Conceptual Breakthroughs in Evolutionary Genetics

Conceptual Breakthroughs in Evolutionary Genetics
Author: John C. Avise
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 184
Release: 2014-01-18
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780124202375

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Conceptual Breakthroughs in Evolutionary Genetics is a pithy, lively book occupying a special niche—the conceptual history of evolutionary genetics— not inhabited by any other available treatment. Written by a world-leading authority in evolutionary genetics, this work encapsulates and ranks 70 of the most significant paradigm shifts in evolutionary biology and genetics during the century-and-a-half since Darwin and Mendel. The science of evolutionary genetics is central to all of biology, but many students and other practitioners have little knowledge of its historical roots and conceptual developments. This book fills that knowledge gap in a thought-provoking and readable format. This fascinating chronological journey along the many conceptual pathways to our modern understanding of evolutionary and genetic principles is a wonderful springboard for discussions in undergraduate or graduate seminars in evolutionary biology and genetics. But more than that, anyone interested in the history and philosophy of science will find much of value between its covers. Provides a relative ranking of 70 seminal breakthroughs and paradigm shifts in the field of evolutionary biology and genetics Modular format permits ready access to each described subject Historical overview of a field whose concepts are central to all of biology and relevant to a broad audience of biologists, science historians, and philosophers of science Extensively cross-referenced with a guide to landmark papers and books for each topic

Conceptual Breakthroughs in Evolutionary Ecology

Conceptual Breakthroughs in Evolutionary Ecology
Author: Laurence Mueller
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 204
Release: 2019-11-25
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780128160145

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Although biologists recognize evolutionary ecology by name, many only have a limited understanding of its conceptual roots and historical development. Conceptual Breakthroughs in Evolutionary Ecology fills that knowledge gap in a thought-provoking and readable format. Written by a world-renowned evolutionary ecologist, this book embodies a unique blend of expertise in combining theory and experiment, population genetics and ecology. Following an easily-accessible structure, this book encapsulates and chronologizes the history behind evolutionary ecology. It also focuses on the integration of age-structure and density-dependent selection into an understanding of life-history evolution. Covers over 60 seminal breakthroughs and paradigm shifts in the field of evolutionary biology and ecology Modular format permits ready access to each described subject Historical overview of a field whose concepts are central to all of biology and relevant to a broad audience of biologists, science historians, and philosophers of science

Conceptual Breakthroughs in Ethology and Animal Behavior

Conceptual Breakthroughs in Ethology and Animal Behavior
Author: Michael D. Breed
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 286
Release: 2017-01-25
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780128095454

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Conceptual Breakthroughs in Ethology and Animal Behavior highlights, through concise summaries, the most important discoveries and scientific revolutions in animal behavior. These are assessed for their relative impact on the field and their significance to the forward motion of the science of animal behavior. Eighty short essays capture the moment when a new concept emerged or a publication signaled a paradigm shift. How the new understanding came about is explained, and any continuing controversy or scientific conversation on the issue is highlighted. Behavior is a rich and varied field, drawing on genetics, evolution, physiology, and ecology to inform its principles, and this book embraces the wealth of knowledge that comes from the unification of these fields around the study of animals in motion. The chronological organization of the essays makes this an excellent overview of the history of animal behavior, ethology, and behavioral ecology. The work includes such topics as Darwin’s role in shaping the study of animal behavior, the logic of animal contests, cognition, empathy in animals, and animal personalities. Succinct accounts of new revelations about behavior through scientific investigation and scrutiny reveal the fascinating story of this field. Similar to Dr. John Avise’s Contemporary Breakthroughs in Evolutionary Genetics, the work is structured into vignettes that describe the conceptual revolution and assess the impact of the conceptual change, with a score, which ranges from 1-10, providing an assessment of the impact of the new findings on contemporary science. Features a lively, brisk writing style and brief entries to enable easy, enjoyable access to this essential information Includes topics that cover the range of behavioral biology from mechanism to behavioral ecology Can also be used as supplemental material for an undergraduate animal behavior course, or as the foundational text for an upper level or graduate discussion course in advanced animal behavior

Conceptual Breakthroughs

Conceptual Breakthroughs
Author: Adam Martiny,Jennifer Hughes Martiny,John C. Avise
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 216
Release: 2022-03-15
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 0323855067

