Biaxial Stretching of Film

Biaxial Stretching of Film
Author: Mark T. DeMeuse
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 288
Release: 2011-07-18
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780857092953

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Biaxial (having two axes) stretching of film is used for a range of applications and is the primary manufacturing process by which products are produced for the food packaging industry. Biaxial stretching of film: principles and applications provides an overview of the manufacturing processes and range of applications for biaxially stretched films. Part one reviews the fundamental principles of biaxial stretching. After an introductory chapter which defines terms, chapters discuss equipment design and requirements, laboratory evaluations, biaxial film structures and typical industrial processes for the biaxial orientation of films. Additional topics include post production processing of biaxially stretched films, the stress-strain behaviour of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and academic investigations of biaxially stretched films. Part two investigates the applications of biaxial films including fresh cut produce, snack packaging and product labelling. A final chapter investigates potential future trends for biaxially oriented films and orienting lines. Biaxial stretching of film: principles and applications is a valuable reference tool for a broad spectrum of readers, ranging from polymer and fibre engineers to electrical engineers. It will also be suitable for professionals in the food packaging and paper industries. A valuable reference tool for polymer and fibre engineers, electrical engineers and professionals in the food packaging and paper industries Provides a comprehensive overview of the manufacturing processes of biaxially stretched films and includes a discussion of their future applications Places emphasis on the technology as well as the different types of polymers used

Polypropylene

Polypropylene
Author: J. Karger-Kocsis
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 966
Release: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9789401144216

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My heart sank when I was approached by Dr Hastings and by Professor Briggs (Senior Editor of Materials Science and Technology and Series Editor of Polymer Science and Technology Series at Chapman & Hall, respectively) to edit a book with the provisional title Handbook of Poly propylene. My reluctance was due to the fact that my former book [1] along with that of Moore [2], issued in the meantime, seemed to cover the information demand on polypropylene and related systems. Encour aged, however, by some colleagues (the new generation of scientists and engineers needs a good reference book with easy information retrieval, and the development with metallocene catalysts deserves a new update!), I started on this venture. Having some experience with polypropylene systems and being aware of the current literature, it was easy to settle the titles for the book chapters and also to select and approach the most suitable potential contributors. Fortunately, many of my first-choice authors accepted the invitation to contribute. Like all editors of multi-author volumes, I recognize that obtaining contributors follows an S-type curve of asymptotic saturation when the number of willing contributors is plotted as a function of time. The saturation point is, however, never reached and as a consequence, Dear Reader, you will also find some topics of some relevance which are not explicitly treated in this book (but, believe me, I have considered them).

The Complete Technology Book on Plastic Films HDPE and Thermoset Plastics

The Complete Technology Book on Plastic Films  HDPE and Thermoset Plastics
Author: NIIR Board of Consultants & Engineers
Publsiher: ASIA PACIFIC BUSINESS PRESS Inc.
Total Pages: 608
Release: 2006-01-01
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: 9788178330112

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Plastic Films, HDPE and Thermoset Plastics are now an accepted part of the industrial and domestic scenes but this growth has been comparatively recent. Plastic films are typically used for sealing food items in containers to keep them fresh over a longer period of time. Plastic wrap, typically sold on rolls in boxes with a cutting edge, clings to many smooth surfaces and can thus remain tight over the opening of a container without adhesive or other devices. The past several years have seen numerous plastic films developed for the packaging industry, the most used today being polyethylene. Cast polypropylene film, like polyethylene film is unoriented (not stretched), but it was found that an improved film could be obtained by orientation (stretching the cast in one or more directions). Biaxial orientation is the process whereby the continuous cast film or sheet of plastic is heated up to brings it to a temperature that makes it stretchable. BOPP film possesses superior tensile strength, flexibility, toughness, shrink ability, good barrier and optical characteristics. The use of polyethylene terephthalate film is increasing considerably in recent years in videos audio magnetic tapes, computer tapes, photo and X ray films, power capacitors, insulation tapes and metalling for artificial zari. High density polyethylene (HDPE) or polyethylene high density (PEHD) is a polyethylene thermoplastic made from petroleum. The major applications of HDPE are in the manufacturing of containers, pipes, house wares, toys, filament, woven sacks, film, wire and cable insulation. HDPE is lighter than water, and can be moulded, machined, and joined together using welding (difficult to glue). Thermoset, or thermosetting plastics are synthetic materials that strengthen during being heated, but cannot be successfully remolded or reheated after their initial heat forming. This is in contrast to thermoplastics, which soften when heated and harden and strengthen after cooling. Thermoplastics can be heated, shaped and cooled as often as necessary without causing a chemical change, while thermosetting plastics will burn when heated after the initial molding. Additionally, thermoplastics tend to be easier to mold than thermosetting plastics, which also take a longer time to produce (due to the time it takes to cure the heated material). Some of the astonishing fundamentals of the book are salient features of contemporary, technology and current research, three basic processes: advances, modern polyethylene, processes using high yield catalysts, solution polymerization processes, polyolefins, low density polyethylene, polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC), vinyl chloride/vinyl acetate copolymers, polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl alcohol, physical and chemical properties, manufacturing methods, extrusion of film, slit die extrusion (flat film extrusion), comparison of blow and cast film processes, water cooled polypropylene film, calendaring, solvent, casting, casting of regenerated cellulose film, orientation of film, expanded films, plastics net from film, unsaturated polyester and vinyl ester resins, thermoset polyurethanes, guidelines and theories in compounding polyurethane elastomers, compounding for thermoset polyurethane elastomers, cellulose and cellulose derivatives, thermoplastic polymers etc. The present books offer an up to date overview of the processing of plastic films, HDPE and thermoset plastics. This book is suitable for entrepreneurs, researchers, professionals, technical institutions etc.

