers, ecologists, industrialists and policy makers. It will be a valuable reference point to improve biofuels in the areas of ecologically and economically sustainable bioenergy research.

Advances in Battery Technologies for Electric Vehicles

Advances in Battery Technologies for Electric Vehicles
Author: Bruno Scrosati,Jurgen Garche,Werner Tillmetz
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 546
Release: 2015-05-25
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781782423980

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Advances in Battery Technologies for Electric Vehicles provides an in-depth look into the research being conducted on the development of more efficient batteries capable of long distance travel. The text contains an introductory section on the market for battery and hybrid electric vehicles, then thoroughly presents the latest on lithium-ion battery technology. Readers will find sections on battery pack design and management, a discussion of the infrastructure required for the creation of a battery powered transport network, and coverage of the issues involved with end-of-life management for these types of batteries. Provides an in-depth look into new research on the development of more efficient, long distance travel batteries Contains an introductory section on the market for battery and hybrid electric vehicles Discusses battery pack design and management and the issues involved with end-of-life management for these types of batteries

Application of Liquid Biofuels to Internal Combustion Engines

Application of Liquid Biofuels to Internal Combustion Engines
Author: Soo-Young No
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 466
Release: 2020-02-17
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9789811367373

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This book provides a comprehensive overview of the application of liquid biofuels to internal combustion (IC) engines. Biofuels are one of the most promising renewable and sustainable energy sources. Particularly, liquid biofuels obtained from biomass could become a valid alternative to the use of fossil fuels in the light of increasingly stringent environmental constraints. In this book, the discussion is limited to liquid biofuels obtained from triglycerides and lignocellulose among the many different kinds of biomass. Several liquid biofuels from triglycerides, straight vegetable oil, biodiesel produced from inedible vegetable oil, hydrotreated vegetable oil, and pyrolytic oil have been selected for discussion, as well as biofuels from lignocellulose bio-oil, alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and butanol, and biomass-to-liquids diesel. This book includes three chapters on the application of methanol, ethanol and butanol to advanced compression ignition (CI) engines such as LTC, HCCI, RCCI and DF modes. Further, the application of other higher alcohols and other drop-in fuels such as DMF, MF, MTHF, and GVL are also discussed. The book will be a valuable resource for graduate students, researchers and engine designers who are interested in the application of alcohols and other biofuels in advanced CI engines, and also useful for alternative energy planners selecting biofuels for CI engines in the future.

The 30th SIAR International Congress of Automotive and Transport Engineering

The 30th SIAR International Congress of Automotive and Transport Engineering
Author: Ilie Dumitru,Dinu Covaciu,Laurențiu Racila,Adrian Rosca
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 715
Release: 2019-10-15
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9783030325640

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This proceedings book includes papers that cover the latest developments in automotive vehicles and environment, advanced transport systems and road traffic, heavy and special vehicles, new materials, manufacturing technologies and logistics and advanced engineering methods. Authors of the papers selected for this book are experts from research, industry and universities, coming from different countries. The overall objectives of the presentations are to respond to the major challenges faced by the automotive industry, and to propose potential solutions to problems related to automotive technology, transportation and environment, and road safety. The congress is organized by SIAR (Society of Automotive Engineers from Romania) in cooperation with SAE International. The purpose is to gather members from academia, industry and government and present their possibilities for investigations and research, in order to establish new future collaborations in the automotive engineering and transport domain. This proceedings book is just a part of the outcomes of the congress. The results presented in this proceedings book benefit researchers from academia and research institutes, industry specialists, Ph.D. students and students in Automotive and Transport Engineering programs.

Bioenergy Resources and Technologies

Bioenergy Resources and Technologies
Author: Abul Kalam Azad,Mohammad Masud Kamal Khan
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 504
Release: 2021-03-10
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780128225264

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Bioenergy Resources and Technologies presents advanced approaches and applications of bioenergy resources, with a strong focus on environmental sustainability. Chapters on the applications of bioenergy, the implementation of bioenergy as an alternative fuel, and future energy security make this an invaluable and unique resource to further advance the field. This book provides new information and novel techniques across a variety of bioenergy applications, with the book's authors addressing key uses for bioenergy resources as an alternative fuel. Various case studies and examples help demonstrate meaning and provide additional clarity. Social and economic aspects are included for each technology discussed, along with a number of research works and their findings in a diverse mix of areas including energy, environmental science, biotechnology, chemical engineering and mechanical engineering. Researchers and professionals in these disciplines will gain knowledge on the underlying concepts, technologies, fuel applications and solutions to global environmental issues using bioenergy resources. Presents technical and social issues surrounding the latest bioenergy technologies Explores solutions to global sustainability goals through bioenergy applications and the future of energy security Includes experimental investigations of engine performance, emissions and combustion phenomena using different types of oxygenated fuel

Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Author: Teresa Donateo
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 160
Release: 2017-06-21
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9789535132974

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This book on hybrid electric vehicles brings out six chapters on some of the research activities through the wide range of current issues on hybrid electric vehicles. The first section deals with two interesting applications of HEVs, namely, urban buses and heavy duty working machines. The second one groups papers related to the optimization of the electricity flows in a hybrid electric vehicle, starting from the optimization of recharge in PHEVs through advance storage systems, new motor technologies, and integrated starter-alternator technologies. A comprehensive analysis of the technologies used in HEVs is beyond the aim of the book. However, the content of this volume can be useful to scientists and students to broaden their knowledge of technologies and application of hybrid electric vehicles.