Aquatic Functional Biodiversity

Aquatic Functional Biodiversity
Author: Andrea Belgrano,Guy Woodward,Ute Jacob
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 312
Release: 2015-07-25
Genre: Nature
ISBN: 9780124170209

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Aquatic Functional Biodiversity: An Ecological and Evolutionary Perspective provides a general conceptual framework by some of the most prominent investigators in the field for how to link eco-evolutionary approaches with functional diversity to understand and conserve the provisioning of ecosystem services in aquatic systems. Rather than producing another methodological book, the editors and authors primarily concentrate on defining common grounds, connecting conceptual frameworks and providing examples by a more detailed discussion of a few empirical studies and projects, which illustrate key ideas and an outline of potential future directions and challenges that are expected in this interdisciplinary research field. Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in using network approaches to disentangle the relationship between biodiversity, community structure and functioning. Novel methods for model construction are being developed constantly, and modern methods allow for the inclusion of almost any type of explanatory variable that can be correlated either with biodiversity or ecosystem functioning. As a result these models have been widely used in ecology, conservation and eco-evolutionary biology. Nevertheless, there remains a considerable gap on how well these approaches are feasible to understand the mechanisms on how biodiversity constrains the provisioning of ecosystem services. Defines common theoretical grounds in terms of terminology and conceptual issues Connects theory and practice in ecology and eco-evolutionary sciences Provides examples for successful biodiversity conservation and ecosystem service management

Biodiversity in Aquatic Systems and Environments

Biodiversity in Aquatic Systems and Environments
Author: Noboru Okuda,Katsutoshi Watanabe,Kayoko Fukumori,Shin-ichi Nakano,Takefumi Nakazawa
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 91
Release: 2013-10-22
Genre: Science
ISBN: 4431541497

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This book presents the latest topics in ecological and evolutionary research on aquatic biodiversity from bacteria to fishes, with special reference to Lake Biwa, an ancient lake in western Japan. With a geological history of 4 million years, Lake Biwa is the third oldest lake in the world. It is considered a biodiversity hotspot, where 1,769 aquatic species including 61 endemics are recorded, providing a rare opportunity to study the evolutionary diversification of aquatic biota and its ecological consequences. The first chapter introduces the evolutionary history of biodiversity, especially of fish in this lake. In the second chapter, some examples of trophic polymorphism in fish are described. Fish are keystone predators in lake ecosystems, and they can be a major driver for altering biological communities through their top-down trophic cascading effects. An excellent laboratory experiment is presented, demonstrating that functional diversity of fish feeding morphology alters food web properties of plankton prey communities. The third chapter focuses on aquatic microbes, whose abundance and diversity may also be influenced by the diversity of fish through top-down trophic cascades. Aquatic microbes can have a strong impact on ecosystem functioning in lakes, and in this chapter, the latest molecular techniques used to examine genetic and functional diversity of microbial communities are introduced. The final chapter presents theoretical frameworks for predicting how biodiversity has the potential to control the incidence and intensity of human-induced regime shifts. While respecting the precious nature of biodiversity in lakes, it is essential to be aware that modern human activities have brought a crisis of biodiversity loss in lakes worldwide. Throughout this book, readers will learn why biodiversity must be conserved at all levels, from genes to ecosystems.

Plant Functional Diversity

Plant Functional Diversity
Author: Eric Garnier,Marie-Laure Navas,Karl Grigulis
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2016-02-03
Genre: Plant diversity
ISBN: 9780198757375

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Biological diversity, the variety of living organisms on Earth, is traditionally viewed as the diversity of taxa, and species in particular. However, other facets of diversity also need to be considered for a comprehensive understanding of evolutionary and ecological processes. This novel book demonstrates the advantages of adopting a functional approach to diversity in order to improve our understanding of the functioning of ecological systems and their components. The focus is on plants, which are major components of these systems, and for which the functional approach has led to major scientific advances over the last 20 years. Plant Functional Diversity presents the rationale for a trait-based approach to functional diversity in the context of comparative plant ecology and agroecology. It demonstrates how this approach can be used to address a number of highly debated questions in plant ecology pertaining to plant responses to their environment, controls on plant community structure, ecosystem properties, and the services these deliver to human societies. This research level text will be of particular relevance and use to graduate students and professional researchers in plant ecology, agricultural sciences and conservation biology.

