Cognitive Sophistication and the Development of Judgment and Decision Making

Cognitive Sophistication and the Development of Judgment and Decision Making
Author: Maggie E. Toplak
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 298
Release: 2021-11-15
Genre: Psychology
ISBN: 9780128166369

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Cognitive Sophistication and the Development of Judgment and Decision-Making reviews the existing literature on the development of reasoning, judgment and decision-making, with a primary focus on measures from the heuristics and biases tradition. The book presents a model based on cognitive sophistication to examine the development of judgment and decision-making, including age related differences in developmental samples, associations with intellectual abilities and executive functions, and associations with dispositional tendencies that support judgment and decision-making. Additional sections cover the empirical findings of a longitudinal study conducted over seven years that tie together the discussed aspects related to cognitive sophistication. This book will provide a much-needed description of the theoretical and conceptual issues, a review of empirical findings, and an integrative summary of the implications for developmental models of reasoning, judgment and decision-making. Explores whether individual heuristics and biases are associated Reviews individual differences in cognitive abilities and thinking dispositions Examines reasoning from the lens of cognitive sophistication Discusses the implications for models, including dual process models Tests and elaborates using empirical findings from a longitudinal study

Cognitive Sophistication and the Development of Judgment and Decision Making

Cognitive Sophistication and the Development of Judgment and Decision Making
Author: Maggie E. Toplak
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 298
Release: 2021-11-05
Genre: Psychology
ISBN: 9780128166451

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Cognitive Sophistication and the Development of Judgment and Decision-Making reviews the existing literature on the development of reasoning, judgment and decision-making, with a primary focus on measures from the heuristics and biases tradition. The book presents a model based on cognitive sophistication to examine the development of judgment and decision-making, including age related differences in developmental samples, associations with intellectual abilities and executive functions, and associations with dispositional tendencies that support judgment and decision-making. Additional sections cover the empirical findings of a longitudinal study conducted over seven years that tie together the discussed aspects related to cognitive sophistication. This book will provide a much-needed description of the theoretical and conceptual issues, a review of empirical findings, and an integrative summary of the implications for developmental models of reasoning, judgment and decision-making. Explores whether individual heuristics and biases are associated Reviews individual differences in cognitive abilities and thinking dispositions Examines reasoning from the lens of cognitive sophistication Discusses the implications for models, including dual process models Tests and elaborates using empirical findings from a longitudinal study

The Development of Judgment and Decision Making in Children and Adolescents

The Development of Judgment and Decision Making in Children and Adolescents
Author: Janis E. Jacobs,Paul A. Klaczynski
Publsiher: Psychology Press
Total Pages: 384
Release: 2006-04-21
Genre: Psychology
ISBN: 9781135633516

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In recent years, newspaper articles, television specials, and other media events have focused on the numerous hard decisions faced by today's youth, often pointing to teen pregnancy, drug use, and delinquency as evidence of faulty judgment. Over the past 10 years, many groups - including parents, educators, policymakers, and researchers - have become concerned about the decision-making abilities of children and adolescents, asking why they make risky choices, how they can be taught to be better decision makers, and what types of age-related changes occur in decision making. This book serves as a starting point for those interested in considering new ways of thinking about the development of these issues. The purpose is to bring together the voices of several authors who are conducting cutting-edge research and developing new theoretical perspectives related to the development of judgment and decision making. The Development of Judgment and Decision Making in Children and Adolescents is divided into three parts: Part I presents three distinctive developmental models that offer different explanations of "what develops" and the relative importance of different cognitive components and experiential components that may be important for developing judgment and decision making skills. Part II emphasizes the emotional, cultural, and social aspects of decision making--three topics that have been influential in the adult literature on judgment and decision making but are just beginning to be explored in the developmental area. Part III provides three examples of research that applies developmental and decision making models to practical research questions. This book is intended for the professional market or for graduate courses on decision making or cognitive or social development.

