Computers and Games for Mental Health and Well Being

Computers and Games for Mental Health and Well Being
Author: Yasser Khazaal,Jérôme Favrod,Anna Sort,François Borgeat,Stéphane Bouchard
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2018-07-12
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: 9782889454969

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Advances in Virtual Agents and Affective Computing for the Understanding and Remediation of Social Cognitive Disorders

Advances in Virtual Agents and Affective Computing for the Understanding and Remediation of Social Cognitive Disorders
Author: Eric Brunet-Gouet,Ali Oker,Jean-Claude Martin,Ouriel Grynszpan,Philip L. Jackson
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2016-03-02
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: 9782889197873

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Advances in modern sciences occur thanks to within-fields discoveries as well as confrontation of concepts and methods from separated, sometimes distant, domains of knowledge. For instance, the fields of psychology and psychopathology benefited from accumulated contributions from cognitive neurosciences, which, in turn, received insights from molecular chemistry, cellular biology, physics (neuroimaging), statistics and computer sciences (data processing), etc. From the results of these researches, one can argue that among the numerous cognitive phenomena supposedly involved in the emergence the human intelligence and organized behavior, some of them are specific to the social nature of our phylogenetic order. Scientific reductionism allowed to divide the social cognitive system into several components, i.e. emotion processing and regulation, mental state inference (theory of mind), agency, etc. New paradigms were progressively designed to investigate these processes within highly-controlled laboratory settings. Moreover, the related constructs were successful at better understanding psychopathological conditions such as autism and schizophrenia, with partial relationships with illness outcomes. Here, we would like to outline the parallel development of concepts in social neurosciences and in other domains such as computer science, affective computing, virtual reality development, and even hardware technologies. While several researchers in neurosciences pointed out the necessity to consider naturalistic social cognition (Zaki and Ochsner, Ann N Y Acad Sci 1167, 16-30, 2009), the second person perspective (Schilbach et al., Behav Brain Sci 36(4), 393-414, 2013) and reciprocity (de Bruin et al., Front Hum Neurosci 6, 151, 2012), both computer and software developments allowed more and more realistic real-time models of our environment and of virtual humans capable of some interaction with users. As noted at the very beginning of this editorial, a new convergence between scientific disciplines might occur from which it is tricky to predict the outcomes in terms of new concepts, methods and uses. Although this convergence is motivated by the intuition that it fits well ongoing societal changes (increasing social demands on computer technologies, augmenting funding), it comes with several difficulties for which the current Frontiers in’ topic strives to bring some positive answers, and to provide both theoretical arguments and experimental examples. The first issue is about concepts and vocabulary as the contributions described in the following are authored by neuroscientists, computer scientists, psychopathologists, etc. A special attention was given during the reviewing process to stay as close as possible to the publication standards in psychological and health sciences, and to avoid purely technical descriptions. The second problem concerns methods: more complex computerized interaction models results in unpredictable and poorly controlled experiments. In other words, the assets of naturalistic paradigms may be alleviated by the difficulty to match results between subjects, populations, conditions. Of course, this practical question is extremely important for investigating pathologies that are associated with profoundly divergent behavioral patterns. Some of the contributions of this topic provide description of strategies that allowed to solve these difficulties, at least partially. The last issue is about heterogeneity of the objectives of the researches presented here. While selection criteria focused on the use of innovative technologies to assess or improve social cognition, the fields of application of this approach were quite unexpected. In an attempt to organize the contributions, three directions of research can be identified: 1) how innovation in methods might improve understanding and assessment of social cognition disorders or pathology? 2) within the framework of cognitive behavioral psychotherapies (CBT), how should we consider the use of virtual reality or augmented reality? 3) which are the benefits of these techniques for investigating severe mental disorders (schizophrenia or autism) and performing cognitive training? The first challenging question is insightfully raised in the contribution of Timmermans and Schilbach (2014) giving orientations for investigating alterations of social interaction in psychiatric disorders by the use of dual interactive eye tracking with virtual anthropomorphic avatars. Joyal, Jacob and collaborators (2014) bring concurrent and construct validities of a newly developed set of virtual faces expressing six fundamental emotions. The relevance of virtual reality was exemplified with two contributions focusing on anxiety related phenomena. Jackson et al. (2015) describe a new environment allowing to investigate empathy for dynamic FACS-coded facial expressions including pain. Based on a systematic investigation of the impact of social stimuli modalities (visual, auditory), Ruch and collaborators are able to characterize the specificity of the interpretation of laughter in people with gelotophobia (2014). On the issue of social anxiety, Aymerich-Franch et al. (2014) presented two studies in which public speaking anxiety has been correlated with avatars’ similarity of participants’ self-representations. The second issue focuses on how advances in virtual reality may benefit to cognitive and behavioral therapies in psychiatry. These interventions share a common framework that articulates thoughts, feelings or emotions and behaviors and proposes gradual modification of each of these levels thanks to thought and schema analysis, stress reduction procedures, etc. They were observed to be somehow useful for the treatment of depression, stress disorders, phobias, and are gaining some authority in personality disorders and addictions. The main asset of new technologies is the possibility to control the characteristics of symptom-eliciting stimuli/situations, and more precisely the degree to which immersion is enforced. For example, Baus and Bouchard (2014) provide a review on the extension of virtual reality exposure-based therapy toward recently described augmented reality exposure-based therapy in individuals with phobias. Concerning substance dependence disorders, Hone-Blanchet et collaborators (2014) present another review on how virtual reality can be an asset for both therapy and craving assessment stressing out the possibilities to simulate social interactions associated with drug seeking behaviors and even peers’ pressure to consume. The last issue this Frontiers’ topic deals with encompasses the questions raised by social cognitive training or remediation in severe and chronic mental disorders (autistic disorders, schizophrenia). Here, therapies are based on drill and practice or strategy shaping procedures, and, most of the time, share an errorless learning of repeated cognitive challenges. Computerized methods were early proposed for that they do, effortlessly and with limited costs, repetitive stimulations. While, repetition was incompatible with realism in the social cognitive domain, recent advances provide both immersion and full control over stimuli. Georgescu and al. (2014) exhaustively reviews the use of virtual characters to assess and train non-verbal communication in high-functioning autism (HFA). Grynszpan and Nadel (2015) present an original eye-tracking method to reveal the link between gaze patterns and pragmatic abilities again in HFA. About schizophrenia, Oker and collaborators (2015) discuss and report some insights on how an affective and reactive virtual agents might be useful to assess and remediate several defects of social cognitive disorders. About assessment within virtual avatars on schizophrenia, Park et al., (2014) focused on effect of perceived intimacy on social decision making with schizophrenia patients. Regarding schizophrenia remediation, Peyroux and Franck (2014) presented a new method named RC2S which is a cognitive remediation program to improve social cognition in schizophrenia and related disorders. To conclude briefly, while it is largely acknowledged that social interaction can be studied as a topic of its own, all the contributions demonstrate the added value of expressive virtual agents and affective computing techniques for the experimentation. It also appears that the use of virtual reality is at the very beginning of a new scientific endeavor in cognitive sciences and medicine.

