Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Based Thin Film Solar Cells

Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Based Thin Film Solar Cells
Author: Kentaro Ito
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 440
Release: 2015-02-23
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9781118437872

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Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground–mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth–abundant, low–cost and non–toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and toxicity issues. The device performance of CZTS–based thin film solar cells has been steadily improving over the past 20 years, and they have now reached near commercial efficiency levels (10%). These achievements prove that CZTS–based solar cells have the potential to be used for large–scale deployment of photovoltaics. With contributions from leading researchers from academia and industry, many of these authors have contributed to the improvement of its efficiency, and have rich experience in preparing a variety of semiconducting thin films for solar cells.

Fabrication of CuInGaSe2 Thin Film Solar Cells Using Low cost Air stable Inks

Fabrication of CuInGaSe2 Thin Film Solar Cells Using Low cost Air stable Inks
Author: Wei Wang
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 107
Release: 2012
Genre: Chalcopyrite
ISBN: OCLC:808642880

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CuInGaSe2 (CIGS), a promising thin film solar cell material, has gained lots of attention in decades due to its high energy conversion efficiency and potential lower manufacture cost over conventional Si solar cells. As a cheaper processing method compared to vacuum-based techniques, solution-based deposition has been successfully applied to fabricate electronic devices, such as transistors and solar cells. In my research, CIGS thin film solar cells with energy conversion efficiencies up to 8.01% were successfully fabricated using newly developed air-stable, low-cost inks. The inks consist of commercially available, low-cost compounds and solvents and can be processed using a variety of printing and coating techniques. More importantly, it can synthesize CIGS films free of contamination from copper selenides and amorphous carbon which are common issues for most of solution-based techniques. Besides, high-quality micrometer-sized CIGS films were obtained by using our enhanced selenization approach. Various characterization techniques were employed to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize the semiconductor materials and devices fabricated by this process. The mechanism for the transformation from metal salt precursor films to CIGS absorber thin films and the influence of ink composition and selenium vapour pressure on absorber film quality and photovoltaic device performance were investigated and discussed.

Cu In1 xGax Se2 Based Thin Film Solar Cells

Cu In1 xGax Se2 Based Thin Film Solar Cells
Author: Subba Ramaiah Kodigala
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 700
Release: 2011-01-03
Genre: Science
ISBN: 0080920322

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Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 Based Thin Film Solar Cells provides valuable contents about the fabrication and characterization of chalcopyrite Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 based thin film solar cells and modules. The growth of chalcopyrite Cu(In1-xGax)(S1-ySey)2 absorbers, buffers, window layers, antireflection coatings, and finally metallic grids, which are the sole components of solar cells, is clearly illustrated. The absorber, which contains multiple elements, segregates secondary phases if the growth conditions are not well optimized i.e., the main drawback in the fabrication of solar cells. More importantly the solutions for the growth of thin films are given in detail. The properties of all the individual layers and single crystals including solar cells analyzed by different characterization techniques such as SEM, AFM, XPS, AES, TEM, XRD, optical, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy are explicitly demonstrated. The electrical analyses such as conductivities, Hall mobilities, deep level transient spectroscopy measurements etc., provide a broad picture to understand thin films or single crystals and their solar cells. The book clearly explains the working principle of energy conversion from solar to electrical with basic sciences for the chalcopyrite based thin film solar cells. Also, it demonstrates important criteria on how to enhance efficiency of the solar cells and modules. The effect of environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, aging etc., on the devices is mentioned by citing several examples. Illustrates a number of growth techniques to prepare thin film layers for solar cells Discusses characterization techniques such as XRD, TEM, XPS, AFM, SEM, PL, CL, Optical measurements, and Electrical measurements Includes I-V, C-V measurements illustrations Provides analysis of solar cell efficiency Presents current trends in thin film solar cells research and marketing

Thin Film Solar Cells

Thin Film Solar Cells
Author: Yoshihiro Hamakawa
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 244
Release: 2003-10-23
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 3540439455

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The first comprehensive book on thin-film solar cells, potentially a key technology for solving the energy production problem in the 21st century in an environmentally friendly way. It covers a wide range of scientific and technological aspects of thin film semiconductors - deposition technologies, growth mechanisms and the basic properties of amorphous and nano-crystalline silicon - as well as the optimum design theory and device physics of high-efficiency solar cells, especially of single-junction and multi-junction solar cells. The development of large-area solar cell modules using single and multi-junction solar cells is also considered. Examples of recent photovoltaic systems are presented and analysed.

