Axons and Brain Architecture

Axons and Brain Architecture
Author: Kathleen Rockland
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 426
Release: 2015-11-21
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780128016824

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Several excellent monographs exist which deal with axons. These, however, focus either on the cellular and molecular biology of axons proper or on network organization of connections, the latter with only an incidental or abstract reference to axons per se. Still relatively neglected, however, is the middle ground of terminations and trajectories of single axons in the mammalian central nervous system. This middle level of connectivity, between networks on the one hand and local, in vitro investigations on the other, is to some extent represented by retrograde tracer studies and labeled neurons, but there have so far been many fewer of the complementary anterograde studies, with total visualization of the axonal arborization. The present volume brings together in one source an interrelated treatment of single axons from the perspective of microcircuitry and as substrates of larger scale organization (tractography). Especially for the former area - axons in microcircuitry - an abundance of published data exists, but these are typically in specialty journals that are not often accessed by the broader community. By highlighting and unifying the span from microcircuitry to tractography, the proposed volume serves as a convenient reference source and in addition inspires further interactions between what currently tend to be separate communities. The volume also redresses the imbalance between in vitro/local connectivity and long-distance connections. Focusing on mammalian systems, Part 1 of this book is devoted to anatomical investigations of connections at the single axon level, drawing on modern techniques and classical methods from the 1990s. A particular emphasis is on broad coverage of cortical and subcortical connections from different species, so that common patterns of divergence, convergence, and collateralization can be easily appreciated. Part 2 addresses mechanisms of axon guidance, as these seem particularly relevant to pathways and branching patterns. Part 3 covers axon dynamics and functional aspects; and Part 4 focuses on tractography, notably including comparisons between histological substrates and imaging. A novel innovative reference on the axon as a connectional unit, encompassing microcircuitry, axon guidance, and function Featuring chapters from leading researchers in the field Full-colour text that includes both an overview of axon function and the multiple underlying molecular mechanisms The only volume to bring together the configuration of individual axons at a circuit level and to relate the histological geometry of axons and axon bundles to in vivo tractography imaging studies

Axons and Brain Architecture

Axons and Brain Architecture
Author: Kathleen Rockland
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 426
Release: 2015-12-11
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: 0128013931

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Several excellent monographs exist which deal with axons. These, however, focus either on the cellular and molecular biology of axons proper or on network organization of connections, the latter with only an incidental or abstract reference to axons per se. Still relatively neglected, however, is the middle ground of terminations and trajectories of single axons in the mammalian central nervous system. This middle level of connectivity, between networks on the one hand and local, in vitro investigations on the other, is to some extent represented by retrograde tracer studies and labeled neurons, but there have so far been many fewer of the complementary anterograde studies, with total visualization of the axonal arborization. The present volume brings together in one source an interrelated treatment of single axons from the perspective of microcircuitry and as substrates of larger scale organization (tractography). Especially for the former area - axons in microcircuitry - an abundance of published data exists, but these are typically in specialty journals that are not often accessed by the broader community. By highlighting and unifying the span from microcircuitry to tractography, the proposed volume serves as a convenient reference source and in addition inspires further interactions between what currently tend to be separate communities. The volume also redresses the imbalance between in vitro/local connectivity and long-distance connections. Focusing on mammalian systems, Part 1 of this book is devoted to anatomical investigations of connections at the single axon level, drawing on modern techniques and classical methods from the 1990s. A particular emphasis is on broad coverage of cortical and subcortical connections from different species, so that common patterns of divergence, convergence, and collateralization can be easily appreciated. Part 2 addresses mechanisms of axon guidance, as these seem particularly relevant to pathways and branching patterns. Part 3 covers axon dynamics and functional aspects; and Part 4 focuses on tractography, notably including comparisons between histological substrates and imaging. A novel innovative reference on the axon as a connectional unit, encompassing microcircuitry, axon guidance, and function Featuring chapters from leading researchers in the field Full-colour text that includes both an overview of axon function and the multiple underlying molecular mechanisms The only volume to bring together the configuration of individual axons at a circuit level and to relate the histological geometry of axons and axon bundles to in vivo tractography imaging studies