Les antipsychotiques Les m dicaments psychotropes

Les antipsychotiques    Les m  dicaments psychotropes
Author: THOMAS Pierre
Publsiher: Lavoisier
Total Pages: 288
Release: 2013-12-16
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: 9782257705419

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Le développement des antipsychotiques a marqué une nouvelle ère thérapeutique après la découverte du premier neuroleptique dans les années 1950. Leur principale indication demeure les symptômes psychotiques, même s’ils offrent également de nouvelles perspectives de traitement pour certains troubles de la personnalité ou du comportement. Cependant, l’image négative qu’ont longtemps eue les neuroleptiques n’est pas totalement effacée, et cet ouvrage a pour but d’apporter toutes les informations nécessaires aux prescripteurs pour rationaliser leur choix thérapeutique et favoriser le meilleur usage possible des antipsychotiques : - les bases fondamentales : pharmacologie, pharmacogénétique, effets métaboliques et cognitifs ; - les aspects cliniques : épisodes aigus de schizophrénie, troubles bipolaires, troubles affectifs non bipolaires, TOC et affections neurologiques, tolérance des antipsychotiques et molécules à action prolongée ; - les spécificités liées aux populations : enfants et adolescents, période périnatale, personnes âgées, situations d’urgence ; - le bon usage et l’éducation thérapeutique du patient. Réunissant une quarantaine de spécialistes reconnus, riche d’une cinquantaine de tableaux et schémas explicatifs et d’un index détaillé, cet ouvrage est la référence indispensable pour tous les praticiens devant prescrire des antipsychotiques.

