Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene for Photonic Applications

Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene for Photonic Applications
Author: Shinji Yamashita,Yahachi Saito,Jong Hyun Choi
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 416
Release: 2013-08-31
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780857098627

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The optical properties of carbon nanotubes and graphene make them potentially suitable for a variety of photonic applications. Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications explores the properties of these exciting materials and their use across a variety of applications. Part one introduces the fundamental optical properties of carbon nanotubes and graphene before exploring how carbon nanotubes and graphene are synthesised. A further chapter focusses on nonlinearity enhancement and novel preparation approaches for carbon nanotube and graphene photonic devices. Chapters in part two discuss carbon nanotubes and graphene for laser applications and highlight optical gain and lasing in carbon nanotubes, carbon nanotube and graphene-based fiber lasers, carbon-nanotube-based bulk solid-state lasers, electromagnetic nonlinearities in graphene, and carbon nanotube-based nonlinear photonic devices. Finally, part three focusses on carbon-based optoelectronics and includes chapters on carbon nanotube solar cells, a carbon nanotube-based optical platform for biomolecular detection, hybrid carbon nanotube-liquid crystal nanophotonic devices, and quantum light sources based on individual carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications is a technical resource for materials scientists, electrical engineers working in the photonics and optoelectronics industry and academics and researchers interested in the field. Covers the properties and fabrication of carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications Considers the uses of carbon nanotubes and graphene for laser applications Explores numerous carbon-based light emitters and detectors

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications
Author: Y.-W. Song
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 416
Release: 2013-08-31
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780128088203

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With their nano-scaled dimensions and extremely elevated optical nonlinearity, carbon nanostructures including single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene have played a critical role in generating ultrafast optical pulses. The pulsation relies on passive mode-locking of the nanostructures, and has been enhanced by employing an evanescent field interaction scheme that guarantees the all-fiber high-power operation. Preparation schemes for pulsating devices have been evolving via the development of elegant processes such as optical deposition, electrospray, and aerosol deposition of carbon nanostructures, ensuring the dramatic increase of process efficiency. In this chapter, details of the technical achievements are addressed.

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications
Author: K.K. Chow
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 416
Release: 2013-08-31
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780128088258

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Because of their estimated ultra-high third-order nonlinearity, single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be regarded as a potential new material for optical nonlinearity. The nonlinearity of CNTs is believed to originate from the inter-band transitions of the π-electrons, causing nonlinear polarization. In this respect, CNTs are similar to other organic optical materials that exhibit extremely high nonlinearity. CNT-based photonics devices offer several key advantages, including ultrafast response, robustness, tunability of wavelength, and compatibility to fibers. This chapter will describe the design and fabrication of CNT-based nonlinear photonic devices. CNTs with suitable diameters – and thus suitable operational wavelengths – are deposited or grown directly on different types of fibers or waveguides to ensure effective CNT–light interaction. Optical nonlinear effects including four-wave mixing (FWM), cross-phase modulation (XPM), and self-phase modulation (SPM) have been observed experimentally using fabricated CNT-based devices. Corresponding wavelength conversion and optical signal regeneration applications based on various nonlinear effects are discussed.

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications
Author: K. Matsuda
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 416
Release: 2013-08-31
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780128088180

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The fundamental electronic states and optical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes are briefly explained in this chapter. Moreover, the novel optical properties of carbon nanotubes revealed by advanced laser spectroscopy (single-nanotube spectroscopy and time-resolved spectroscopy) are introduced. Due to the enhanced Coulomb interaction, the optically generated electron-hole pair forms a strongly bound ‘exciton’ state, analogous to the hydrogen-like state in the carbon nanotubes. The striking features of excitons in the carbon nanotube, such as singlet-dark states and triplet states, which dominate the optical properties, are described in this chapter.

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications
Author: W.B. Cho,F. Rotermund
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 416
Release: 2013-08-31
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780128088234

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Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) possessing outstanding linear and nonlinear optical properties are utilized as saturable absorbers (SAs) for passive mode-locking of different bulk solid-state lasers in a wide spectral range between 0.8 and 2μm. To overcome some of the limitations and drawbacks of currently available saturable absorbers, diverse carbon nanotubes and techniques for fabrication of single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorbers (SWCNT-SAs) are investigated. In this chapter, we discuss various manufacturing procedures and essential characteristics of SWCNT-based passive mode-locking devices, and review recent demonstrations of passively mode-locked solid-state lasers employing different types of SWCNT-SAs.

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications
Author: T. Wilkinson,H. Butt
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 416
Release: 2013-08-31
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780128088296

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This chapter discusses the background knowledge and provides a literature review of carbon-nanotubes-based metamaterials and other nanophotonic devices we present in the chapter. The materials properties of carbon nanotubes are discussed, along with their possible application in producing metamaterials which display artificial optical properties. A detailed analysis of different types of metamaterials is presented, along with their theory and applications. The utilization of silicon nanopillars for producing photonic crystals and the enhanced reflection effects are discussed. Lastly, the theoretical background and designing of carbon nanotube forests-based Fresnel lenses are presented.

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications
Author: E. Gaufrès,N. Izard,A. Noury,X. Le Roux,L. Vivien
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 416
Release: 2013-08-31
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780128088210

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This chapter describes how the semiconducting-single-wall nanotube (SWNT) extraction affects their luminescence properties and how such properties can be exploited to fabricate optical sources emitting in near-infrared wavelengths ranging from 1 to 2μm. The main applications of carbon nanotube (CNT) lasers are aimed at optical interconnects and biophotonics. We review recent achievements in obtaining optical gain in thin films doped with CNTs. Techniques for determining optical gain in CNTs are considered with particular focus on the variable strip length (VSL) method and choices to integrate nanotubes in the optical waveguide are discussed.

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications
Author: A. Martinez,S. Yamashita
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 416
Release: 2013-08-31
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780128088227

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Fiber laser technology is attracting a great deal of attention due to its numerous applications in fields as diverse as micromachining, biology and medical sciences or telecommunications and its potential as a substitute for solid-state lasers in industrial and technological applications. Fiber lasers are also exciting from the scientific point of view as they are an excellent platform to further study and understand nonlinear optical phenomena. In this chapter, we review the impact of nano-materials, such as graphene and carbon nanotubes, in advancing fiber laser technology. Both graphene and carbon nanotubes present a highly nonlinear optical response, with a high third order susceptibility and saturable absorption. Here, we discuss how these properties can be used to achieve pulse operation using a technique known as mode-locking and how these two materials compare to other mode-locking mechanisms in terms of their ability to achieve pulse operation, the stability of the mode-locked lasers and their long-term reliability.