Diet Immunity and Inflammation

Diet  Immunity and Inflammation
Author: Philip C Calder,Parveen Yaqoob
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 760
Release: 2013-09-30
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780857095749

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Although inflammation is one of the body’s first responses to infection, overactive immune responses can cause chronic inflammatory diseases. Long-term low-grade inflammation has also been identified as a risk factor for other diseases. Diet, immunity and inflammation provides a comprehensive introduction to immunity and inflammation and the role that diet and nutrition play with regard to this key bodily response. Part one, an introductory section, discusses innate and adaptive immunity, mucosal immunity in a healthy gut and chronic inflammatory diseases and low grade inflammation. Chapters in part two highlight the role of micronutrients, including zinc, selenium, iron, vitamin A and vitamin D, in inflammation and immunity. Part three explores other dietary constituents and includes chapters on intestinal bacteria and probiotics, the impacts of prebiotics on the immune system and inflammation, and antimicrobial, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of food bioactive proteins and peptides. Further chapters explore the role of olive oil, short and long chain fatty acids and arginine and glutamine in immune functions. Nutrition, immunity and inflammation are discussed from an integrative and life course perspective in part four. Chapters focus on adverse immune reactions to foods, early nutritional programming, the impact of nutrition on the immune system during ageing, the impact of exercise on immunity and the interaction with nutrition, and the effect that malnutrition has on immunity and susceptibility to infection. With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Diet, immunity and inflammation is a comprehensive resource for those researching immunology or inflammation, nutrition scientists, and professionals in the food and nutrition industries who require an understanding of the effect that diet can have on the immune system and inflammation. Provides an overview of key research in the important and connected areas of inflammation, infection, overactive immune responses, diseases and diet Outlines the fundamentals of immunity and inflammation and reviews the effects of different food constituents Discusses important related issues, such as ageing and exercise

Diet and Immune Function

Diet and Immune Function
Author: Elizabeth A Miles,Philip Calder,Caroline E Childs
Publsiher: MDPI
Total Pages: 314
Release: 2020-05-22
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9783039216123

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Supporting initiation, development and resolution of appropriate immune responses is key to survival. Many nutrients and dietary components have been purported to have a role in supporting optimal immune function. This is vital throughout the life course, from the development and programming of the immune system in early life, to supporting immunity and reducing chronic inflammation in older people. In this special issue of Nutrients, we examine the evidence for the role of diet and dietary components in promoting protective immunity.

Nutrition and Immunity

Nutrition and Immunity
Author: Maryam Mahmoudi,Nima Rezaei
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 515
Release: 2019-07-30
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9783030160739

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This volume provides readers with a systematic assessment of current literature on the link between nutrition and immunity. Chapters cover immunonutrition topics such as child development, cancer, aging, allergic asthma, food intolerance, obesity, and chronic critical illness. It also presents a thorough review of microflora of the gut and the essential role it plays in regulating the balance between immune tolerance and inflammation. Written by experts in the field, Nutrition and Immunity helps readers to further understand the importance of healthy dietary patterns in relation to providing immunity against disorders and offering readily available immunonutritional programming in clinical care. It will be a valuable resource for dietitians, immunologists, endocrinologists and other healthcare professionals.

Diet immunity and inflammation

Diet  immunity and inflammation
Author: F. Guarner
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 760
Release: 2013-09-30
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780128087039

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The human gut is the natural habitat for a diverse and dynamic microbial ecosystem having an important impact on health and disease. Unabsorbed portions of food are a major nutritional source for these microbial communities. Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients that are selectively fermented in the gut resulting in specific changes in the composition or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota, thus conferring benefits upon host health. Inulin-type fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides are the most extensively studied prebiotics. They are fermented in the colon to short-chain fatty acids, and selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria. These changes have an impact on the mucosal and systemic immune system and are correlated with a series of health benefits reviewed in this chapter.