Key Developments In CuInGaSe2 Thin Film Solar Cell

Key Developments In CuInGaSe2 Thin Film Solar Cell
Author: Daniele Menossi,Alessio Bosio,Nicola Romeo
Publsiher: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
Total Pages: 212
Release: 2014-05-23
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: 3659334499

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Nowadays, thin-film solar cells potentially offer a suitable technology for solving the energy production problem with an environmentally friendly method. Besides, thin film technologies show advantages over their bulk-semiconductor counterparts due to their lighter weight, flexible shape and device fabrication schemes and low cost in large-scale industrial production. Although many books currently exist on general concepts of PV materials and devices, few are offering a comprehensive overview of the fast development in thin film Cu(In, Ga)Se2-based solar cells. "Key Developments in CuInGaSe2 Thin Film Solar Cell" would provide an international perspective on the latest research on this topic. It presents a wide range of scientific and technological aspects on basic properties and device physics of high-efficiency CIGS solar cells from the last research frontier point of view. The book was designed for photovoltaic researchers and scientists, students and engineers, with the mission to provide knowledge of the mechanisms, materials, devices, and applications of CIGS-based technology necessary to develop cheaper and cleaner renewable energy in the coming years.

Chalcogenide Photovoltaics

Chalcogenide Photovoltaics
Author: Roland Scheer,Hans-Werner Schock
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 384
Release: 2011-03-31
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 3527633723

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This first comprehensive description of the most important material properties and device aspects closes the gap between general books on solar cells and journal articles on chalcogenide-based photovoltaics. Written by two very renowned authors with years of practical experience in the field, the book covers II-VI and I-III-VI2 materials as well as energy conversion at heterojunctions. It also discusses the latest semiconductor heterojunction models and presents modern analysis concepts. Thin film technology is explained with an emphasis on current and future techniques for mass production, and the book closes with a compendium of failure analysis in photovoltaic thin film modules. With its overview of the semiconductor physics and technology needed, this practical book is ideal for students, researchers, and manufacturers, as well as for the growing number of engineers and researchers working in companies and institutes on chalcogenide photovoltaics.

Advanced Characterization Techniques for Thin Film Solar Cells

Advanced Characterization Techniques for Thin Film Solar Cells
Author: Daniel Abou-Ras,Thomas Kirchartz,Uwe Rau
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 760
Release: 2016-07-13
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9783527699018

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The book focuses on advanced characterization methods for thin-film solar cells that have proven their relevance both for academic and corporate photovoltaic research and development. After an introduction to thin-film photovoltaics, highly experienced experts report on device and materials characterization methods such as electroluminescence analysis, capacitance spectroscopy, and various microscopy methods. In the final part of the book simulation techniques are presented which are used for ab-initio calculations of relevant semiconductors and for device simulations in 1D, 2D and 3D. Building on a proven concept, this new edition also covers thermography, transient optoelectronic methods, and absorption and photocurrent spectroscopy.