Aquatic Biodiversity II

Aquatic Biodiversity II
Author: H. Segers,K. Martens
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 390
Release: 2006-01-20
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9781402041112

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Freshwater Biodiversity is a much underestimated component of global biodiversity, both in its diversity and in its potential to act as models for fundamental research in evolutionary biology and ecosystem studies. Freshwater organisms also reflect quality of water bodies and can thus be used to monitor changes in ecosystem health. The present book comprises a unique collection of primary research papers spanning a wide range of topics in aquatic biodiversity studies, and including a first global assessment of specific diversity of freshwater animals. The book also presents a section on the interaction between scientists and science policy managers. A target opinion paper lists priorities in aquatic biodiversity research for the next decade and several reactions from distinguished scientists discuss the relevance of these items from different points of view: fundamental ecology, taxonomy and systematics, needs of developing countries, present-day biodiversity policy at European and at global scales. It is believed that such a platform for the interaction between science and science policy is an absolute necessity for the efficient use of research budgets in the future.

Functional Diversity of Aquatic Microorganisms and Their Roles in Water Quality

Functional Diversity of Aquatic Microorganisms and Their Roles in Water Quality
Author: Jingqiu Liao,Yi Huang,Jasna Kovac,Daniel Lowell Weller
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2022-06-28
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9782889763702

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Molecular and functional ecology of aquatic microbial symbionts

Molecular and functional ecology of aquatic microbial symbionts
Author: Hans-Peter Grossart,Lasse Riemann,Kam W. Tang
Publsiher: Frontiers E-books
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2022
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: 9782889191239

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Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning

Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning
Author: Michel Loreau,Shahid Naeem,Pablo Inchausti
Publsiher: Oxford University Press on Demand
Total Pages: 294
Release: 2002
Genre: Science
ISBN: 0198515715

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Determining the scientific relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning has now emerged as one of the most important challenges in ecological and environmental science. This book provides a timely synthesis and critical assessment in order to generate a consensus on the main issues involved and stimulate new perspectives for future research.

Handbook of Trait Based Ecology

Handbook of Trait Based Ecology
Author: Francesco de Bello,Carlos P. Carmona,André T. C. Dias,Lars Götzenberger,Marco Moretti,Matty P. Berg
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2021-03-31
Genre: Nature
ISBN: 9781108472913

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Functional ecology is the branch of ecology that focuses on various functions that species play in the community or ecosystem in which they occur. This accessible guide offers the main concepts and tools in trait-based ecology, and their tricks, covering different trophic levels and organism types. It is designed for students, researchers and practitioners who wish to get a handy synthesis of existing concepts, tools and trends in trait-based ecology, and wish to apply it to their own field of interest. Where relevant, exercises specifically designed to be run in R are included, along with accompanying on-line resources including solutions for exercises and R functions, and updates reflecting current developments in this fast-changing field. Based on more than a decade of teaching experience, the authors developed and improved the way theoretical aspects and analytical tools of trait-based ecology are introduced and explained to readers.

Flagellates

Flagellates
Author: Barry S. C. Leadbeater,John C. Green
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 416
Release: 2002-09-11
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780203484814

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The Flagellates presents a multidisciplinary view of the flagellates exploring both their unity, in terms of their structure, mechanisms and processes, and their diversity in terms of biogeography, niche colonisation, and adaptations to their environment. In addition, evolutionary relationships amongst flagellates are explored. This is the only book published on this subject and features the most up to date information available making it an essential read for any one interested in or working in this field.

