Approaching Death

Approaching Death
Author: Committee on Care at the End of Life,Institute of Medicine
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 425
Release: 1997-10-30
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780309518253

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When the end of life makes its inevitable appearance, people should be able to expect reliable, humane, and effective caregiving. Yet too many dying people suffer unnecessarily. While an "overtreated" dying is feared, untreated pain or emotional abandonment are equally frightening. Approaching Death reflects a wide-ranging effort to understand what we know about care at the end of life, what we have yet to learn, and what we know but do not adequately apply. It seeks to build understanding of what constitutes good care for the dying and offers recommendations to decisionmakers that address specific barriers to achieving good care. This volume offers a profile of when, where, and how Americans die. It examines the dimensions of caring at the end of life: Determining diagnosis and prognosis and communicating these to patient and family. Establishing clinical and personal goals. Matching physical, psychological, spiritual, and practical care strategies to the patient's values and circumstances. Approaching Death considers the dying experience in hospitals, nursing homes, and other settings and the role of interdisciplinary teams and managed care. It offers perspectives on quality measurement and improvement, the role of practice guidelines, cost concerns, and legal issues such as assisted suicide. The book proposes how health professionals can become better prepared to care well for those who are dying and to understand that these are not patients for whom "nothing can be done."

Cause of Death

Cause of Death
Author: Patricia Cornwell
Publsiher: Penguin
Total Pages: 384
Release: 1997-09-01
Genre: Fiction
ISBN: 9781101205631

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Dr. Kay Scarpetta plunges into the murky depths of a ship graveyard to recover the very human remains of Ted Eddings, an investigative reporter. Together with her niece Lucy and police captain Pete Marino, Scarpetta will follow the scents of death and violence to the heart of sinister darkness. *San Francisco Chronicle

Cause of Death

Cause of Death
Author: Keith D. Wilson
Publsiher: Writers Digest Books
Total Pages: 207
Release: 1992
Genre: Reference
ISBN: 0898795249

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Part of the Howdunit series. Provides essential details about homicide and forensic medicine that writers need to create a credible murder story.

When Children Die

When Children Die
Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Committee on Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Children and Their Families
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 712
Release: 2003-02-09
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780309084376

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The death of a child is a special sorrow. No matter the circumstances, a child’s death is a life-altering experience. Except for the child who dies suddenly and without forewarning, physicians, nurses, and other medical personnel usually play a central role in the lives of children who die and their families. At best, these professionals will exemplify “medicine with a heart.†At worst, families’ encounters with the health care system will leave them with enduring painful memories, anger, and regrets. When Children Die examines what we know about the needs of these children and their families, the extent to which such needs areâ€"and are notâ€"being met, and what can be done to provide more competent, compassionate, and consistent care. The book offers recommendations for involving child patients in treatment decisions, communicating with parents, strengthening the organization and delivery of services, developing support programs for bereaved families, improving public and private insurance, training health professionals, and more. It argues that taking these steps will improve the care of children who survive as well as those who do notâ€"and will likewise help all families who suffer with their seriously ill or injured child. Featuring illustrative case histories, the book discusses patterns of childhood death and explores the basic elements of physical, emotional, spiritual, and practical care for children and families experiencing a child’s life-threatening illness or injury.

The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids

The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice,Committee on the Health Effects of Marijuana: An Evidence Review and Research Agenda
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 486
Release: 2017-03-31
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780309453073