Neuroeconomics Judgment and Decision Making

Neuroeconomics  Judgment  and Decision Making
Author: Evan A. Wilhelms,Valerie F. Reyna
Publsiher: Psychology Press
Total Pages: 310
Release: 2014-07-11
Genre: Psychology
ISBN: 9781317652731

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This volume explores how and why people make judgments and decisions that have economic consequences, and what the implications are for human well-being. It provides an integrated review of the latest research from many different disciplines, including social, cognitive, and developmental psychology; neuroscience and neurobiology; and economics and business. The book has six areas of focus: historical foundations; cognitive consistency and inconsistency; heuristics and biases; neuroeconomics and neurobiology; developmental and individual differences; and improving decisions. Throughout, the contributors draw out implications from traditional behavioral research as well as evidence from neuroscience. In recent years, neuroscientific methods have matured, beyond being simply correlational and descriptive, into theoretical prediction and explanation, and this has opened up many new areas of discovery about economic behavior that are reviewed in the book. In the final part, there are applications of the research to cognitive development, individual differences, and the improving of decisions. The book takes a broad perspective and is written in an accessible way so as to reach a wide audience of advanced students and researchers interested in behavioral economics and related areas. This includes neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, clinicians, psychologists (developmental, social, and cognitive), economists and other social scientists; legal scholars and criminologists; professionals in public health and medicine; educators; evidence-based practitioners; and policy-makers.

Individual Differences in Judgement and Decision Making

Individual Differences in Judgement and Decision Making
Author: Maggie E. Toplak,Joshua Weller
Publsiher: Psychology Press
Total Pages: 229
Release: 2016-11-25
Genre: Psychology
ISBN: 9781317265313

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Children face an overwhelming amount of information and a range of different choices every day, and so there has never been a more important time to understand how children learn to make judgments and decisions in our modern world. Individual Differences in Judgment and Decision-Making presents cutting-edge developmental research to advance our knowledge and understanding of how these competencies emerge. Focusing on the role of individual differences, the text provides a complementary theoretical approach to understanding the development of judgment and decision-making skills, and how and why these competencies vary within and between different periods of development. Sampling a diverse set of developmental paradigms and measures, as well as considering typical and atypically developing samples, this volume provokes thinking about how we can support our children and youth to help them make better choices. Drawing on the expertise of a range of international contributors, this book will be of interest to students and researchers of thinking and reasoning from both cognitive and developmental psychology backgrounds.

The Developmental Psychology of Reasoning and Decision Making

The Developmental Psychology of Reasoning and Decision Making
Author: Henry Markovits
Publsiher: Psychology Press
Total Pages: 200
Release: 2013-11-26
Genre: Psychology
ISBN: 9781317931065

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Logical thinking is a critically important cognitive skill. It is not just essential for mathematical and scientific understanding, it is also of prime importance when trying to navigate our complex and increasingly sophisticated world. Written by world class researchers in the field, The Developmental Psychology of Reasoning and Decision-Making describes the ways that children learn to reason, and how reasoning can be used to overcome the influence of beliefs and intuitions. The chapters in this edited collection focus on the new, revolutionary paradigm in reasoning and cover the recent research on the development of reasoning in two important areas: Cognitive abilities required to reason well and how these abilities develop in children and adolescents. Recent empirical data showing the effect intuition and prior belief have on reasoning, even when the outcome is inappropriate. Different theoretical and empirical perspectives from recent Piagetian theory, mental models and gist processing are examined, along with empirical results looking at specific aspects of reasoning in children. The key theme of the book is to better understand how reasoning develops not only through examining ‘logical’ reasoning, but also the nature of the interactions between people’s intuitions and their reasoning abilities. The Developmental Psychology of Reasoning and Decision-Making provides an overview of the main theories and key empirical results related to the development of reasoning and should be of particular interest to students and researchers in developmental psychology and education, along with those in cognitive psychology.