Diet immunity and inflammation

Diet  immunity and inflammation
Author: A.C. Ross,K.H. Restori
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 760
Release: 2013-09-30
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780128087008

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Vitamin A is required in the diet of all vertebrates, and is metabolized intracellularly to retinoic acid (RA), which is well known as a regulator of cell proliferation and differentiation. RA activates nuclear retinoid receptors and regulates a wide variety of genes. This chapter first discusses vitamin A nutrition and metabolism, and then how inflammation affects the metabolism of vitamin A compounds. Clinically, RA and several analogs are used in the treatment of skin disorders. Vitamin A deficiency is a risk factor for infectious disease. This chapter discusses the role of vitamin A in the immune system, especially in the regulation of T cell differentiation and in innate immunity.

Diet immunity and inflammation

Diet  immunity and inflammation
Author: N.xC. Harvey,M.T. Cantorna
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 760
Release: 2013-09-30
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780128087015

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This chapter discusses the role of vitamin D in the regulation of the immune system. The epidemiology, biology and physiology of vitamin D in humans is described, followed by a detailed exposition of the actions of 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D on immune cells. The chapter concludes that vitamin D appears to be important in immune function, but that at this time there is insufficient evidence on which to base clinical recommendations regarding supplementation.

Diet immunity and inflammation

Diet  immunity and inflammation
Author: F. Ioannone,C. Miglio,A Raguzzini,M. Serafini
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 760
Release: 2013-09-30
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780128087077

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It has been suggested that flavonoids, secondary metabolites widely present in the vegetable kingdom, are involved in the role played by plant foods in disease prevention. The immune-modulating action of flavonoids in vitro suggests a specific role in modulating cytokines and transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB). However, the majority of studies have been conducted with non-physiological concentrations of flavonoids and without considering the nature of the metabolites found in the bloodstream. In humans, the number of studies is limited and the results are contrasting, leaving open the debate about the role of flavonoids as modulators of immune response.

Diet immunity and inflammation

Diet  immunity and inflammation
Author: P. Yaqoob
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 760
Release: 2013-09-30
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780128087114

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Animal studies suggest that olive oil modulates immune function in vivo and ex vivo when fed at high levels. In contrast, consumption of an olive oil-rich diet by humans does not appear to bring about a general suppression of immune cell function, but may modulate levels of cellular and circulating inflammatory biomarkers. The lack of a clear effect of olive oil in humans may be attributable to the higher level of monounsaturated fat used in the animal studies. There is some evidence that the effects of olive oil on immune function in animal studies are due to oleic acid, but there is also growing evidence that the non-lipid fraction, containing polyphenolic components, may influence some aspects of immune function, particularly inflammation.

Antioxidants in Sport Nutrition

Antioxidants in Sport Nutrition
Author: Manfred Lamprecht
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 299
Release: 2014-09-17
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9781466567573

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The use of antioxidants in sports is controversial due to existing evidence that they both support and hinder athletic performance. Antioxidants in Sport Nutrition covers antioxidant use in the athlete ́s basic nutrition and discusses the controversies surrounding the usefulness of antioxidant supplementation. The book also stresses how antioxidants may affect immunity, health, and exercise performance. The book contains scientifically based chapters explaining the basic mechanisms of exercise-induced oxidative damage. Also covered are methodological approaches to assess the effectiveness of antioxidant treatment. Biomarkers are discussed as a method to estimate the bioefficacy of dietary/supplemental antioxidants in sports. This book is useful for sport nutrition scientists, physicians, exercise physiologists, product developers, sport practitioners, coaches, top athletes, and recreational athletes. In it, they will find objective information and practical guidance.

Diet immunity and inflammation

Diet  immunity and inflammation
Author: M.A.R. Vinolo,H.G. Rodrigues,R.T. Nachbar,R. Curi
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 760
Release: 2013-09-30
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780128087091

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Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the main metabolic products of anaerobic bacterial fermentation in the intestine. In addition to their important role as fuel for intestinal epithelial cells, SCFAs modulate different processes in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and in other tissues such as adipose and immune tissues. In this chapter, we first present a brief description of basic aspects of SCFA physiology, such as production, absorption and metabolism. The main mechanisms by which SCFAs act on cells and the effects of these fatty acids in isolated leukocytes are then discussed. We also highlight the results obtained by studies performed in vivo using SCFAs in the treatment of inflammatory pathologies. A brief discussion about the perspectives in this research field is presented at the end of the chapter.