Polyimide for Electronic and Electrical Engineering Applications

Polyimide for Electronic and Electrical Engineering Applications
Author: Sombel Diaham
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 334
Release: 2021-05-05
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781838800970

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Polyimide is one of the most efficient polymers in many industries for its excellent thermal, electrical, mechanical, and chemical properties as well as its easy processability. In the electronic and electrical engineering industries, polyimide has widely been used for decades thanks to its very good dielectric and insulating properties at the high electric field and at high temperatures of around 200°C in long term-service. Moreover, polyimide appears essential for the development of new electronic devices where further considerations such as high power density, integration, higher temperature, thermal conduction management, energy storage, reliability, or flexibility are required in order to sustain the growing global electrical energy consumption. This book gathers interdisciplinary chapters on polyimide in various topics through state-of-the-art and original ongoing research.

Film Processing

Film Processing
Author: Toshitaka Kanai,Gregory A. Campbell
Publsiher: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2013-12-05
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9783446401792

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The manufacturing process for preparing very thin polymer products has developed into what is arguably the largest outlet for synthetic polymers. The central theme of this volume is the developments in process hardware and operating techniques that permit increasingly high production rates, optimum property development, unusual degrees of molecular orientation, and the coextrusion of multi-layer, multi-component film and sheet. The strong relationships and the interdependence of these developments on the achievements in polymer design, such as rheology and mechanical and optical properties, are also discussed. Contents: · Film Processing Overview and Introductory Rheology · Flat Die Analysis · Spiral Die Analysis · Die Control System of Film Thickness Distribution · Kinematics, Dynamics and Physical Properties of Blown Film · Bubble Instability: Experimental Evaluation · Optical Properties and Structural Characteristics of Tubular Film · Theoretical Analysis of Film Deformation Behavior in Casting · Analysis of Draw Resonance Instability in the Film Casting Process · Multilayer Films · Biaxially Oriented Films · Influence of Processing Conditions on Structure and Physical Properties of Biaxially Stretched Engineering Thermoplastics · Theoretical Analysis of Tentering Process · Double Bubble Tubular Film Process System and Theoretical Analysis of Stress Development and Scale-up Rule

Polymer Processing

Polymer Processing
Author: Donald G. Baird,Dimitris I. Collias
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 416
Release: 2014-03-24
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780470930588

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Fundamental concepts coupled with practical, step-by-step guidance With its emphasis on core principles, this text equips readers with the skills and knowledge to design the many processes needed to safely and successfully manufacture thermoplastic parts. The first half of the text sets forth the general theory and concepts underlying polymer processing, such as the viscoelastic response of polymeric fluids and diffusion and mass transfer. Next, the text explores specific practical aspects of polymer processing, including mixing, extrusion dies, and post-die processing. By addressing a broad range of design issues and methods, the authors demonstrate how to solve most common processing problems. This Second Edition of the highly acclaimed Polymer Processing has been thoroughly updated to reflect current polymer processing issues and practices. New areas of coverage include: Micro-injection molding to produce objects weighing a fraction of a gram, such as miniature gears and biomedical devices New chapter dedicated to the recycling of thermoplastics and the processing of renewable polymers Life-cycle assessment, a systematic method for determining whether recycling is appropriate and which form of recycling is optimal Rheology of polymers containing fibers Chapters feature problem sets, enabling readers to assess and reinforce their knowledge as they progress through the text. There are also special design problems throughout the text that reflect real-world polymer processing issues. A companion website features numerical subroutines as well as guidance for using MATLAB®, IMSL®, and Excel to solve the sample problems from the text. By providing both underlying theory and practical step-by-step guidance, Polymer Processing is recommended for students in chemical, mechanical, materials, and polymer engineering.

