Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere

Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere
Author: Ralf Koppmann
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 512
Release: 2008-04-15
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780470994153

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Every day, large quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted into the atmosphere from both anthropogenic and natural sources. The formation of gaseous and particulate secondary products caused by oxidation of VOCs is one of the largest unknowns in the quantitative prediction of the earth’s climate on a regional and global scale, and on the understanding of local air quality. To be able to model and control their impact, it is essential to understand the sources of VOCs, their distribution in the atmosphere and the chemical transformations which remove these compounds from the atmosphere. In recent years techniques for the analysis of organic compounds in the atmosphere have been developed to increase the spectrum of detectable compounds and their detection limits. New methods have been introduced to increase the time resolution of those measurements and to resolve more complex mixtures of organic compounds. Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere describes the current state of knowledge of the chemistry of VOCs as well as the methods and techniques to analyse gaseous and particulate organic compounds in the atmosphere. The aim is to provide an authoritative review to address the needs of both graduate students and active researchers in the field of atmospheric chemistry research.

Atmospheric Sources and Sinks of Volatile Organic Compounds

Atmospheric Sources and Sinks of Volatile Organic Compounds
Author: Dudley Shallcross,Carl Percival
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 300
Release: 2021-10-15
Genre: Science
ISBN: 0128228628

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Climate change and air quality are two of the most pressing concerns in the 21st century and VOCs play a pivotal role in both spheres. Scientists across the world are becoming aware of the importance of understanding the role that VOCs play from a wide range of fields. Atmospheric Sources and Sinks of Volatile Organic Compounds is comprehensive but concise book with information that is extremely important to groups in the field of atmospheric science but also to the myriad groups that border this field, such as climate scientists, analytical scientists, health professionals, agricultural and botanical related researchers and many more. Atmospheric Sources and Sinks of Volatile Organic Compounds provides the reader with information in a form that they can adapt, such as emission factors, ways to estimate emissions as a function of appropriate variables, removal processes etc. The research also is connected to topics allied fields including land use, agriculture, measurement (analytical), and climate science. Features datasets and global maps of VOC distributions with supporting data Provides readers with information so that they can carry out 'what if' calculations, to be able to estimate the change in emissions in the future or make the information relevant to their region of the world Includes comprehensive coverage of VOCs and demonstrations of patterns in emission and removal

Characterizing Sources of Indoor Air Pollution and Related Sink Effects

Characterizing Sources of Indoor Air Pollution and Related Sink Effects
Author: Bruce A. Tichenor
Publsiher: ASTM International
Total Pages: 406
Release: 1996
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780803120303

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Based on presentations at a 1994 Symposium, these detailed papers review source/sink characterization; design, construction, characterization, and operation of test chambers and facilities; testing protocols for determining emission factors and sink absorption/desorption rates; models for predicting

Atmospheric Degradation

Atmospheric Degradation
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 314
Release: 2018-05
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: 1642240559

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Earth's atmosphere holds a mass of organic compounds, which differ by orders of magnitude regarding fundamental properties such as volatility, reactivity, and propensity to form cloud droplets, affecting their impact on global climate and human health. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a vital role in the chemistry of the atmosphere by impelling ozone and hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations and the renovation rates of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Elevated levels of VOCs and NOx have led to an approximate doubling of ozone in the lower troposphere over the past couple of centuries, making tropospheric ozone the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane. Monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a key piece in understanding photochemical air quality in urban atmosphere. Anthropogenic sources such as incomplete combustion of organic substances, the use of petrochemical solvents, and vaporizations of petroleum products are sources of VOCs. Every day, large quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted into the atmosphere from both anthropogenic and natural sources. Therefore, their sources, sinks and dwelling times are the subject of current research. Atmospheric Degradation of Organic Substances describes the current state of knowledge of the chemistry of VOCs as well as the methods and techniques to analyze gaseous and particulate organic compounds in the atmosphere. The book also includes evaluation of the relative ozone-forming potentials of the captured VOC species in the atmosphere of urban settlement. The analytical toolbox available for chemists to study atmospheric organic compounds has expanded considerably during the past decade, opening new windows into speciation, time resolution and detection of reactive and semi-volatile compounds at low concentrations. This has provided unprecedented opportunities, but also revealed new scientific challenges.This book is of interest to students, practitioners, as well as guiding tool for researchers in the field of atmospheric research.

