Developing Costimulatory Molecules for Immunotherapy of Diseases

Developing Costimulatory Molecules for Immunotherapy of Diseases
Author: Manzoor Ahmad Mir
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 322
Release: 2015-05-25
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780128026755

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Developing Costimulatory Molecules for Immunotherapy of Diseases highlights the novel concept of reverse costimulation and how it can be effectively exploited to develop immunotherapy using either humanized antibodies against CD80, CD86, and other costimulatory molecules or CD28 fusinogenic proteins in the treatment of diseases, including allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, lupus nephritis, severe psoriasis, vulgaris tuberculosis, thopoid, transplantation therapeutic, cancer, and inflammation. The text aims to provide the latest information on the complex roles and interactions within the CD28 and B7 costimulatory families, with the hope that targeting these families will yield new therapies for the treatment of inflammation, autoimmunity, transplantation, cancer, and other infectious diseases. Highlights the novel concept of reverse costimulation and how it can be effectively exploited to develop immunotherapy Provides the latest information on the complex roles and interactions within the CD28 and B7 costimulatory families Targets new therapies for the treatment of inflammation, autoimmunity, transplantation, cancer, and other infectious diseases

Costimulation Immunotherapy for Autoimmunity Transplantation and Lymphomas

Costimulation Immunotherapy for Autoimmunity  Transplantation and Lymphomas
Author: Manzoor Ahmad Mir,Raid S. Al Baradie,Abdul Rahman Obaid Alharbi
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 215
Release: 2013
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 1629482137

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Cancer is one of the most prominent causes of mortality in children and adults causing about 9 million deaths annually, is a major health problem worldwide. The transformation of normal cells to cancer cells may arise due to dysregulation of oncogenes, tumor suppressors and/or stability genes. These transformed cells are sensed by the cells of the immune system, especially T cells, through specific receptors for an effective immune response. But unfortunately even after the interaction with T cells, an effective immune response is not generated. Considering the importance of costimulation in the regulation of immune responses against relapsed cancer, the manipulation of this pathway to increase immunity, regress the growth, augment the expression of pro-apoptotic molecules and induce the apoptosis of lymphomas represents a potential therapeutic approach. This novel strategy of costimuilation activation/inhibition can be effectively exploited to develop immunotherapy either using humanized antibodies against CD80, CD86 and CD40 or CD28 fusogenic proteins for the treatment of intracellular pathogens like M. tuberculosis, HIV, L. donovani, T. cruzi, etc. This strategy can also be used as an alternative strategy or in combination with the drugs. Since this approach is based on modulating the immune system of the hosts rather than targeting the pathogen; hence it significantly diminishes chance of emergence of drug resistant strains of pathogens and if applied properly, may overcome the rising menace of infectious diseases. The potent role of costimulatory molecules is aptly established in the optimum activation of T cells and APCs; the cells that play a cardinal role in curbing the infections. Hence, immunotherapy involving costimulatory molecules can be a breakthrough strategy to treat various diseases, minimizing side effects inflicted by drug therapies and in restricting the emergence of drug resistance.

Human Pathogenic Microbes

Human Pathogenic Microbes
Author: Manzoor Ahmad Mir
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 290
Release: 2022-03-16
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780323954266

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Considering the global emerging human pathogenic microbial diseases and trends, Human Pathogenic Microbes is framed to provide deep insights into the epidemic and emerging bacterial and fungal infections and diseases in humans. It presents novel, up-to-date, and cutting-edge knowledge regarding various human pathogenic microbes, their associated drug resistance mechanisms, and different diseases caused by them. Human Pathogenic Microbes reflects the current research and development on the evolution of bacterial and fungal drug resistance: different bacterial and fungal antimicrobial drug resistance mechanisms along with their biological and molecular aspects. In a nutshell, Human Pathogenic Microbes describes a various bacterial and fungal diseases caused by different human pathogenic microbes employing different drug resistance mechanisms and processes. It also highlights the novel emerging approaches (Immunological and combinatorial) that will aid to fight against such bacterial and fungal pathogens. Provides a brief but thorough and recent knowledge of various human pathogenic microbes, their associated drug resistance mechanisms, and different diseases caused by them Describes the different aspects of fungal, bacterial and antimicrobial resistance Addresses novel antimicrobial agents and approaches

Reverse Costimulation in the Treatment of Infectious Diseases

Reverse Costimulation in the Treatment of Infectious Diseases
Author: Manzoor Ahmad Mir
Publsiher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2014-01-26
Genre: Health & Fitness
ISBN: 1628085193

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Cancer is one of the most prominent causes of mortality in children and adults causing about 9 million deaths annually, is a major health problem world-wide. The transformation of normal cells to cancer cells may arise due to dysregulation of oncogenes, tumour suppressers and/or stability genes. These transformed cells are sensed by the cells of the immune system, especially T cells, through specific receptors for an effective immune response. But unfortunately even after the interaction with T cells, an effective immune response is not generated. Considering the importance of costimulation in the regulation of immune responses against relapsed cancer, the manipulation of this pathway to increase immunity, regress the growth, augment the expression of pro-apoptotic molecules and induce the apoptosis of lymphomas represents a potential therapeutic approach. This novel strategy of costimuilation activation/inhibition can be effectively exploited to develop immunotherapy either using humanised antibodies against CD80, CD86 and CD40 or CD28 fusogenic proteins for the treatment of intracellular pathogens like M. tuberculosis, HIV, L donovani, T cruzi, etc. This strategy can also be used as an alternative strategy or in combination with the drugs. Since this approach is based on modulating the immune system of the hosts rather than targeting the pathogen; hence it significantly diminishes chance of emergence of drug resistant strains of pathogens and if applied properly, may overcome the rising menace of infectious diseases. The potent role of costimulatory molecules is aptly established in the optimum activation of T cells and APCs; the cells that play a cardinal role in curbing the infections. Hence, immunotherapy involving costimulatory molecules can be a breakthrough strategy to treat various diseases, minimising side effects inflicted by drug therapies and in restricting the emergence of drug resistance.