Discovering the Brain

Discovering the Brain
Author: National Academy of Sciences,Institute of Medicine,Sandra Ackerman
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 194
Release: 1992-01-01
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780309045292

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The brain ... There is no other part of the human anatomy that is so intriguing. How does it develop and function and why does it sometimes, tragically, degenerate? The answers are complex. In Discovering the Brain, science writer Sandra Ackerman cuts through the complexity to bring this vital topic to the public. The 1990s were declared the "Decade of the Brain" by former President Bush, and the neuroscience community responded with a host of new investigations and conferences. Discovering the Brain is based on the Institute of Medicine conference, Decade of the Brain: Frontiers in Neuroscience and Brain Research. Discovering the Brain is a "field guide" to the brain--an easy-to-read discussion of the brain's physical structure and where functions such as language and music appreciation lie. Ackerman examines How electrical and chemical signals are conveyed in the brain. The mechanisms by which we see, hear, think, and pay attention--and how a "gut feeling" actually originates in the brain. Learning and memory retention, including parallels to computer memory and what they might tell us about our own mental capacity. Development of the brain throughout the life span, with a look at the aging brain. Ackerman provides an enlightening chapter on the connection between the brain's physical condition and various mental disorders and notes what progress can realistically be made toward the prevention and treatment of stroke and other ailments. Finally, she explores the potential for major advances during the "Decade of the Brain," with a look at medical imaging techniques--what various technologies can and cannot tell us--and how the public and private sectors can contribute to continued advances in neuroscience. This highly readable volume will provide the public and policymakers--and many scientists as well--with a helpful guide to understanding the many discoveries that are sure to be announced throughout the "Decade of the Brain."

From Neurons to Neighborhoods

From Neurons to Neighborhoods
Author: Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Institute of Medicine,Board on Children, Youth, and Families,Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 612
Release: 2000-11-13
Genre: Social Science
ISBN: 9780309069885

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How we raise young children is one of today's most highly personalized and sharply politicized issues, in part because each of us can claim some level of "expertise." The debate has intensified as discoveries about our development-in the womb and in the first months and years-have reached the popular media. How can we use our burgeoning knowledge to assure the well-being of all young children, for their own sake as well as for the sake of our nation? Drawing from new findings, this book presents important conclusions about nature-versus-nurture, the impact of being born into a working family, the effect of politics on programs for children, the costs and benefits of intervention, and other issues. The committee issues a series of challenges to decision makers regarding the quality of child care, issues of racial and ethnic diversity, the integration of children's cognitive and emotional development, and more. Authoritative yet accessible, From Neurons to Neighborhoods presents the evidence about "brain wiring" and how kids learn to speak, think, and regulate their behavior. It examines the effect of the climate-family, child care, community-within which the child grows.

Brain Architecture

Brain Architecture
Author: Larry W. Swanson
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 331
Release: 2012
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780195378580

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Now in its second edition, Brain Architecture is the continued exploration of how the brain works. At the very core of our existence, the brain generates our thoughts and feelings, directs our voluntary interactions with the environment, and coordinates all of the vital functions within the body itself. This long-overdue new edition explains this oftentimes daunting intricacy and exquisite detail. The first half of the book discusses the basic parts and how they work, presenting an overview of the nervous system at both the microscopic and macroscopic levels. The approach follows three classic lines of thought that proceed from simple to complex: the history of neuroscience research, the evolution of the nervous system, and the embryological development of the vertebrate central and peripheral nervous systems. The second half of the book outlines the basic wiring diagram of the brain and nervous system-how the parts are interconnected and how they control behavior and the internal state of the body. This is done within the framework of a new four-system network model that greatly simplifies understanding the structure-function organization of the nervous system. Written in clear and sparkling prose, beautifully illustrated, and thoroughly updated, Brain Architecture, Second Edition is must-read for anyone interested in the science of how the brain works.