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Significant changes have taken place in the policy landscape surrounding cannabis legalization, production, and use. During the past 20 years, 25 states and the District of Columbia have legalized cannabis and/or cannabidiol (a component of cannabis) for medical conditions or retail sales at the state level and 4 states have legalized both the medical and recreational use of cannabis. These landmark changes in policy have impacted cannabis use patterns and perceived levels of risk. However, despite this changing landscape, evidence regarding the short- and long-term health effects of cannabis use remains elusive. While a myriad of studies have examined cannabis use in all its various forms, often these research conclusions are not appropriately synthesized, translated for, or communicated to policy makers, health care providers, state health officials, or other stakeholders who have been charged with influencing and enacting policies, procedures, and laws related to cannabis use. Unlike other controlled substances such as alcohol or tobacco, no accepted standards for safe use or appropriate dose are available to help guide individuals as they make choices regarding the issues of if, when, where, and how to use cannabis safely and, in regard to therapeutic uses, effectively. Shifting public sentiment, conflicting and impeded scientific research, and legislative battles have fueled the debate about what, if any, harms or benefits can be attributed to the use of cannabis or its derivatives, and this lack of aggregated knowledge has broad public health implications. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids provides a comprehensive review of scientific evidence related to the health effects and potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis. This report provides a research agendaâ€"outlining gaps in current knowledge and opportunities for providing additional insight into these issuesâ€"that summarizes and prioritizes pressing research needs.

Excited Delirium Syndrome

Excited Delirium Syndrome
Author: Theresa G. DiMaio,Vincent J.M. DiMaio, M.D.
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 164
Release: 2005-09-22
Genre: Law
ISBN: 0203483472

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During a routine investigation, a suspect turns hostile. The officers on the scene spring into action and get the suspect under control by handcuffing him. Though the suspect has been successfully subdued – he dies shortly thereafter... A psychiatric patient suddenly becomes violent. The hospital staff struggles to control the patient with four point restraint. While order has been restored and the patient has been restrained – she dies soon afterward... Criminal and civil cases often cite “positional asphyxia” as the cause of death in such instances, blaming the rough treatment individuals may have received during restraint. The authors of Excited Delirium Syndrome: Cause of Death and Prevention, however, propose a different explanation. In this groundbreaking book, they cite the reason being a condition called Excited Delirium Syndrome, in which the normal physiological changes produced by violent activity culminate in sudden cardiac death, often in conjunction with the effects of a drug. After introducing the topic, the book recounts the condition’s history and examines traditional explanations as to why such deaths occur, and then counter as to why they are not justifiable. In addition, it illustrates the effects that stressors, legal medication, and drugs of abuse have on the cardiovascular system. The effects of underlying disease, including endogenous mental disease are also discussed. In addition, the book details prevention, assesses the role of first responders, investigators, and mental health professionals, and describes “high-risk” individuals. These topics, along with the many actual case studies that provide further insight, make Excited Delirium Syndrome: Cause of Death and Prevention an essential resource for anyone treating or interacting with those that may have this disorder.

To Err Is Human

To Err Is Human
Author: Institute of Medicine,Committee on Quality of Health Care in America
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 312
Release: 2000-03-01
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780309068376

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Experts estimate that as many as 98,000 people die in any given year from medical errors that occur in hospitals. That's more than die from motor vehicle accidents, breast cancer, or AIDS--three causes that receive far more public attention. Indeed, more people die annually from medication errors than from workplace injuries. Add the financial cost to the human tragedy, and medical error easily rises to the top ranks of urgent, widespread public problems. To Err Is Human breaks the silence that has surrounded medical errors and their consequence--but not by pointing fingers at caring health care professionals who make honest mistakes. After all, to err is human. Instead, this book sets forth a national agenda--with state and local implications--for reducing medical errors and improving patient safety through the design of a safer health system. This volume reveals the often startling statistics of medical error and the disparity between the incidence of error and public perception of it, given many patients' expectations that the medical profession always performs perfectly. A careful examination is made of how the surrounding forces of legislation, regulation, and market activity influence the quality of care provided by health care organizations and then looks at their handling of medical mistakes. Using a detailed case study, the book reviews the current understanding of why these mistakes happen. A key theme is that legitimate liability concerns discourage reporting of errors--which begs the question, "How can we learn from our mistakes?" Balancing regulatory versus market-based initiatives and public versus private efforts, the Institute of Medicine presents wide-ranging recommendations for improving patient safety, in the areas of leadership, improved data collection and analysis, and development of effective systems at the level of direct patient care. To Err Is Human asserts that the problem is not bad people in health care--it is that good people are working in bad systems that need to be made safer. Comprehensive and straightforward, this book offers a clear prescription for raising the level of patient safety in American health care. It also explains how patients themselves can influence the quality of care that they receive once they check into the hospital. This book will be vitally important to federal, state, and local health policy makers and regulators, health professional licensing officials, hospital administrators, medical educators and students, health caregivers, health journalists, patient advocates--as well as patients themselves. First in a series of publications from the Quality of Health Care in America, a project initiated by the Institute of Medicine