Immunogenetics A Molecular and Clinical Overview

Immunogenetics  A Molecular and Clinical Overview
Author: Muneeb U. Rehman,Azher Arafah,Md. Niamat Ali,Shafat Ali
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 410
Release: 2021-11-30
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780323903356

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A Molecular Approach to Immunogenetics, Immunogenetics: A Molecular and Clinical Overview, Volume One provides readers with an exclusive, updated overview on the scientific knowledge, achievements and findings in the field of immunogenetics. The book presents readily available, updated information on the molecular and clinical aspects of immunogenetics, from origin and development to clinical applications and future prospects. The breadth of information goes from basics to developments, clinical applications and future prospects. The book's most attractive attribute is its academic and clinical amalgamation that covers both the theoretical and practical aspects of immunogenetics. An additional feature of the book is a special chapter on viral genetics that covers COVID-19. Above all, the book contains chapters that discuss immunogenetics in relation to pharmaco-genomics and immune-toxicology. Contains exclusive information about research on immunogenetics from around the globe Includes minute and recent details that will be the prerequisite requirement for any researcher who wants to work on immunogenetics and its applications Comes fully-equipped with pictures, illustrations and tables that deliver information in a meticulous manner

Nanoformulation Strategies for Cancer Treatment

Nanoformulation Strategies for Cancer Treatment
Author: Sarwar Beg,Mahfoozur Rahman,Hani Choudhry,Eliana B. Souto,Farhan J. Ahmad
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 402
Release: 2020-11-20
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780128210963

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Nanoformulation Strategies for Cancer Treatment provides an up-to-date review on current developments and regulatory and clinical challenges in the field of nanopharmaceuticals and the effective treatment of diverse varieties of cancer. This important reference source is ideal for biomaterials scientists and pharmaceutical scientists working in the area of cancer diagnosis and therapy. Due to the high cost of traditional cancer treatment types, researchers have increasingly looked for new ways to augment the therapeutic performance of existing drug candidates. The use of nanotechnology-based approaches have gained significant momentum, thus leading to the launch of a series of new drug products. As nanopharmaceuticals improve the therapeutic performance of cancer therapy drugs, but also provide opportunities for site-specific drug targeting in tumors, this work is a welcomed resource on the topics discussed. Highlights the application of nanoformulations, including liposomes, nanoparticles and nanobiomaterials for targeted drug delivery to cancer cells Explores recent advances made using novel nanoformulations containing herbal drugs and biotechnology based therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment Assesses the regulatory hurdles that are necessary for the successful clinical translation of nanomedicines from the laboratory into the market

Biomarkers in Leishmaniasis

Biomarkers in Leishmaniasis
Author: Javier Moreno,Eugenia Carrillo
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2020-01-15
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: 9782889633395

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T Cell Costimulation in Anti tumor Immunity and Autoimmunity

T Cell Costimulation in Anti tumor Immunity and Autoimmunity
Author: Kenneth F. May
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2004
Genre: Autoimmunity
ISBN: OCLC:60543168

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Abstract: Costimulatory molecules, including 4-1BB, CTLA-4, and B7, play a critical role in the activation, sustenance, and regulation of T cell immune responses. Manipulation of these pathways holds promise for the development of therapies for cancer and autoimmunity. Anti-4-1BB monoclonal antibody (mAb) has been demonstrated to boost anti-tumor immunity in animal models. Using a model of tumor-specific CD8 T cell adoptive immunotherapy, we demonstrate that anti-4-1BB mAb can mediate the rejection of large established tumors in the absence of CD4 T cell help. Anti-4-1BB mAb increases populations of tumor-specific CD8 T cells in peripheral blood by reduction of activation-induced cell death, but not increased T cell proliferation. The use of anti-CTLA-4 mAb has also been shown to enhance anti-tumor immunity. Here we employ two novel "humanized" mouse models to screen anti-human CTLA-4 mAb for translation to human cancer therapy. Using the hu-PBL-SCID model of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoproliferative disease, we show that anti-human CTLA-4 mAb promotes the in vivo expansion of human CD8 and CD4 T cells, and the generation of antigen specific CD8 T cell responses to EBV lymphoma. This correlates with reduced levels of the oncogenic EBV protein LMP-1, and increased survival in these mice. We also characterize the creation of a knock-in mouse model in which mouse T cells express the human CTLA-4 molecule. Preliminary testing in this mouse model supports the use of this model to screen anti-human CTLA-4 mAb for clinical use. Understanding the role of B7/CD28/CTLA-4 interaction in immune activation and tolerance in autoimmune disease is fundamental to successful intervention targeted at costimulatory molecules. We describe the spontaneous development of whole-body alopecia, lymphadenopathy, and skin disease in mice lacking B7 molecules. This disease is mediated by autoimmune CD4 T cells, which induce multi-organ inflammation when transferred to mice expressing B7 molecules. This disease may result from impaired development of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) in B7-deficient mice. Since provision of Treg can abrogate the multi-organ inflammation despite lack of B7 molecules on the auto-pathogenic T cells, interaction between CTLA-4 on Treg and B7-1/2 on effector T cells is not essential for Treg function.