Social Cognition in Schizophrenia

Social Cognition in Schizophrenia
Author: David L. Roberts,David L. Penn
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 436
Release: 2013-01-17
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780199777587

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Social Cognition in Schizophrenia: From Evidence to Treatment provides a firm grounding in the theory and research of normal social cognition, builds on this base to describe how social cognition appears to be dysfunctional in schizophrenia, and explains how this dysfunction might be ameliorated.

Schizophr nies d butantes

Schizophr  nies d  butantes
Author: Fédération française de psychiatrie
Publsiher: John Libbey Eurotext
Total Pages: 498
Release: 2003
Genre: Schizophrenia
ISBN: 2742004483

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Fait le point sur la schizophrénie, enjeu majeur de santé publique compte tenu du caractère chronique de ces affections, des souffrances qu'elles engendrent pour les individus atteints et leur famille et de la nécessité de développer des thérapeutiques spécifiques et des programmes de soins adaptés.

PASCAL

PASCAL
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 1992
Genre: Psychiatry
ISBN: IND:30000089664472

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Social Representations in the Social Arena

Social Representations in the  Social Arena
Author: Annamaria Silvana de Rosa
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 416
Release: 2012-10-02
Genre: Psychology
ISBN: 9781136238666

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Social Representations in the 'Social Arena' presents key theoretical issues and extensive empirical research using different theoretical and methodological approaches to consider the value of social representation theory when social representations are examined in real world contexts. This comprehensive text brings together international experts to explore the relevance of a variety of applications of social representation theory in both institutional and organizational settings, and discusses how social representation theory compares with other constructs of social psychology. Areas covered include: justice leadership health and mental illness intergroup relations identity politics environment and tourism economics. This book will appeal to a range of academic researchers and practitioners from a variety of fields who are concerned with the application of social representation theory to various contexts as a heuristic tool for addressing and understanding relevant societal issues faced with 'social demand'.

Social Cognition in Schizophrenia

Social Cognition in Schizophrenia
Author: David L. Roberts,David L. Penn
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 360
Release: 2012-11-21
Genre: Psychology
ISBN: 9780199777631

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Individuals with schizophrenia and related disorders experience significant functioning deficits in the community. The study of social cognition in schizophrenia has grown rapidly over the past decade, and a consensus has developed among researchers that dysfunction in social cognition may contribute to the severe interpersonal problems that are a hallmark of schizophrenia. This has generated hope that treatments which improve social cognition in this illness may enhance an individual's ability to live a socially engaged and rewarding life. Social Cognition in Schizophrenia: From Evidence to Treatment provides a firm grounding in the theory and research of normal social cognition, builds on this base to describe how social cognition appears to be dysfunctional in schizophrenia, and explains how this dysfunction might be ameliorated. Composed of contributed chapters written by the top experts in the field, the volume is divided into three parts to address each of these areas. Part I, Foundations of Human Social Cognition, explores normal social cognition in childhood development, adulthood, and across cultures, as well the brain-bases of social cognition and clinical social cognition research. Part II, Social Cognition in Schizophrenia: Descriptive and Experimental Research, discusses social cognition and functional outcome, emotion processing, Theory of Mind, paranoid ideation, social cognition in early psychosis, and the social cognitive neuroscience of schizophrenia. Part III, Social Cognition in Schizophrenia: Treatment Approaches, focuses on findings from current treatment outcome research as well as several leading social cognitive intervention approaches-Integrated Neurocognitive Therapy (INT), Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET), Metacognitive Training (MCT), and Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT). This comprehensive, accessible volume will be invaluable to researchers studying social cognition and psychosocial treatment development in schizophrenia, clinicians working with this patient population, students in social and clinical psychology, nursing, social work and occupational therapy, and medical students.