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Conceptual Breakthroughs in Microbial Ecology and Evolution continues the innovative Conceptual Breakthroughs series by providing a comprehensive outline of the combination of the major breakthroughs for this young and emerging scientific field. The chapters cover important theoretical, technical, and natural history discoveries that have led to conceptual breakthroughs. The book offers a concise and accessible analysis of microbiology viewed through an ecological and evolutionary lens. By highlighting and interpreting key publications over the past 50 years, the book provides an important resource for students and researchers as they navigate this fast-moving research area. The authors draw upon literature from diverse ecosystems (such as oceans, soil and humans) and fields of study (microbiology, ecology, evolutionary biology, medical microbiology, molecular biology). The book offers a framework for readers to place contemporary studies into a historical context Reviews the history of the field and highlights intellectual challenges, debates, and breakthroughs Demonstrates how technical advances in microbial and molecular tools have led to conceptual breakthroughs Provides a time-line of key natural history discoveries that have influenced the field's direction

The West without Water

The West without Water
Author: B. Lynn Ingram,Frances Malamud-Roam
Publsiher: Univ of California Press
Total Pages: 280
Release: 2013-08-01
Genre: Nature
ISBN: 9780520954809

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The West without Water documents the tumultuous climate of the American West over twenty millennia, with tales of past droughts and deluges and predictions about the impacts of future climate change on water resources. Looking at the region’s current water crisis from the perspective of its climate history, the authors ask the central question of what is "normal" climate for the West, and whether the relatively benign climate of the past century will continue into the future. The West without Water merges climate and paleoclimate research from a wide variety of sources as it introduces readers to key discoveries in cracking the secrets of the region’s climatic past. It demonstrates that extended droughts and catastrophic floods have plagued the West with regularity over the past two millennia and recounts the most disastrous flood in the history of California and the West, which occurred in 1861–62. The authors show that, while the West may have temporarily buffered itself from such harsh climatic swings by creating artificial environments and human landscapes, our modern civilization may be ill-prepared for the future climate changes that are predicted to beset the region. They warn that it is time to face the realities of the past and prepare for a future in which fresh water may be less reliable.

Globalization Biosecurity and the Future of the Life Sciences

Globalization  Biosecurity  and the Future of the Life Sciences
Author: National Research Council,Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Policy and Global Affairs,Development, Security, and Cooperation,Committee on Advances in Technology and the Prevention of Their Application to Next Generation Biowarfare Threats
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 316
Release: 2006-06-07
Genre: Science
ISBN: 0309164753

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Biomedical advances have made it possible to identify and manipulate features of living organisms in useful ways--leading to improvements in public health, agriculture, and other areas. The globalization of scientific and technical expertise also means that many scientists and other individuals around the world are generating breakthroughs in the life sciences and related technologies. The risks posed by bioterrorism and the proliferation of biological weapons capabilities have increased concern about how the rapid advances in genetic engineering and biotechnology could enable the production of biological weapons with unique and unpredictable characteristics. Globalization, Biosecurity, and the Future of Life Sciences examines current trends and future objectives of research in public health, life sciences, and biomedical science that contain applications relevant to developments in biological weapons 5 to 10 years into the future and ways to anticipate, identify, and mitigate these dangers.

Introduction to Evolutionary Computing

Introduction to Evolutionary Computing
Author: Agoston E. Eiben,J.E. Smith
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 300
Release: 2013-03-14
Genre: Computers
ISBN: 9783662050941

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The first complete overview of evolutionary computing, the collective name for a range of problem-solving techniques based on principles of biological evolution, such as natural selection and genetic inheritance. The text is aimed directly at lecturers and graduate and undergraduate students. It is also meant for those who wish to apply evolutionary computing to a particular problem or within a given application area. The book contains quick-reference information on the current state-of-the-art in a wide range of related topics, so it is of interest not just to evolutionary computing specialists but to researchers working in other fields.

Eco evolutionary Dynamics

Eco evolutionary Dynamics
Author: Andrew P. Hendry
Publsiher: Princeton University Press
Total Pages: 416
Release: 2020-06-09
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780691204178

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In recent years, scientists have realized that evolution can occur on timescales much shorter than the 'long lapse of ages' emphasized by Darwin - in fact, evolutionary change is occurring all around us all the time. This work provides an authoritative and accessible introduction to eco-evolutionary dynamics, a cutting-edge new field that seeks to unify evolution and ecology into a common conceptual framework focusing on rapid and dynamic environmental and evolutionary change.

