Argumentation in Artificial Intelligence

Argumentation in Artificial Intelligence
Author: Iyad Rahwan
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 493
Release: 2009-06-13
Genre: Computers
ISBN: 9780387981970

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Argumentation is all around us. Letters to the Editor often make points of cons- tency, and “Why” is one of the most frequent questions in language, asking for r- sons behind behaviour. And argumentation is more than ‘reasoning’ in the recesses of single minds, since it crucially involves interaction. It cements the coordinated social behaviour that has allowed us, in small bands of not particularly physically impressive primates, to dominate the planet, from the mammoth hunt all the way up to organized science. This volume puts argumentation on the map in the eld of Arti cial Intelligence. This theme has been coming for a while, and some famous pioneers are chapter authors, but we can now see a broader systematic area emerging in the sum of topics and results. As a logician, I nd this intriguing, since I see AI as ‘logic continued by other means’, reminding us of broader views of what my discipline is about. Logic arose originally out of re ection on many-agent practices of disputation, in Greek Ant- uity, but also in India and China. And logicians like me would like to return to this broader agenda of rational agency and intelligent interaction. Of course, Aristotle also gave us a formal systems methodology that deeply in uenced the eld, and eventually connected up happily with mathematical proof and foundations.

Argumentation Methods for Artificial Intelligence in Law

Argumentation Methods for Artificial Intelligence in Law
Author: Douglas Walton
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 270
Release: 2005-12-05
Genre: Law
ISBN: 9783540278818

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Use of argumentation methods applied to legal reasoning is a relatively new field of study. The book provides a survey of the leading problems, and outlines how future research using argumentation-based methods show great promise of leading to useful solutions. The problems studied include not only these of argument evaluation and argument invention, but also analysis of specific kinds of evidence commonly used in law, like witness testimony, circumstantial evidence, forensic evidence and character evidence. New tools for analyzing these kinds of evidence are introduced.

Argumentation in Artificial Intelligence

Argumentation in Artificial Intelligence
Author: Iyad Rahwan
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 493
Release: 2009-07-13
Genre: Computers
ISBN: 0387981969

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Argumentation is all around us. Letters to the Editor often make points of cons- tency, and “Why” is one of the most frequent questions in language, asking for r- sons behind behaviour. And argumentation is more than ‘reasoning’ in the recesses of single minds, since it crucially involves interaction. It cements the coordinated social behaviour that has allowed us, in small bands of not particularly physically impressive primates, to dominate the planet, from the mammoth hunt all the way up to organized science. This volume puts argumentation on the map in the eld of Arti cial Intelligence. This theme has been coming for a while, and some famous pioneers are chapter authors, but we can now see a broader systematic area emerging in the sum of topics and results. As a logician, I nd this intriguing, since I see AI as ‘logic continued by other means’, reminding us of broader views of what my discipline is about. Logic arose originally out of re ection on many-agent practices of disputation, in Greek Ant- uity, but also in India and China. And logicians like me would like to return to this broader agenda of rational agency and intelligent interaction. Of course, Aristotle also gave us a formal systems methodology that deeply in uenced the eld, and eventually connected up happily with mathematical proof and foundations.

Argumentation Machines

Argumentation Machines
Author: C. Reed,T.J. Norman
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2013-03-09
Genre: Computers
ISBN: 9789401704311

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In the late 1990s, AI witnessed an increasing use of the term 'argumentation' within its bounds: in natural language processing, in user interface design, in logic programming and nonmonotonic reasoning, in Al's interface with the legal community, and in the newly emerging field of multi-agent systems. It seemed to me that many of these uses of argumentation were inspired by (of ten inspired) guesswork, and that a great majority of the AI community were unaware that there was a maturing, rich field of research in Argumentation Theory (and Critical Thinking and Informal Logic) that had been steadily re building a scholarly approach to the area over the previous twenty years or so. Argumentation Theory, on its side; was developing theories and approaches that many in the field felt could have a role more widely in research and soci ety, but were for the most part unaware that AI was one of the best candidates for such application.

Artificial Intelligence and Legal Analytics

Artificial Intelligence and Legal Analytics
Author: Kevin Ashley
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 464
Release: 2017-07-31
Genre: Law
ISBN: 9781107171503

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The field of artificial intelligence (AI) and the law is on the cusp of a revolution that began with text analytic programs like IBM's Watson and Debater and the open-source information management architectures on which they are based. Today, new legal applications are beginning to appear and this book - designed to explain computational processes to non-programmers - describes how they will change the practice of law, specifically by connecting computational models of legal reasoning directly with legal text, generating arguments for and against particular outcomes, predicting outcomes and explaining these predictions with reasons that legal professionals will be able to evaluate for themselves. These legal applications will support conceptual legal information retrieval and allow cognitive computing, enabling a collaboration between humans and computers in which each does what it can do best. Anyone interested in how AI is changing the practice of law should read this illuminating work.