Photoenergy and Thin Film Materials

Photoenergy and Thin Film Materials
Author: Xiao-Yu Yang
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 500
Release: 2019-03-19
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9781119580478

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This book provides a fundamental discussion, latest research & developments, and the future of thin films and photoenergy materials, two developing areas that have the potential to spearhead the future of industry. Photoenergy materials are expected to be a next generation key material to provide secure, safe, sustainable and affordable energy. Photoenergy devices are known to convert the sunlight into electricity. This type of devices is very much simple in design with having a major advantage with their structure as stand-alone systems to provide outputs up to megawatts. They have been applied as a power source, solar home systems, remote buildings, water pumping, megawatt scale power plants, satellites, communications, and space vehicles. With such a list of enormous applications, the demand for photoenergy devices is growing every year. On the other hand, thin films coating, which can be defined as fusion of surface science, materials science, and applied physics, are progressing as a unified discipline of scientific industry. A thin film can be termed as a very fine or thin layer of material coated on a particular surface, that can be in the range of a nanometer in thickness to several micrometers in size. Thin films are being applied it a number of fields ranging from protection purposes to electronic semiconductor devices.

Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells

Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells
Author: Frederik C. Krebs
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 360
Release: 2012-04-23
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9781119952510

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Organic photovoltaics (OPV) are a new generation of solar cells with the potential to offer very short energy pay back times, mechanical flexibility and significantly lower production costs compared to traditional crystalline photovoltaic systems. A weakness of OPV is their comparative instability during operation and this is a critical area of research towards the successful development and commercialization of these 3rd generation solar cells. Covering both small molecule and polymer solar cells, Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells summarizes the state of the art understanding of stability and provides a detailed analysis of the mechanisms by which degradation occurs. Following an introductory chapter which compares different photovoltaic technologies, the book focuses on OPV degradation, discussing the origin and characterization of the instability and describing measures for extending the duration of operation. Topics covered include: Chemical and physical probes for studying degradation Imaging techniques Photochemical stability of OPV materials Degradation mechanisms Testing methods Barrier technology and applications Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells is an essential reference source for researchers in academia and industry, engineers and manufacturers working on OPV design, development and implementation.

Emerging Solar Energy Materials

Emerging Solar Energy Materials
Author: Sadia Ameen,M. Shaheer Akhtar,Hyung-Shik Shin
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 246
Release: 2018-08-01
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781789235821

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This book provides the fundamental understanding of the functioning of solar cellsand the materials for the effective utilization of energy resources. The main objective of writing this book is to create a comprehensive and easy-to-understand source of information on the advances in the rapidly growing research on solar cells. Emerging Solar Energy Materials comprises 12 chapters written by the experts in the solar cell field and is organized with the intention to provide a big picture of the latest progress in the solar cell field and at the same time give an in-depth discussion on fundamentals of solar cells for interested audiences. In this book, each part opens with a new author's essay highlighting their work for contribution toward solar energy. Critical, cutting-edge subjects are addressed, including: Photovoltaic device technology and energy applications; Functional solar energy materials; New concept in solar energy; Perovskite solar cells; Dye-sensitized solar cells; Organic solar cells; Thin-film solar cells. The book is written for a large and broad readership including researchers and university graduate students from diverse backgrounds such as chemistry, physics, materials science, and photovoltaic device technology. The book includes enough information on the basics to be used as a textbook undergraduate coursework in engineering and the sciences.

Factories of the Future

Factories of the Future
Author: Tullio Tolio,Giacomo Copani,Walter Terkaj
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 494
Release: 2019-02-14
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9783319943589

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This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license.This book presents results relevant in the manufacturing research field, that are mainly aimed at closing the gap between the academic investigation and the industrial application, in collaboration with manufacturing companies. Several hardware and software prototypes represent the key outcome of the scientific contributions that can be grouped into five main areas, representing different perspectives of the factory domain:1) Evolutionary and reconfigurable factories to cope with dynamic production contexts characterized by evolving demand and technologies, products and processes.2) Factories for sustainable production, asking for energy efficiency, low environmental impact products and processes, new de-production logics, sustainable logistics.3) Factories for the People who need new kinds of interactions between production processes, machines, and human beings to offer a more comfortable and stimulating working environment.4) Factories for customized products that will be more and more tailored to the final user’s needs and sold at cost-effective prices.5) High performance factories to yield the due production while minimizing the inefficiencies caused by failures, management problems, maintenance.This books is primarily targeted to academic researchers and industrial practitioners in the manufacturing domain.