Airborne VOC measurements on board the Zeppelin NT during the PEGASOS campaigns in 2012 deploying the improved Fast GC MSD System

Airborne VOC measurements on board the Zeppelin NT during the PEGASOS campaigns in 2012 deploying the improved Fast GC MSD System
Author: Jäger, Julia
Publsiher: Forschungszentrum Jülich
Total Pages: 182
Release: 2014
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: 9783893369362

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The Chemistry and Biology of Volatiles

The Chemistry and Biology of Volatiles
Author: Andreas Herrmann
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 428
Release: 2011-06-15
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9781119956983

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"Coming to a conclusion, this wonderful, informative and very interesting book presents an excellent overview of small volatile organic compounds and their role in our life and environment. Really fascinating is the entirety of scientific disciplines which were addressed by this book." –Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 2011 "... this book deserves to be a well-used reference in the library of any laboratory specialising in VOC". –Chemistry World, 2011 Volatile compounds are molecules with a relatively low molecular weight allowing for an efficient evaporation into the air. They are found in many areas of our everyday-life: they are responsible for the communication between species such as plants, insects or mammals; they serve as flavours or fragrances in many food products or perfumed consumer articles; and they play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. This book takes an interdisciplinary approach to volatile molecules. Review-style introductions to the main topics in volatile chemistry and biology are provided by international experts, building into a broad overview of this fascinating field. Topics covered include: The structural variety of volatile compounds Biogeneration of volatiles Synthesis of natural and non-natural volatiles Analysis of volatiles Volatile compounds as semiochemicals in plant-plant or plant-insect interactions Volatiles in pest control Pheromones and the influence of volatiles on mammals Olfaction and human perception Volatiles as fragrances The generation of flavours and food aroma compounds Stabilisation and controlled release of volatiles The impact of volatiles on the environment and the atmosphere

Advances in Building Energy Research

Advances in Building Energy Research
Author: Mat Santamouris
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 336
Release: 2012-05-04
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781136572401

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Advances in Building Energy Research (ABER) offers state-of-the-art information on the environmental science and performance of buildings, linking new technologies and methodologies with the latest research on systems, simulations and standards. As stringently reviewed as a journal but with the breadth of a book, this annual volume brings together invited contributions from the foremost international experts on energy efficiency and environmental quality of buildings. Spanning a broad range of technical subjects, this is a 'must have' reference on global developments in the field, suitable for architects and building engineers, environmental engineers, industry professionals, students, teachers and researchers in building science, technical libraries and laboratories. Volume 3 covers: - Energy, Carbon and Cost Performance of Building Stocks - Solar Chimneys in Buildings - Optimization and Economics of Solar Cooling Systems - Artificial Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms in Energy Applications in Buildings - Decision Support Methodologies on the Energy Efficiency and Energy Management in Buildings - Progress in Numerical Modelling for Urban Thermal Environment Studies - Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE): An Inevitable Step Toward Sustainability - Guidelines to Avoid Mould Growth in Buildings - Thermal Impact of Strategic Landscaping in Cities - Urban Heat Island and its Impact on Building Energy Consumption - Green Roofs in Buildings: Thermal and Environmental Behaviour - Building Earth-Contact Heat Transfer

Mechanisms of Atmospheric Oxidation of the Oxygenates

Mechanisms of Atmospheric Oxidation of the Oxygenates
Author: Jack Calvert
Publsiher: OUP USA
Total Pages: 1619
Release: 2011-09-29
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780199767076

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Prepared by an international team of eminent atmospheric scientists, Mechanisms of Atmospheric Oxidation of the Oxygenates is an authoritative source of information on the role of oxygenates in the chemistry of the atmosphere. The oxygenates, including the many different alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, acids, esters, and nitrogen-atom containing oxygenates, are of special interest today due to their increased use as alternative fuels and fuel additives. This book describes the physical properties of oxygenates, as well as the chemical and photochemical parameters that determine their reaction pathways in the atmosphere. Quantitative descriptions of the pathways of the oxygenates from release or formation in the atmosphere to final products are provided, as is a comprehensive review and evaluation of the extensive kinetic literature on the atmospheric chemistry of the different oxygenates and their many halogen-atom substituted analogues. This book will be of interest to modelers of atmospheric chemistry, environmental scientists and engineers, and air quality planning agencies as a useful input for development of realistic modules designed to simulate the atmospheric chemistry of the oxygenates, their major oxidation products, and their influence on ozone and other trace gases within the troposhere.

Review and Integration of Biosphere Atmosphere Modelling of Reactive Trace Gases and Volatile Aerosols

Review and Integration of Biosphere Atmosphere Modelling of Reactive Trace Gases and Volatile Aerosols
Author: Raia Silvia Massad,Benjamin Loubet
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 235
Release: 2015-07-16
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9789401772853

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When considering biosphere–atmosphere exchange of trace gases and volatile aerosols, significant advances have been made both from an experimental and modelling point of view and on several scales. This was particularly stimulated by the availability of new datasets generated from improvements in analytical methods and flux measurement techniques. Recent research advances allow us, not only to identify major mechanisms and factors affecting the exchanges between the biosphere and the atmosphere, but also to recognize several gaps in the methodologies used in accounting for emissions and deposition in landscape and global scale models. This work aims at (i) reviewing exchange processes and modelling schemes, parameterisations and datasets, (ii) presenting a common conceptual framework to model soil-vegetation-atmosphere exchange of reactive trace gases and aerosols accounting for in-canopy transfer chemical interactions and (iii) discussing the key elements of the agreed framework.