Elements of Argumentation

Elements of Argumentation
Author: Philippe Besnard,Anthony Hunter
Publsiher: Mit Press
Total Pages: 298
Release: 2008
Genre: Computers
ISBN: UOM:39015079215045

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Background and techniques for formalizing deductive argumentation in a logic-based framework for artificial intelligence.

Logic and Argumentation

Logic and Argumentation
Author: Pietro Baroni,Christoph Benzmüller,Yὶ N. Wáng
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 552
Release: 2021-10-14
Genre: Computers
ISBN: 9783030893910

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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Logic and Argumentation, CLAR 2021, held in Hangzhou, China, in October 2021. The 20 full and 10 short papers presented together with 5 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 58 submissions. The topics of accepted papers cover the focus of the CLAR series, including formal models of argumentation, a variety of logic formalisms, nonmonotonic reasoning, dispute and dialogue systems, formal treatment of preference and support, and well as applications in areas like vaccine information and processing of legal texts.

Computational Models of Argument

Computational Models of Argument
Author: H. Prakken,S. Bistarelli,F. Santini
Publsiher: IOS Press
Total Pages: 496
Release: 2020-09-25
Genre: Computers
ISBN: 9781643681078

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The investigation of computational models of argument is a rich and fascinating interdisciplinary research field with two ultimate aims: the theoretical goal of understanding argumentation as a cognitive phenomenon by modeling it in computer programs, and the practical goal of supporting the development of computer-based systems able to engage in argumentation-related activities with human users or among themselves. The biennial International Conferences on Computational Models of Argument (COMMA) provide a dedicated forum for the presentation and discussion of the latest advancements in the field, and cover both basic research and innovative applications. This book presents the proceedings of COMMA 2020. Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, COMMA 2020 was held as an online event on the originally scheduled dates of 8 -11 September 2020, organised by the University of Perugia, Italy. The book includes 28 full papers and 13 short papers selected from a total of 78 submissions, the abstracts of 3 invited talks and 13 demonstration abstracts. The interdisciplinary nature of the field is reflected, and contributions cover both theory and practice. Theoretical contributions include new formal models, the study of formal or computational properties of models, designs for implemented systems and experimental research. Practical papers include applications to medicine, law and criminal investigation, chatbots and online product reviews. The argument-mining trend from previous COMMA’s is continued, while an emerging trend this year is the use of argumentation for explainable AI. The book provided an overview of the latest work on computational models of argument, and will be of interest to all those working in the field.

Methods of Argumentation

Methods of Argumentation
Author: Douglas Walton
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 308
Release: 2013-08-26
Genre: Computers
ISBN: 9781107039308

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This book, written by a leading expert, and based on the latest research, shows how to apply methods of argumentation to a range of examples.

Goal based Reasoning for Argumentation

Goal based Reasoning for Argumentation
Author: Douglas Walton
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 320
Release: 2015-08-25
Genre: Computers
ISBN: 9781107119048

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Practical argumentation is intelligent reasoning from an agent's goals and known circumstances , and from an action selected as a means, to arrive at a decision on what action to take. This book will appeal to a wide audience, from designers of multi-agent and robotics systems to social scientists.

Virtual Arguments

Virtual Arguments
Author: Bart Verheij
Publsiher: T.M.C. Asser Press
Total Pages: 272
Release: 2011-11-29
Genre: Law
ISBN: 9067046620

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Argumentation Mining

Argumentation Mining
Author: Manfred Stede,Jodi Schneider
Publsiher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Total Pages: 191
Release: 2018-12-20
Genre: Computers
ISBN: 9781681734606