Structure and Evolution of Invertebrate Nervous Systems

Structure and Evolution of Invertebrate Nervous Systems
Author: Andreas Schmidt-Rhaesa,Steffen Harzsch,G√ľnter Purschke
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 776
Release: 2015-12-17
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780191066214

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The nervous system is particularly fascinating for many biologists because it controls animal characteristics such as movement, behavior, and coordinated thinking. Invertebrate neurobiology has traditionally been studied in specific model organisms, whilst knowledge of the broad diversity of nervous system architecture and its evolution among metazoan animals has received less attention. This is the first major reference work in the field for 50 years, bringing together many leading evolutionary neurobiologists to review the most recent research on the structure of invertebrate nervous systems and provide a comprehensive and authoritative overview for a new generation of researchers. Presented in full colour throughout, Structure and Evolution of Invertebrate Nervous Systems synthesizes and illustrates the numerous new findings that have been made possible with light and electron microscopy. These include the recent introduction of new molecular and optical techniques such as immunohistochemical staining of neuron-specific antigens and fluorescence in-situ-hybridization, combined with visualization by confocal laser scanning microscopy. New approaches to analysing the structure of the nervous system are also included such as micro-computational tomography, cryo-soft X-ray tomography, and various 3-D visualization techniques. The book follows a systematic and phylogenetic structure, covering a broad range of taxa, interspersed with chapters focusing on selected topics in nervous system functioning which are presented as research highlights and perspectives. This comprehensive reference work will be an essential companion for graduate students and researchers alike in the fields of metazoan neurobiology, morphology, zoology, phylogeny and evolution.

Clinical Neuroanatomy

Clinical Neuroanatomy
Author: Hans J. ten Donkelaar
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 981
Release: 2020-06-18
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9783030418786

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Connections define the functions of neurons: information flows along connections, as well as growth factors and viruses, and even neuronal death can progress through connections. Accordingly, knowing how the various parts of the brain are interconnected to form functional systems is a prerequisite for properly understanding data from all fields in the neurosciences. Clinical Neuroanatomy: Brain Circuitry and Its Disorders bridges the gap between neuroanatomy and clinical neurology. It focuses on human and primate data in the context of brain circuitry disorders, which are so common in neurological practice. In addition, numerous clinical cases are presented to demonstrate how normal brain circuitry can be interrupted, and what the effects are. Following an introduction to the organization and vascularization of the human brain and the techniques used to study brain circuitry, the main neurofunctional systems are discussed, including the somatosensory, auditory, visual, motor, autonomic and limbic systems, the cerebral cortex and complex cerebral functions. In this 2nd edition, apart from a general updating, many new illustrations have been added and more emphasis is placed on modern techniques such as diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) and network analysis. Moreover, a developmental ontology based on the prosomeric model is applied, resulting in a more modern subdivision of the brain. The new edition of Clinical Neuroanatomy is primarily intended for neurologists, neuroradiologists and neuropathologists, as well as residents in these fields, but will also appeal to (neuro)anatomists and all those whose work involves human brain mapping.

Myelin

Myelin
Author: Kazunori Sango,Junji Yamauchi,Toru Ogata,Keiichiro Susuki
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 378
Release: 2019-11-23
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9789813296367

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This book presents the latest exciting advances in understanding of the structure and function of myelin in the central and peripheral nervous systems under normal and pathological conditions. Readers will find state of the art information from the perspectives of both basic neuroscience and clinical neurology and neuropathology. Detailed attention is paid to the findings and implications of recent research on the myelin-forming glial cells such as oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells. The discussion of myelin pathology encompasses a wide range of diseases and conditions, including, for example, multiple sclerosis, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries, brain tumors of glial cell origin, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, immune-mediated neuropathy, and diabetic neuropathy. The authors comprise researchers at the cutting edge of biotechnology and experts in the diseases discussed. The clearly written text is supported by numerous high-quality light and electron microscopy, CT, and MR images.