Toxicity of Building Materials

Toxicity of Building Materials
Author: Fernando Pacheco-Torgal,S Jalali,Aleksandra Fucic
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 512
Release: 2012-08-13
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780857096357

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From long-standing worries regarding the use of lead and asbestos to recent research into carcinogenic issues related to the use of plastics in construction, there is growing concern regarding the potential toxic effects of building materials on health. Toxicity of building materials provides an essential guide to this important problem and its solutions. Beginning with an overview of the material types and potential health hazards presented by building materials, the book goes on to consider key plastic materials. Materials responsible for formaldehyde and volatile organic compound emissions, as well as semi-volatile organic compounds, are then explored in depth, before a review of wood preservatives and mineral fibre-based building materials. Issues related to the use of radioactive materials and materials that release toxic fumes during burning are the focus of subsequent chapters, followed by discussion of the range of heavy metals, materials prone to mould growth, and antimicrobials. Finally, Toxicity of building materials concludes by considering the potential hazards posed by waste based/recycled building materials, and the toxicity of nanoparticles. With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Toxicity of building materials is an invaluable tool for all civil engineers, materials researchers, scientists and educators working in the field of building materials. Provides an essential guide to the potential toxic effects of building materials on health Comprehensively examines materials responsible for formaldehyde and volatile organic compound emissions, as well as semi-volatile organic compounds Later chapters focus on issues surrounding the use of radioactive materials and materials that release toxic fumes during burning

Modeling of Indoor Air Quality and Exposure

Modeling of Indoor Air Quality and Exposure
Author: Niren Laxmichand Nagda
Publsiher: ASTM International
Total Pages: 295
Release: 1993
Genre: Environmental toxicology
ISBN: 9780803118751

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Organic Indoor Air Pollutants

Organic Indoor Air Pollutants
Author: Tunga Salthammer
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 343
Release: 2008-07-11
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9783527613670

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Indoor air quality has gained more and more attention in recent years. The book covers organic pollutants in indoor air, their sources, measurement, and evaluation. It is written from a chemical-analytical point of view. Therefore it fills a gap in the literature on this very topical subject. The book is divided into four parts covering the measurement of organic pollutants, environmental test chambers, the release of organic compounds from indoor materials as well as investigation concepts and quality guidelines. Each section was written by an experienced expert. The authors work in Europe, the USA, and Australia. The book is adressed to chemists, physicists, biologists, and medical doctors at universities and research facilities, in industry and environmental laboratories as well as regulative bodies.

Research Strategies for the U S Global Change Research Program

Research Strategies for the U S  Global Change Research Program
Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications,Committee on Global Change
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 294
Release: 1990-02-01
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780309043489

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This book recommends research priorities and scientific approaches for global change research. It addresses the scientific approaches for documenting global change, developing integrated earth system models, and conducting focused studies to improve understanding of global change on topics such as earth system history and human sources of global change.

Biogeochemistry of Forested Catchments in a Changing Environment

Biogeochemistry of Forested Catchments in a Changing Environment
Author: Egbert Matzner
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 498
Release: 2004-07-12
Genre: Science
ISBN: 3540209735

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The stability of forest ecosystems is affected by changes of environment conditions, like by increasing temperatures, increasing atmospheric CO2 and decreasing deposition rates of nutrients and acidity. This volume integrates the results of long term interdisciplinary ecosystem research at two forested watersheds in Germany with special emphasis on the biogeochemistry of carbon, dissolved organic matter and mineral elements in response to changing environmental conditions and management. Despite the reduction in acidic deposition, forest ecosystems are still threatened by soil acidification, nutrient depletion and eutrophication and criteria of sustainability are not yet achieved. The results highlight the complex interactions between vegetation, animals and soils in terrestrial ecosystems that are triggered by changes in environmental conditions.

Organic Bromine and Iodine Compounds

Organic Bromine and Iodine Compounds
Author: Alasdair H. Neilson
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 346
Release: 2003-10-09
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 3540027777

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This volume addresses a broad spectrum of the environmental issues surrounding organic bromine and iodine compounds. It covers their partition among the environmental compartments and the potential for their long-range dissemination. The important issue of their atmospheric chemistry is discussed in detail in the context of ozone depletion and global warming, and the significant difference between the reactions of methyl bromide and methyl iodide are underscored. The mammalian toxicity is discussed and the mechanisms of the degradation and transformation of organic bromine and iodine compounds addressed. There has been considerable interest in naturally occurring metabolites in the current debate on the fate and partition of methyl bromide that is an important fungicide and is produced in substantial quantities as a metabolite of marine algae. The possible natural occurrence of diphenyl ethers that are used as flame retardants have also been raised. A discussion is given on plausible mechanisms for the biosynthesis of representative organic bromine and organic iodine metabolites. Reaction pathways are illustrated throughout and comprehensive references are given.