Disease and Mortality in Sub Saharan Africa

Disease and Mortality in Sub Saharan Africa
Author: Dean T. Jamison
Publsiher: World Bank Publications
Total Pages: 387
Release: 2006-01-01
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780821363980

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Current data and trends in morbidity and mortality for the sub-Saharan Region as presented in this new edition reflect the heavy toll that HIV/AIDS has had on health indicators, leading to either a stalling or reversal of the gains made, not just for communicable disorders, but for cancers, as well as mental and neurological disorders.

Explaining Divergent Levels of Longevity in High Income Countries

Explaining Divergent Levels of Longevity in High Income Countries
Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Population,Panel on Understanding Divergent Trends in Longevity in High-Income Countries
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 194
Release: 2011-07-27
Genre: Social Science
ISBN: 9780309186407

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During the last 25 years, life expectancy at age 50 in the United States has been rising, but at a slower pace than in many other high-income countries, such as Japan and Australia. This difference is particularly notable given that the United States spends more on health care than any other nation. Concerned about this divergence, the National Institute on Aging asked the National Research Council to examine evidence on its possible causes. According to Explaining Divergent Levels of Longevity in High-Income Countries, the nation's history of heavy smoking is a major reason why lifespans in the United States fall short of those in many other high-income nations. Evidence suggests that current obesity levels play a substantial part as well. The book reports that lack of universal access to health care in the U.S. also has increased mortality and reduced life expectancy, though this is a less significant factor for those over age 65 because of Medicare access. For the main causes of death at older ages -- cancer and cardiovascular disease -- available indicators do not suggest that the U.S. health care system is failing to prevent deaths that would be averted elsewhere. In fact, cancer detection and survival appear to be better in the U.S. than in most other high-income nations, and survival rates following a heart attack also are favorable. Explaining Divergent Levels of Longevity in High-Income Countries identifies many gaps in research. For instance, while lung cancer deaths are a reliable marker of the damage from smoking, no clear-cut marker exists for obesity, physical inactivity, social integration, or other risks considered in this book. Moreover, evaluation of these risk factors is based on observational studies, which -- unlike randomized controlled trials -- are subject to many biases.

Avoiding the First Cause of Death

Avoiding the First Cause of Death
Author: Wulf Droge
Publsiher: iUniverse
Total Pages: 176
Release: 2009-05
Genre: Health & Fitness
ISBN: 9781440139499

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Interventions that delay aging are expected to improve health. In the current US National Institute on Aging's Interventions Testing Program (ITP) the immunosuppressive drug rapamycin was found to increase the maximum life span in mice. These mice started receiving this treatment at an age corresponding to 60 years in humans. Rapamycin targets the same mechanism which was critically involved in the life span extension previously seen in certain mutants of worms flies and mice. The maximum life span was increased in some of these mutants by more than 250 percent, suggesting 1) that the maximum life span is limited by a common mechanism of death, and 2) that humans may possibly gain a few more decades beyond 120 years by interfering in this mechanism. As rapamycin has important adverse effects, this books looks into the underlying mechanisms and describes several natural interventions likely to decrease the rate of aging without using pharmacological drugs.

Disease Control Priorities Third Edition Volume 9

Disease Control Priorities  Third Edition  Volume 9
Author: Dean T. Jamison,Hellen Gelband,Susan Horton,Prabhat Jha,Charles N. Mock,Rachel Nugent
Publsiher: World Bank Publications
Total Pages: 426
Release: 2017-12-06
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9781464805288

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As the culminating volume in the DCP3 series, volume 9 will provide an overview of DCP3 findings and methods, a summary of messages and substantive lessons to be taken from DCP3, and a further discussion of cross-cutting and synthesizing topics across the first eight volumes. The introductory chapters (1-3) in this volume take as their starting point the elements of the Essential Packages presented in the overview chapters of each volume. First, the chapter on intersectoral policy priorities for health includes fiscal and intersectoral policies and assembles a subset of the population policies and applies strict criteria for a low-income setting in order to propose a "highest-priority" essential package. Second, the chapter on packages of care and delivery platforms for universal health coverage (UHC) includes health sector interventions, primarily clinical and public health services, and uses the same approach to propose a highest priority package of interventions and policies that meet similar criteria, provides cost estimates, and describes a pathway to UHC.