Periphyton

Periphyton
Author: Yonghong Wu
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 434
Release: 2016-08-29
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780128013236

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Periphyton: Functions and Application in Environmental Remediation presents a systematic overview of a wide variety of periphyton functions and applications in environmental remediation, providing readers with an understanding of the biological/ecological features of periphyton, the methodology of their study, and their application in environmental conservation. With increases in environmental stress, anthropogenic impacts, and the global decline in biodiversity, there is a pressing need for methods to assess and improve environmental quality that are rapid, reliable, and cost-effective. Periphyton is an important component of benthic communities and plays a crucial role in the functioning of microbial food webs. Because of a number of advantages, such as a short lifecycle, relative immobility, more rapid responses to environmental stress and anthropogenic impact than any metazoa, ease of sampling, availability of taxonomic/molecular identification, and standardized methodologies for temporal/spatial comparisons, there has, in recent decades, been an increased interest in periphyton as a tool in biological conservation in aquatic ecosystems. Presents case studies that help readers implement similar ecological designs Focuses on the function of periphyton in remediating destructed ecosystems Provides readers with an understanding of periphyton in practice, especially the value of periphyton in enhancing environmental and ecosystem qualities Discusses the role of periphyton in purifying water and its effect on abiotic elements

Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning

Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning
Author: Martin Solan,Rebecca J. Aspden,David M. Paterson
Publsiher: OUP Oxford
Total Pages: 254
Release: 2012-07-19
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780191637391

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The biological composition and richness of most of the Earth's major ecosystems are being dramatically and irreversibly transformed by anthropogenic activity. Yet, despite the vast areal extent of our oceans, the mainstay of research to-date in the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning arena has been weighted towards ecological observations and experimentation in terrestrial plant and soil systems. This book provides a framework for extending these concepts to a variety of marine systems. Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning is the first book to address the latest advances in biodiversity-function science using marine examples. It brings together contributions from the leading scientists in the field to provide an in-depth evaluation of the science, before offering a perspective on future research directions for some of the most pressing environmental issues facing society today and in the future.

Structure and Function of Mountain Ecosystems in Japan

Structure and Function of Mountain Ecosystems in Japan
Author: Gaku Kudo
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 173
Release: 2016-03-22
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9784431559542

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The purpose of this book is to summarize new insights on the structure and function of mountain ecosystems and to present evidence and perspectives on the impact of climate change on biodiversity. This volume describes overall features of high-mountain ecosystems in Japan, which are characterized by clear seasonality and snow-thawing dynamics. Individual chapters cover a variety of unique topics, namely, vegetation dynamics along elevations, the physiological function of alpine plants, the structure of flowering phenology, plant–pollinator interactions, the geographical pattern of coniferous forests, terrestrial–aquatic linkage in carbon dynamics, and the community structure of bacteria in mountain lake systems. High-mountain ecosystems are characterized by unique flora and fauna, including many endemic and rare species. On the other hand, the systems are extremely vulnerable to environmental change. The biodiversity is maintained by the existence of spatiotemporally heterogeneous habitats along environmental gradients, such as elevation and snowmelt time. Understanding the structure and function of mountain ecosystems is crucial for the conservation of mountain biodiversity and the prediction of the climate change impacts.The diverse studies and integrated synthesis presented in this book provide readers with a holistic view of mountain ecosystems. It is a recommended read for anyone interested in mountain ecosystems and alpine plants, including undergraduate and graduate students studying ecology, field workers involved in conservational activity in mountains, policymakers planning ecosystem management of protected areas, and researchers of general ecology. In particular, this book will be of interest to ecologists of countries who are not familiar with Japanese mountain ecosystems, which are characterized by humid summers, cold winters, and the snowiest climate in the world.