Electronic Characterisation of Earth Abundant Sulphides for Solar Photovoltaics

Electronic Characterisation of Earth   Abundant Sulphides for Solar Photovoltaics
Author: Thomas James Whittles
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 362
Release: 2018-07-31
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9783319916651

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This book examines the electronic structure of earth-abundant and environmentally friendly materials for use as absorber layers within photovoltaic cells. The corroboration between high-quality photoemission measurements and density of states calculations yields valuable insights into why these materials have demonstrated poor device efficiencies in the vast literature cited. The book shows how the materials’ underlying electronic structures affect their properties, and how the band positions make them unsuitable for use with established solar cell technologies. After explaining these poor efficiencies, the book offers alternative window layer materials to improve the use of these absorbers. The power of photoemission and interpretation of the data in terms of factors generally overlooked in the literature, such as the materials’ oxidation and phase impurity, is demonstrated. Representing a unique reference guide, the book will be of considerable interest and value to members of the photoemission community engaged in solar cell research, and to a wider materials science audience as well.

Practical Handbook of Photovoltaics

Practical Handbook of Photovoltaics
Author: Augustin Joseph McEvoy,T. Markvart,Luis Castañer
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 1244
Release: 2012
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780123859341

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As part of the growing sustainable and renewable energy movement, the design, manufacture and use of photovoltaic devices is increasing in pace and frequency. The Handbook of Photovoltaics will be a 'benchmark' publication for those involved in the design, manufacture and use of these devices. The Handbook covers the principles of solar cell function, the raw materials, photovoltaic systems, standards, calibration, testing, economics and case studies. The editors have assembled a cast of internationally-respected contributors from industry and academia. The report is essential reading for: Physicists, electronic engineers, designers of systems, installers, architects, policy-makers relating to photovoltaics. A thorough update to the 'benchmark' publication from a cast of industrial and academic international experts ensures top quality information from multiple stakeholder perspectives Covers all things PV- from principles of solar cells and their raw materials, to the installation and design of full PV systems, including standards, testing, economics and environmental impacts Case studies, practical examples and reports on the latest advances take the new edition of this amazing resource beyond a vast collection of knowledge, into the realm of real world applications

Solar Cells

Solar Cells
Author: Ahmed Mourtada Elseman
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 488
Release: 2021-09-22
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781838810160

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Solar cell energy is the single most pressing issue facing humanity, with a more technologically advanced society requiring better energy resources. This book discusses technologies broadly, depending on how they capture and distribute solar energy or convert it into solar power. The major areas covered in this book are: • The theory of solar cells, which explains the conversion of light energy in photons into electric current. The theoretical studies are practical because they predict the fundamental limits of a solar cell. • The design and development of thin-film technology-based solar cells. • State of the art for bulk material applied for solar cells based on crystalline silicon (c-Si), also known as “solar grade silicon,” and emerging photovoltaics.

Solar Cells

Solar Cells
Author: Leonid A. Kosyachenko
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 470
Release: 2011-11-02
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9789533075709

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The first book of this four-volume edition is dedicated to one of the most promising areas of photovoltaics, which has already reached a large-scale production of the second-generation thin-film solar modules and has resulted in building the powerful solar plants in several countries around the world. Thin-film technologies using direct-gap semiconductors such as CIGS and CdTe offer the lowest manufacturing costs and are becoming more prevalent in the industry allowing to improve manufacturability of the production at significantly larger scales than for wafer or ribbon Si modules. It is only a matter of time before thin films like CIGS and CdTe will replace wafer-based silicon solar cells as the dominant photovoltaic technology. Photoelectric efficiency of thin-film solar modules is still far from the theoretical limit. The scientific and technological problems of increasing this key parameter of the solar cell are discussed in several chapters of this volume.