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Argumentation mining is an application of natural language processing (NLP) that emerged a few years ago and has recently enjoyed considerable popularity, as demonstrated by a series of international workshops and by a rising number of publications at the major conferences and journals of the field. Its goals are to identify argumentation in text or dialogue; to construct representations of the constellation of claims, supporting and attacking moves (in different levels of detail); and to characterize the patterns of reasoning that appear to license the argumentation. Furthermore, recent work also addresses the difficult tasks of evaluating the persuasiveness and quality of arguments. Some of the linguistic genres that are being studied include legal text, student essays, political discourse and debate, newspaper editorials, scientific writing, and others. The book starts with a discussion of the linguistic perspective, characteristics of argumentative language, and their relationship to certain other notions such as subjectivity. Besides the connection to linguistics, argumentation has for a long time been a topic in Artificial Intelligence, where the focus is on devising adequate representations and reasoning formalisms that capture the properties of argumentative exchange. It is generally very difficult to connect the two realms of reasoning and text analysis, but we are convinced that it should be attempted in the long term, and therefore we also touch upon some fundamentals of reasoning approaches. Then the book turns to its focus, the computational side of mining argumentation in text. We first introduce a number of annotated corpora that have been used in the research. From the NLP perspective, argumentation mining shares subtasks with research fields such as subjectivity and sentiment analysis, semantic relation extraction, and discourse parsing. Therefore, many technical approaches are being borrowed from those (and other) fields. We break argumentation mining into a series of subtasks, starting with the preparatory steps of classifying text as argumentative (or not) and segmenting it into elementary units. Then, central steps are the automatic identification of claims, and finding statements that support or oppose the claim. For certain applications, it is also of interest to compute a full structure of an argumentative constellation of statements. Next, we discuss a few steps that try to 'dig deeper': to infer the underlying reasoning pattern for a textual argument, to reconstruct unstated premises (so-called 'enthymemes'), and to evaluate the quality of the argumentation. We also take a brief look at 'the other side' of mining, i.e., the generation or synthesis of argumentative text. The book finishes with a summary of the argumentation mining tasks, a sketch of potential applications, and a--necessarily subjective--outlook for the field.

Computable Models of the Law

Computable Models of the Law
Author: Pompeu Casanovas,Giovanni Sartor,Núria Casellas,Rossella Rubino
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 339
Release: 2008-10-14
Genre: Computers
ISBN: 9783540855682

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Information technology has now pervaded the legal sector, and the very modern concepts of e-law and e-justice show that automation processes are ubiquitous. European policies on transparency and information society, in particular, require the use of technology and its steady improvement. Some of the revised papers presented in this book originate from a workshop held at the European University Institute of Florence, Italy, in December 2006. The workshop was devoted to the discussion of the different ways of understanding and explaining contemporary law, for the purpose of building computable models of it -- especially models enabling the development of computer applications for the legal domain. During the course of the following year, several new contributions, provided by a number of ongoing (or recently finished) European projects on computation and law, were received, discussed and reviewed to complete the survey. This book presents 20 thoroughly refereed revised papers on the hot topics under research in different EU projects: legislative XML, legal ontologies, semantic web, search and meta-search engines, web services, system architecture, dialectic systems, dialogue games, multi-agent systems (MAS), legal argumentation, legal reasoning, e-justice, and online dispute resolution. The papers are organized in topical sections on knowledge representation, ontologies and XML legislative drafting; knowledge representation, legal ontologies and information retrieval; argumentation and legal reasoning; normative and multi-agent systems; and online dispute resolution.

Computational Models of Argument

Computational Models of Argument
Author: S. Modgil,K. Budzynska,J. Lawrence
Publsiher: IOS Press
Total Pages: 496
Release: 2018-09-06
Genre: Computers
ISBN: 9781614999065

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In its classical form, the study of argumentation focuses on human-oriented uses of argument, such as whether an argument is legitimate or flawed, engagement in debate, or the rhetorical aspects of argumentation. In recent decades, however, the study of logic and computational models of argumentation has emerged as a growing sub-area of AI. This book presents the Seventh International Conference on Computational Models of Argument (COMMA’18), held in Warsaw, Poland, from 12 to 14 September 2018. Since its inception in 2006, the conference and its related activities have developed alongside the steady growth of interest in computational argumentation worldwide, and the selection of 25 full papers and 17 short papers, out of a total of 70 submissions, and 15 demonstration abstracts included here reflect the broad multidisciplinary nature of argumentation and the increasing body of work which establishes the relevance of computational models to various disciplines and real world applications. Subjects covered include: algorithm development; innovative applications; argument mining, argumentation-based models of dialogue; abstract argument frameworks; and structured argumentation. Representing an overview of current developments in the field, this book will appeal to all those with an interest in computational models of argument.

Witness Testimony Evidence

Witness Testimony Evidence
Author: Douglas Walton
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2007-11-19
Genre: Philosophy
ISBN: 9781139468800

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Recent work in artificial intelligence has increasingly turned to argumentation as a rich, interdisciplinary area of research that can provide new methods related to evidence and reasoning in the area of law. Douglas Walton provides an introduction to basic concepts, tools and methods in argumentation theory and artificial intelligence as applied to the analysis and evaluation of witness testimony. He shows how witness testimony is by its nature inherently fallible and sometimes subject to disastrous failures. At the same time such testimony can provide evidence that is not only necessary but inherently reasonable for logically guiding legal experts to accept or reject a claim. Walton shows how to overcome the traditional disdain for witness testimony as a type of evidence shown by logical positivists, and the views of trial sceptics who doubt that trial rules deal with witness testimony in a way that yields a rational decision-making process.