Ecological Genomics

Ecological Genomics
Author: Christian R. Landry,Nadia Aubin-Horth
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 359
Release: 2013-11-25
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9789400773479

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Researchers in the field of ecological genomics aim to determine how a genome or a population of genomes interacts with its environment across ecological and evolutionary timescales. Ecological genomics is trans-disciplinary by nature. Ecologists have turned to genomics to be able to elucidate the mechanistic bases of the biodiversity their research tries to understand. Genomicists have turned to ecology in order to better explain the functional cellular and molecular variation they observed in their model organisms. We provide an advanced-level book that covers this recent research and proposes future development for this field. A synthesis of the field of ecological genomics emerges from this volume. Ecological Genomics covers a wide array of organisms (microbes, plants and animals) in order to be able to identify central concepts that motivate and derive from recent investigations in different branches of the tree of life. Ecological Genomics covers 3 fields of research that have most benefited from the recent technological and conceptual developments in the field of ecological genomics: the study of life-history evolution and its impact of genome architectures; the study of the genomic bases of phenotypic plasticity and the study of the genomic bases of adaptation and speciation.

Comparative and Evolutionary Genomics of Angiosperm Trees

Comparative and Evolutionary Genomics of Angiosperm Trees
Author: Andrew Groover,Quentin Cronk
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 366
Release: 2017-11-21
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9783319493299

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Marking the change in focus of tree genomics from single species to comparative approaches, this book covers biological, genomic, and evolutionary aspects of angiosperm trees that provide information and perspectives to support researchers broadening the focus of their research. The diversity of angiosperm trees in morphology, anatomy, physiology and biochemistry has been described and cataloged by various scientific disciplines, but the molecular, genetic, and evolutionary mechanisms underlying this diversity have only recently been explored. Excitingly, advances in genomic and sequencing technologies are ushering a new era of research broadly termed comparative genomics, which simultaneously exploits and describes the evolutionary origins and genetic regulation of traits of interest. Within tree genomics, this research is already underway, as the number of complete genome sequences available for angiosperm trees is increasing at an impressive pace and the number of species for which RNAseq data are available is rapidly expanding. Because they are extensively covered by other literature and are rapidly changing, technical and computational approaches—such as the latest sequencing technologies—are not a main focus of this book. Instead, this comprehensive volume provides a valuable, broader view of tree genomics whose relevance will outlive the particulars of current-day technical approaches. The first section of the book discusses background on the evolution and diversification of angiosperm trees, as well as offers description of the salient features and diversity of the unique physiology and wood anatomy of angiosperm trees. The second section explores the two most advanced model angiosperm tree species (poplars and eucalypts) as well as species that are soon to emerge as new models. The third section describes the structural features and evolutionary histories of angiosperm tree genomes, followed by a fourth section focusing on the genomics of traits of biological, ecological, and economic interest. In summary, this book is a timely and well-referenced foundational resource for the forest tree community looking to embrace comparative approaches for the study of angiosperm trees.

Teaching About Evolution and the Nature of Science

Teaching About Evolution and the Nature of Science
Author: National Academy of Sciences,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Science Education,Working Group on Teaching Evolution
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 150
Release: 1998-05-06
Genre: Education
ISBN: 9780309063647

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Today many school students are shielded from one of the most important concepts in modern science: evolution. In engaging and conversational style, Teaching About Evolution and the Nature of Science provides a well-structured framework for understanding and teaching evolution. Written for teachers, parents, and community officials as well as scientists and educators, this book describes how evolution reveals both the great diversity and similarity among the Earth's organisms; it explores how scientists approach the question of evolution; and it illustrates the nature of science as a way of knowing about the natural world. In addition, the book provides answers to frequently asked questions to help readers understand many of the issues and misconceptions about evolution. The book includes sample activities for teaching about evolution and the nature of science. For example, the book includes activities that investigate fossil footprints and population growth that teachers of science can use to introduce principles of evolution. Background information, materials, and step-by-step presentations are provided for each activity. In addition, this volume: Presents the evidence for evolution, including how evolution can be observed today. Explains the nature of science through a variety of examples. Describes how science differs from other human endeavors and why evolution is one of the best avenues for helping students understand this distinction. Answers frequently asked questions about evolution. Teaching About Evolution and the Nature of Science builds on the 1996 National Science Education Standards released by the National Research Council--and offers detailed guidance on how to evaluate and choose instructional materials that support the standards. Comprehensive and practical, this book brings one of today's educational challenges into focus in a balanced and reasoned discussion. It will be of special interest to teachers of science, school administrators, and interested members of the community.