The Life Changing Science of Detecting Bullshit

The Life Changing Science of Detecting Bullshit
Author: John V. Petrocelli
Publsiher: St. Martin's Press
Total Pages: 320
Release: 2021-07-27
Genre: Psychology
ISBN: 9781250271631

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Expanding upon his viral TEDx Talk, psychology professor and social scientist John V. Petrocelli reveals the critical thinking habits you can develop to recognize and combat pervasive false information that harms society in The Life-Changing Science of Detecting Bullshit. Bullshit is the foundation of contaminated thinking and bad decisions leading to health consequences, financial losses, legal consequences, broken relationships, and wasted time and resources. No matter how smart we believe ourselves to be, we’re all susceptible to bullshit—and we all engage in it. While we may brush it off as harmless marketing sales speak or as humorous, embellished claims, it’s actually much more dangerous and insidious. It’s how Bernie Madoff successfully swindled billions of dollars from even the most experienced financial experts with his Ponzi scheme. It’s how the protocols of Mao Zedong’s Great Leap Forward resulted in the deaths of 36 million people from starvation. Presented as truths by authority figures and credentialed experts, bullshit appears legitimate, and we accept their words as gospel. If we don’t question the information we receive from bullshit artists to prove their thoughts and theories, we allow these falsehoods to take root in our memories and beliefs. This faulty data affects our decision making capabilities, sometimes resulting in regrettable life choices. But with a little dose of skepticism and a commitment to truth seeking, you can build your critical thinking and scientific reasoning skills to evaluate information, separate fact from fiction, and see through bullshitter spin. In The Life-Changing Science of Detecting Bullshit, experimental social psychologist John V. Petrocelli provides invaluable strategies not only to recognize and protect yourself from everyday bullshit, but to accept your own lack of knowledge about subjects and avoid in engaging in bullshit just for societal conformity. With real world examples from people versed in bullshit who work in the used car, real estate, wine, and diamond industries, Petrocelli exposes the red-flag warning signs found in the anecdotal stories, emotional language, and buzzwords used by bullshitters that persuade our decisions. By using his critical thinking defensive tactics against those motivated by profit, we will also learn how to stop the toxic misinformation spread from the social media influencers, fake news, and op-eds that permeate our culture and call out bullshit whenever we see it.

Young Children s Civic Mindedness

Young Children   s Civic Mindedness
Author: Jennifer Hauver
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 162
Release: 2019-01-21
Genre: Education
ISBN: 9781351803571

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Young Children’s Civic Mindedness provides a well-grounded understanding of children’s civic thought and action by inviting readers to look and listen carefully to the voices of young children themselves. Grounded in research on children’s evolving civic identities and drawn from extended case studies and rich narrative vignettes, this book shows the many ways even the youngest children can be civic-minded and political. The book engages readers in thinking about the many ways children reason about and approach civic problems; how children’s experience in various local and larger contexts shapes their thinking and action; and the environmental factors that delimit what children see as possible in civic spaces. Written for early childhood, elementary and civic educators, this book encourages readers to go beyond mere rhetoric on the importance of civic education, to develop improved ways of teaching for children’s civic development.

The Emerging Role of Intelligence in the World of the Future

The Emerging Role of Intelligence in the World of the Future
Author: Robert J. Sternberg
Publsiher: MDPI
Total Pages: 126
Release: 2018-10-23
Genre: Social Science
ISBN: 9783038972624

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(This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "If Intelligence Is Truly Important to Real-World Adaptation, and IQs Have Risen 30+ Points in the Past Century (Flynn Effect), then Why Are There So Many Unresolved and Dramatic Problems in the World, and What Can Be Done About It?'' that was published in J. Intell.)

Human Factors Interventions for the Health Care of Older Adults

Human Factors Interventions for the Health Care of Older Adults
Author: Wendy A. Rogers,Arthur D. Fisk
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 312
Release: 2001-08-01
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781410603944

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Written by experts in the field, this book explores the relevance and contributions of the field of human factors to health care. It begins with overviews of the field of human factors and the primary research methodologies of that field and goes on to review the cognitive issues that must be considered in the context of the health care environment and the potential for exercises to improve such cognitive functions. The remaining chapters cover a range of cutting-edge topics including: care giving, telecommunication issues, design of medical devices, computer monitoring of patients, automated communication systems, computer interface issues in general, and the use of the Web as a source for health information.