How Not to Die

How Not to Die
Author: Michael Greger, M.D., FACLM,Gene Stone
Publsiher: Flatiron Books
Total Pages: 352
Release: 2015-12-08
Genre: Health & Fitness
ISBN: 9781250066121

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From the physician behind the wildly popular NutritionFacts website, How Not to Die reveals the groundbreaking scientific evidence behind the only diet that can prevent and reverse many of the causes of disease-related death. The vast majority of premature deaths can be prevented through simple changes in diet and lifestyle. In How Not to Die, Dr. Michael Greger, the internationally-renowned nutrition expert, physician, and founder of NutritionFacts.org, examines the fifteen top causes of premature death in America-heart disease, various cancers, diabetes, Parkinson's, high blood pressure, and more-and explains how nutritional and lifestyle interventions can sometimes trump prescription pills and other pharmaceutical and surgical approaches, freeing us to live healthier lives. The simple truth is that most doctors are good at treating acute illnesses but bad at preventing chronic disease. The fifteen leading causes of death claim the lives of 1.6 million Americans annually. This doesn't have to be the case. By following Dr. Greger's advice, all of it backed up by strong scientific evidence, you will learn which foods to eat and which lifestyle changes to make to live longer. History of prostate cancer in your family? Put down that glass of milk and add flaxseed to your diet whenever you can. Have high blood pressure? Hibiscus tea can work better than a leading hypertensive drug-and without the side effects. Fighting off liver disease? Drinking coffee can reduce liver inflammation. Battling breast cancer? Consuming soy is associated with prolonged survival. Worried about heart disease (the number 1 killer in the United States)? Switch to a whole-food, plant-based diet, which has been repeatedly shown not just to prevent the disease but often stop it in its tracks. In addition to showing what to eat to help treat the top fifteen causes of death, How Not to Die includes Dr. Greger's Daily Dozen -a checklist of the twelve foods we should consume every day.Full of practical, actionable advice and surprising, cutting edge nutritional science, these doctor's orders are just what we need to live longer, healthier lives.

Measuring the Risks and Causes of Premature Death

Measuring the Risks and Causes of Premature Death
Author: National Research Council,Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Care Services,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Population
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 74
Release: 2015-02-24
Genre: Social Science
ISBN: 9780309367097

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Measuring the Risks and Causes of Premature Death is the summary of two workshops conducted by The Committee on Population of the National Research Council at the National Academies to address the data sources, science and future research needs to understand the causes of premature mortality in the United States. The workshops reviewed previous work in the field in light of new data generated as part of the work of the NRC Panel on Understanding Divergent Trends in Longevity in High-Income Countries (NRC, 2011) and the NRC/IOM Panel on Understanding Cross-National Differences Among High-Income Countries (NRC/IOM, 2013). The workshop presentations considered the state of the science of measuring the determinants of the causes of premature death, assessed the availability and quality of data sources, and charted future courses of action to improve the understanding of the causes of premature death. Presenters shared their approaches to and results of measuring premature mortality and specific risk factors, with a particular focus on those factors most amenable to improvement through public health policy. This report summarizes the presentations and discussion of both workshops.

Medical examiners and coroners handbook on death registration and fetal death reporting

Medical examiners  and coroners  handbook on death registration and fetal death reporting
Author: National Center for Health Statistics (U.S.),National Center for Health Statistics (U.S.).
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 130
Release: 2003
Genre: Death
ISBN: UOM:39015060777813

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Medical Certification of Cause of Death

Medical Certification of Cause of Death
Author: World Health Organization
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 27
Release: 1979
Genre: Death
ISBN: UOM:39015020576305

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