Plastic Films in Food Packaging

Plastic Films in Food Packaging
Author: Sina Ebnesajjad
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 384
Release: 2012-12-31
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781455731152

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The value of the groceries purchases in the USA is over $500 billion annually, most of which is accounted for by packaged foods. Plastic packaging of foods is not only ubiquitous in developed economies, but increasingly commonplace in the developing world, where plastic packaging is instrumental in decreasing the proportion of the food supply lost to spoilage. This new handbook is a combination of new material and updated chapters, chosen by Dr. Sina Ebnesajjad, from recently published books on this subject. Plastic Films in Food Packaging offers a practical handbook for engineers, scientists and managers working in the food packaging industry, providing a tailor-made package of science and engineering fundamentals, best practice techniques and guidance on new and emerging technologies. By covering materials, design, packaging processes, machinery and waste management together in one book, the authors enable the reader to take a lifecycle approach to food packaging. The Handbook addresses questions related to film grades, types of packages for different types of foods, packaging technologies, machinery and waste management. Additionally the book provides a review of new and emerging technologies. Two chapters cover the development of barrier films for food packaging and the regulatory and safety aspects of food packaging. Essential information and practical guidance for engineers and scientists working at all stages of the food packaging lifecycle: from design through manufacture to recycling Includes key published material on plastic films in food packaging, updated specifically for this Handbook, and new material on the regulatory framework and safety aspects Coverage of materials and applications together in one handbook enables engineers and scientists to make informed design and manufacturing decisions

Microsupercapacitors

Microsupercapacitors
Author: Kazufumi Kobashi,Karolina Laszczyk
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 310
Release: 2021-10-15
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780081028896

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Microsupercapacitors systematically guides the reader through the key materials, characterization techniques, performance factors and potential applications and benefits to society of this emerging electrical energy storage solution. The book reviews the technical challenges in scaling down supercapacitors, covering materials, performance, design and applications perspectives. Sections provide a fundamental understanding of microsupercapacitors and compare them to existing energy storage technologies. Final discussions consider the factors that impact performance, potential tactics to improve performance, barriers to implementation, emerging solutions to those barriers, and a future outlook. This book will be of particular interest to materials scientists and engineers working in academia, research and development. Provides a concise introduction of the fundamental science, related technological challenges, and solutions that microsupercapacitors can offer Compares microsupercapacitors with current technologies Reviews the applications of new strategies and the challenge of scaling down supercapacitors Covers the most relevant applications, including energy storage, energy harvesting, sensors and biomedical devices

Film Processing Advances

Film Processing Advances
Author: Toshitaka Kanai,Gregory Campbell
Publsiher: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG
Total Pages: 400
Release: 2014-07-03
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781569905364

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This volume deals with manufacturing processes for preparing very thin polymer products. Many professionals working on polymer films have requested that a newer version of Film Processing be published that includes more recent technologies and addresses the latest literature. Film Processing Advances provides a timely response to these requests. This edition is still a technically oriented book to be used by film processing professionals, graduate students, and researchers and it covers recent technologies of film extrusion, extruder screw design, die design, film structure, film temperature, crystallization dynamics, and film properties. Furthermore, Film Processing Advances focuses on multilayered films and recent developments relating to high performance films. The chapters in this edition are all essentially new and were designed to complement the materials found in Film Processing, which remains a relevant and important information resource.

Simultaneous Biaxial Stretching of Isotactic Polypropylene Films in the Partly Molten State

Simultaneous Biaxial Stretching of Isotactic Polypropylene Films in the Partly Molten State
Author: Ludovic Capt
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 398
Release: 2003
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: OCLC:61568000