The Double Helix

The Double Helix
Author: James D. Watson
Publsiher: Simon and Schuster
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2011-08-16
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780743219174

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The classic personal account of Watson and Crick’s groundbreaking discovery of the structure of DNA, now with an introduction by Sylvia Nasar, author of A Beautiful Mind. By identifying the structure of DNA, the molecule of life, Francis Crick and James Watson revolutionized biochemistry and won themselves a Nobel Prize. At the time, Watson was only twenty-four, a young scientist hungry to make his mark. His uncompromisingly honest account of the heady days of their thrilling sprint against other world-class researchers to solve one of science’s greatest mysteries gives a dazzlingly clear picture of a world of brilliant scientists with great gifts, very human ambitions, and bitter rivalries. With humility unspoiled by false modesty, Watson relates his and Crick’s desperate efforts to beat Linus Pauling to the Holy Grail of life sciences, the identification of the basic building block of life. Never has a scientist been so truthful in capturing in words the flavor of his work.

The Logic of Chance

The Logic of Chance
Author: Eugene V. Koonin
Publsiher: FT Press
Total Pages: 528
Release: 2011-06-23
Genre: Science
ISBN: 013262317X

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The Logic of Chance offers a reappraisal and a new synthesis of theories, concepts, and hypotheses on the key aspects of the evolution of life on earth in light of comparative genomics and systems biology. The author presents many specific examples from systems and comparative genomic analysis to begin to build a new, much more detailed, complex, and realistic picture of evolution. The book examines a broad range of topics in evolutionary biology including the inadequacy of natural selection and adaptation as the only or even the main mode of evolution; the key role of horizontal gene transfer in evolution and the consequent overhaul of the Tree of Life concept; the central, underappreciated evolutionary importance of viruses; the origin of eukaryotes as a result of endosymbiosis; the concomitant origin of cells and viruses on the primordial earth; universal dependences between genomic and molecular-phenomic variables; and the evolving landscape of constraints that shape the evolution of genomes and molecular phenomes. "Koonin's account of viral and pre-eukaryotic evolution is undoubtedly up-to-date. His "mega views" of evolution (given what was said above) and his cosmological musings, on the other hand, are interesting reading." Summing Up: Recommended Reprinted with permission from CHOICE, copyright by the American Library Association.

Conceptual Change in Biology

Conceptual Change in Biology
Author: Alan C. Love
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 490
Release: 2014-11-07
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9789401794121

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This volume explores questions about conceptual change from both scientific and philosophical viewpoints by analyzing the recent history of evolutionary developmental biology. It features revised papers that originated from the workshop "Conceptual Change in Biological Science: Evolutionary Developmental Biology, 1981-2011" held at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science in Berlin in July 2010. The Preface has been written by Ron Amundson. In these papers, philosophers and biologists compare and contrast key concepts in evolutionary developmental biology and their development since the original, seminal Dahlem conference on evolution and development held in Berlin in 1981. Many of the original scientific participants from the 1981 conference are also contributors to this new volume and, in conjunction with other expert biologists and philosophers specializing on these topics, provide an authoritative, comprehensive view on the subject. Taken together, the papers supply novel perspectives on how and why the conceptual landscape has shifted and stabilized in particular ways, yielding insights into the dynamic epistemic changes that have occurred over the past three decades. This volume will appeal to philosophers of biology studying conceptual change, evolutionary developmental biologists focused on comprehending the genesis of their field and evaluating its future directions, and historians of biology examining this period when the intersection of ev olution and development rose again to prominence in biological science.

The Structure of Evolutionary Theory

The Structure of Evolutionary Theory
Author: Stephen Jay Gould
Publsiher: Harvard University Press
Total Pages: 1464
Release: 2002-03-21
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780674417922

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The world’s most revered and eloquent interpreter of evolutionary ideas offers here a work of explanatory force unprecedented in our time—a landmark publication, both for its historical sweep and for its scientific vision. With characteristic attention to detail, Stephen Jay Gould first describes the content and discusses the history and origins of the three core commitments of classical Darwinism: that natural selection works on organisms, not genes or species; that it is almost exclusively the mechanism of adaptive evolutionary change; and that these changes are incremental, not drastic. Next, he examines the three critiques that currently challenge this classic Darwinian edifice: that selection operates on multiple levels, from the gene to the group; that evolution proceeds by a variety of mechanisms, not just natural selection; and that causes operating at broader scales, including catastrophes, have figured prominently in the course of evolution. Then, in a stunning tour de force that will likely stimulate discussion and debate for decades, Gould proposes his own system for integrating these classical commitments and contemporary critiques into a new structure of evolutionary thought. In 2001 the Library of Congress named Stephen Jay Gould one of America’s eighty-three Living Legends—people who embody the “quintessentially American ideal of individual creativity, conviction, dedication, and exuberance.” Each of these qualities finds full expression in this peerless work, the likes of which the scientific world has not seen—and may not see again—for well over a century.