Diet immunity and inflammation

Diet  immunity and inflammation
Author: L. Müller,G. Pawelec,E. Derhovanessian
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 760
Release: 2013-09-30
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780128087176

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This chapter deals with the overall age-associated changes observed in human immunity, beginning with an overview of the components of the immune system. We then summarize the effects of age on these different components, discussing the problems faced by investigators studying ageing in long-lived outbred species like humans. We describe the limitations inherent in cross-sectional studies together with some possible solutions to these problems, such as longitudinal studies. We then discuss the possible reasons for these age-associated changes, starting with hematopoiesis and the effects of age on stem cells and continuing with the phenomenon of thymic involution. We consider biomarkers termed ‘immune signatures’ and those forming an ‘immune risk profile’. We conclude with a brief consideration of overall impact of age on responses to vaccination in humans.

Immunonutrition

Immunonutrition
Author: Bharat B. Aggarwal,David Heber
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 368
Release: 2014-03-17
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9781466503861

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The interaction of immune function and nutrition underlies the low-grade chronic inflammation involved in the etiology of many common obesity-associated and age-related chronic disease conditions. This close interaction is the genesis of the term immunonutrition, which represents a new interdisciplinary field of nutritional and medical research. Immunonutrition: Interactions of Diet, Genetics, and Inflammation introduces the breadth of this field, which implicates nutrition in both immune function and in the etiology, prevention, and treatment of common diseases influenced by inflammation and immune imbalance, including obesity, diabetes, heart disease, asthma, autoimmune diseases, and common forms of cancer. The book begins by reviewing the basic mechanisms of immunity and cellular mechanisms of cytokine activation. It discusses the effects of dietary fat intake and changes in Western diet and lifestyle linked to inflammation. It also describes the interaction of genetics and environment in the modulation of immune function and inflammation, and addresses exercise and skeletal muscle as an endocrine and immune organ. The book reviews the entire spectrum of inflammation and cancer from causation to its role in tumor therapy. It examines abdominal obesity and metabolic diseases, interactions between nutrition and autoimmunity in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammation associated with type 2 diabetes, heart disease, kidney disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and asthma. Considering potential nutrition-based treatments, the book explores approaches for reducing abdominal obesity, anti-inflammatory effects of phytochemicals, practical strategies for increasing fruit and vegetable intake, and anti-inflammatory properties of spice phytonutrients. In addition, it explores how uninformed food choices related to fats and oils create a balance of tissue-selective signals that produce harmful health outcomes and how to restore a healthy balance.

Diet immunity and inflammation

Diet  immunity and inflammation
Author: Z. Huang,P.R. China,P.R. Hoffmann
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 760
Release: 2013-09-30
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780128086988

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Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient that is important for various aspects of human health, including optimal immune responses. This chapter summarizes evidence to date regarding the effects of dietary Se on allergies and asthma, aging immunity, clinical sepsis, immunity against various pathogens and other types of inflammation and immune responses. Also presented is information pertaining to mechanisms by which Se influences inflammation and immunity, including roles for individual selenoproteins.

Diet immunity and inflammation

Diet  immunity and inflammation
Author: N.W. Solomons
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 760
Release: 2013-09-30
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780128087190

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It has been over 50years since Scrimshaw, Taylor and Gordon set out the bases for interpretation of synergistic and antagonistic interactions between malnutrition and infection. Any contemporary update must recognize emerging diseases such as HIV and re-emerging diseases such as tuberculosis. Genetic and epigenetic concepts and techniques have merged with the advance of technology in basic and applied immunity. Not only nutrient deficiencies, but also their excesses – including obesity and overweight – alter host defenses and risk of infections. Issues of vitamin D, host disease and infection, and interaction of the microbiome of fecal flora with the gut immune system represent two of the exciting contemporary departures.

Diet immunity and inflammation

Diet  immunity and inflammation
Author: S.E. Moore
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 760
Release: 2013-09-30
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780128087169

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In this chapter the ‘Developmental Origins of Health and Diseases (DOHaD)’ hypothesis is presented, providing a summary of the evidence to support the thesis that susceptibility to chronic degenerative diseases is programmed by exposures early in life. The chapter then looks in more detail at the evidence that this hypothesis also extends to immune function, with a review of the data to support the ‘early nutritional programming of human immune function’.