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"Simultaneous equibiaxial stretching was found to be homogeneous for sufficiently high deformation rates ( 3&d2;H > 0.1 s-1). The stiffness and the thermal stability of the crystallites played an important role in deformation behavior. In fact, the biaxial yield stress showed linear dependence on the crystallite size. Upon simultaneous equibiaxial deformation, crystallinity and especially orientation increased, while crystallite size decreased. The isotacticity content was found to influence greatly the thermal stability of the initial morphology. Increasing isotacticity leads to an increase in DSC melting peak temperature of the initial morphology, overall stress of deformation, and in the final crystallinity, orientation, elastic modulus, and tensile strength of the end film. Finally, it was concluded that the crystalline phase, that melts during preheating prior to stretching forms a "structured melt" phase. The amount of structured melt is related to the tensile strength at break of the end film. Finally, it was showed that an optimal gloss is obtained, if the cast film is stretched about 15°C below its melting point." --

Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration

Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration
Author: Zeman
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 642
Release: 1996-07-09
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 0824797353

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Integrates knowledge on microfiltration and ultrification, membrane chemistry, and characterization methods with the engineering and economic aspects of device performance, device and module design, processes, and applications. The text provides a discussion of membrane fundamentals and an analytical framework for designing and developing new filtrations systems for a broad range of technologically important functions. It offers information on membrane liquid precursors, fractal and stochastic pore space analysis, novel and advanced module designs, and original process design calculations.

Rechargeable Batteries

Rechargeable Batteries
Author: Zhengcheng Zhang,Sheng Shui Zhang
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 712
Release: 2015-06-24
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9783319154589

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This book updates the latest advancements in new chemistries, novel materials and system integration of rechargeable batteries, including lithium-ion batteries and batteries beyond lithium-ion and addresses where the research is advancing in the near future in a brief and concise manner. The book is intended for a wide range of readers from undergraduates, postgraduates to senior scientists and engineers. In order to update the latest status of rechargeable batteries and predict near research trend, we plan to invite the world leading researchers who are presently working in the field to write each chapter of the book. The book covers not only lithium-ion batteries but also other batteries beyond lithium-ion, such as lithium-air, lithium-sulfur, sodium-ion, sodium-sulfur, magnesium-ion and liquid flow batteries.

Handbook of Plastic Films

Handbook of Plastic Films
Author: Elsayed M. Abdel-Bary
Publsiher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing
Total Pages: 404
Release: 2003
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 185957338X

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Plastic films are high-performance materials which play an essential part in modern life. The plastics films industry uses state-of-the-art manufacturing processes and is continuously seeking out new technologies to improve its performance. The understanding of the nature of plastic films, their production techniques, applications and their characterisation is essential for producing new types of plastic films. This handbook has been written to discuss the production and main uses of plastic films. Plastic films are high-performance materials which play an essential part in modern life. Plastic films are mostly used in packaging applications but as will be seen from this book they are also used in the agricultural, medical and engineering fields. The plastics films industry uses state-of-the-art manufacturing processes and is continuously seeking out new technologies to improve its performance. The understanding of the nature of plastic films, their production techniques, applications and their characterisation is essential for producing new types of plastic films. This handbook has been written to discuss the production and main uses of plastic films.

Search of Excellence ANTEC 91

Search of Excellence  ANTEC 91
Author: Society of Plastic Engineers
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 2720
Release: 1991-05-01
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 0877628440

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Vacuum Deposition onto Webs Films and Foils

Vacuum Deposition onto Webs  Films and Foils
Author: Charles Bishop
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 602
Release: 2015-08-15
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780323296908

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Vacuum Deposition onto Webs: Films and Foils, Third Edition, provides the latest information on vacuum deposition, the technology that applies an even coating to a flexible material that can be held on a roll, thereby offering a much faster and cheaper method of bulk coating than deposition onto single pieces or non-flexible surfaces such as glass. This technology has been used in industrial-scale applications for some time, including a wide range of metalized packaging. Its potential as a high-speed, scalable process has seen an increasing range of new products emerging that employ this cost-effective technology, including solar energy products that are moving from rigid panels onto cheaper and more versatile flexible substrates, flexible electronic circuit ‘boards’, and flexible displays. In this third edition, all chapters are thoroughly revised with a significant amount of new information added, including newly developed barrier measurement techniques, improved in-vacuum monitoring technologies, and the latest developments in Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). Provides the know-how to maximize productivity of vacuum coating systems Thoroughly revised with a significant amount of new information added, including newly developed barrier measurement techniques, improved in-vacuum monitoring technologies, and the latest on Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) Presents the latest information on vacuum deposition, the technology that applies an even coating to a flexible material that can be held on a roll, thereby offering a much faster and cheaper method of bulk coating Enables engineers to specify systems more effectively and enhances dialogue between non-specialists and suppliers/engineers Empowers those in rapidly expanding fields such as solar energy, display panels, and flexible electronics to unlock the potential of vacuum coating to transform their processes and products