Handbook of Cognitive Archaeology

Handbook of Cognitive Archaeology
Author: Tracy B. Henley,Matt J. Rossano,Edward P. Kardas
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 546
Release: 2019-08-05
Genre: Psychology
ISBN: 9780429950025

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The remains that archaeologists uncover reveal ancient minds at work as much as ancient hands, and for decades many have sought a better way of understanding those minds. This understanding is at the forefront of cognitive archaeology, a discipline that believes that a greater application of psychological theory to archaeology will further our understanding of the evolution of the human mind. Bringing together a diverse range of experts including archaeologists, psychologists, anthropologists, biologists, psychiatrists, neuroscientists, historians, and philosophers, in one comprehensive volume, this accessible and illuminating book is an important resource for students and researchers exploring how the application of cognitive archaeology can significantly and meaningfully deepen their knowledge of early and ancient humans. This seminal volume opens the field of cognitive archaeology to scholars across the behavioral sciences.

The Simple Art of Voting

The Simple Art of Voting
Author: Delia Baldassarri
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 260
Release: 2013
Genre: Political Science
ISBN: 9780199828241

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In The Simple Art of Voting, Delia Baldassarri provides a new understanding of how voting works by focusing on how choices are made rather than on what their outcomes are. Drawing on recent advances in cognitive psychology, political cognition, and behavioral economics, Baldassarri distinguishes voters based on the cognitive shortcuts, or heuristics, they use to reduce the complexity of political choice. In doing so, she reveals which factors-parties, leaders, ideology, the media-are most important to different types of voters.

Judgment and Decision Making Under Uncertainty Descriptive Normative and Prescriptive Perspectives

Judgment and Decision Making Under Uncertainty  Descriptive  Normative  and Prescriptive Perspectives
Author: David R. Mandel,Gorka Navarrete,Nathan Dieckmann,Jonathan D. Nelson
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 224
Release: 2019-09-26
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: 9782889630349

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National Security Through a Cockeyed Lens

National Security Through a Cockeyed Lens
Author: Steve A. Yetiv
Publsiher: JHU Press
Total Pages: 155
Release: 2013-12
Genre: POLITICAL SCIENCE
ISBN: 9781421411255

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"What are key mental errors that can undermine good decision making? Drawing on four decades of psychological, historical, and political science research on cognitive biases, this book illuminates key pitfalls in how we and our leaders make decisions. Itshows in five case studies of American foreign and energy policy that such errors--a dozen different cognitive biases--have been more important in shaping and impacting U.S. national interests than we currently understand. In so doing, it also sheds light on U.S. foreign policy toward and interests in the Middle East. That story prominently features non-psychological explanations, but cognitive biases exercised by American and foreign actors also represent a slice of the story that is worth revealing. Asexamples, the book shows how the distorted cognitive lens of Al-Qaeda leaders contributed to the September 11 attacks and the ongoing conflict with America and the West; how overconfidence impacted America's decision to invade Iraq in 2003; and how shortterm thinking--a prominent cognitive bias--hurts America's ability to develop a comprehensive energy policy, making the Middle East more important to the United States and enhancing its proclivity to be involved in the region. The book is aimed chiefly at students and the lay public, though academics may benefit from it"--

Handbook of Research on Adult Learning and Development

Handbook of Research on Adult Learning and Development
Author: M Cecil Smith,Nancy DeFrates-Densch, Assistant Editor
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 832
Release: 2008-11-19
Genre: Education
ISBN: 9781135597399

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The time is right for this comprehensive, state-of-the-art Handbook that analyzes, integrates, and summarizes theoretical advances and research findings on adult development and learning - a rapidly growing field reflecting demographic shifts toward an aging population in Western societies. Featuring contributions from prominent scholars across diverse disciplinary fields (education, developmental psychology, public policy, gerontology, neurology, public health, sociology, family studies, and adult education), the volume is organized around six themes: theoretical perspectives on adult development and learning research methods in adult development research on adult development research on adult learning aging and gerontological research policy perspectives on aging. The Handbook is an essential reference for researchers, faculty, graduate students and practitioners whose work pertains to adult and lifespan development and learning.