Biological Communities Respond to Multiple Human Induced Aquatic Environment Change

Biological Communities Respond to Multiple Human Induced Aquatic Environment Change
Author: Marina Manca,Roberta Piscia
Publsiher: MDPI
Total Pages: 170
Release: 2020-05-28
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9783039285440

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Perturbations linked to the direct and indirect impacts of human activities during the Anthropocene affect the structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems to varying degrees. Some perturbations involve stress to aquatic life, including soil and water acidification, soil erosion, loss of base cations, release of trace metals/organic compounds, and application of essential nutrients capable of stimulating primary productivity. Superimposed onto these changes, climate warming impacts aquatic environments via altering species’ metabolic processes and by modifying food web interactions. The interaction stressors is difficult to predict because of the differential response of species and taxonomic groups, interacting additively, synergistically, or antagonistically. Whenever different trophic levels respond differently to climate warming, food webs are restructured; yet, the consequences of warming-induced changes for the food web structure and long-term population dynamics of different trophic levels remain poorly understood. Such changes are crucial in lakes, where food web production is mainly due to ectotherms, which are highly sensitive to changes in their surrounding environment. Due to its remarkable physical inertia, including thermal stability, global warming also has a profound effect on groundwater ecosystems. Combining contemporary and palaeo data is essential to understand the degree to which mechanisms of stressors impact on lake biological communities and lake ecosystem functioning. The degree to which alterations can affect aquatic ecosystem structure and functioning also requires functional diversity to be addressed at the molecular level, to reconstruct the role different species play in the transfer of material and energy through the food web. In this issue, we present examples of the impact of different stressors and their interaction on aquatic ecosystems, providing long-term, metabolic, molecular, and paleolimnological analyses.

Water Science Policy and Management

Water Science  Policy and Management
Author: Simon James Dadson,Dustin E. Garrick,Edmund C. Penning-Rowsell,Jim W. Hall,Rob Hope,Jocelyne Hughes
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 408
Release: 2019-12-23
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781119520603

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Provides an in-depth look at science, policy and management in the water sector across the globe Sustainable water management is an increasingly complex challenge and policy priority facing global society. This book examines how governments, municipalities, corporations, and individuals find sustainable water management pathways across competing priorities of water for ecosystems, food, energy, economic growth and human consumption. It looks at the current politics and economics behind the management of our freshwater ecosystems and infrastructure and offers insightful essays that help stimulate more intense and informed debate about the subject and its need for local and international cooperation. This book celebrates the 15-year anniversary of Oxford University’s MSc course in Water Science, Policy and Management. Edited and written by some of the leading minds in the field, writing alongside alumni from the course, Water Science, Policy and Management: A Global Challenge offers in-depth chapters in three parts: Science; Policy; and Management. Topics cover: hydroclimatic extremes and climate change; the past, present, and future of groundwater resources; water quality modelling, monitoring, and management; and challenges for freshwater ecosystems. The book presents critical views on the monitoring and modelling of hydrological processes; the rural water policy in Africa and Asia; the political economy of wastewater in Europe; drought policy management and water allocation. It also examines the financing of water infrastructure; the value of wastewater; water resource planning; sustainable urban water supply and the human right to water. Features perspectives from some of the world’s leading experts on water policy and management Identifies and addresses current and future water sector challenges Charts water policy trends across a rapidly evolving set of challenges in a variety of global areas Covers the reallocation of water; policy process of risk management; the future of the world’s water under global environmental change; and more Water Science, Policy and Management: A Global Challenge is an essential book for policy makers and government agencies involved in water management, and for undergraduate and postgraduate students studying water science, governance, and policy.

Water Related Ecosystems

Water Related Ecosystems
Author: Dickens, Chris,McCartney, Matthew
Publsiher: IWMI
Total Pages: 10
Release: 2022
Genre: Nature
ISBN: 9182736450XXX

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In Filho, W. L.; Azul, A. M.; Brandli, L.; Salvia, A. L.; Wall, T. (Eds). Clean water and sanitation. Cham, Switzerland: Springer