Disarmament and Decommissioning in the Nuclear Domain

Disarmament and Decommissioning in the Nuclear Domain
Author: Jean-Claude Amiard
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 352
Release: 2021-09-15
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781786307217

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Following the acquisition of the atomic bomb by five states, the United Nations began drafting several treaties to limit nuclear proliferation. These efforts failed, as four more states also acquired nuclear weapons. In a similar vein, an attempt to limit atomic weapons - primarily within the two superpowers - was initiated. While the number of weapons has decreased, the new bombs now being manufactured are more powerful and more precise, negating any reduction in numbers. In the field of civil nuclear use, all nuclear facilities (reactors, factories, etc.) have a limited lifespan. Once a plant is permanently shut down, these facilities must be decommissioned and dismantled. These operations are difficult, time-consuming and costly. In addition, decommissioning generates large volumes of radioactive waste of various categories, including long-lived and high-activity waste. Risks to the environment and to health are not negligible during decommissioning. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) have produced numerous publications with recommendations. Each state has its own decommissioning strategy (immediate or delayed) and final plan for the site - whether it be returning it to greenfield status or obtaining a nuclear site license with centuries-long monitoring.

Management of Radioactive Waste

Management of Radioactive Waste
Author: Jean-Claude Amiard
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 270
Release: 2021-11-17
Genre: Nature
ISBN: 9781786307224

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The classification of radioactive waste varies from state to state. This results in different management procedures for each country, while following IAEA and OECD/NEA recommendations. Radioactive waste comes from numerous sources. The largest volumes are generated by the decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities. Long-lived, medium- and high-activity waste – categorized as the most hazardous types of waste – are in fact largely produced by nuclear power reactors, spent fuel reprocessing plants and nuclear accidents. Final disposal of very low-activity, low-activity and very short-lived waste is well controlled. However, final solutions for certain categories, including long-lived waste, sorted waste and spent graphite waste, are not yet in place. Management of Radioactive Waste reviews all the possible solutions and presents those chosen by the various states, including a chapter detailing policy on radioactive waste management, taking France as an example.

Marine Environmental Quality

Marine Environmental Quality
Author: Frederic Muttin,Helene Thomas
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 208
Release: 2021-09-22
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781119866213

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Understanding marine pollution and the contamination of coastal environments requires knowledge from a variety of scientific fields. Marine Environmental Quality promotes a multidisciplinary approach to investigations, drawing on not only natural sciences, but also applied mathematics and social sciences. The investigations in this book focus on both organic and inorganic pollutants, firstly in a study conducted in the city of La Rochelle, on the North Atlantic French coast, then expanding the areas under examination to regions of English and Portuguese waters and, lastly, to the Mediterranean Sea. The improvement such research can bring to biomarkers, models and experiments enables equal progress in the quality of seawater in ports and protected areas of coastal regions. The eight chapters of Marine Environmental Quality present many aspects of this research, including experiments with floating barriers, water governance in various areas, sampling sites and sentinel species that act as biomarkers in harbors. Also covered are environmental commitments, both international and local, the risk that marine contamination poses to human health, experimental designs for interactions with microplastics and a study biomonitoring the juveniles of sentinel species. Such results will bring many benefits, to human health, to economic inclusion and to regional development.

Eco design of Marine Infrastructures

Eco design of Marine Infrastructures
Author: Sylvain Pioch,Jean-Claude Souche
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 288
Release: 2021-09-16
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781119865940

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This book offers an insight into how to create aesthetically pleasing, environmentally integrated, multi-functional developments in the ocean or on the coastline. Eco-design of Marine Infrastructures provides practical and realistic solutions for delivering projects that strive to minimize negative environmental impacts. Using case studies and examples, this book presents a toolkit of options, allowing decision makers and planners to see what is possible and to make informed choices about the risks and benefits of eco-design. It is intended for researchers, engineers, students and decision makers, or anyone who is curious to see how nature can be integrated into development.

Photovoltaism Agriculture and Ecology

Photovoltaism  Agriculture and Ecology
Author: Claude Grison,Lucie Cases,Martine Hossaert-McKey,Mailys Le Moigne
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 162
Release: 2022-01-19
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781786307200

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One of the challenges of our modern society is to successfully reconcile growing energy demand, demographic and food pressure and ecological and environmental urgency. This book offers an update on a rapidly evolving subject, that of modern photovoltaic systems capable of combining the needs of energy and ecological transition. Although photovoltaic solar energy is a well-proven technical solution in terms of energy, its development can compete with agricultural land or natural sites. New solutions are emerging: the installation of photovoltaic parks on industrial wasteland; agrivoltaics, which reconcile agricultural activity and energy production on the same surface; and ecovoltaics, which make it possible to make use of the unused surfaces under solar panels by developing ecological solutions capable of providing services to nature. These innovations are part of the response to the need to preserve terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, halt the decline in animal and plant biodiversity and participate in the development of a new mode of sustainable development and green economy.

The Baseline Concept in Biodiversity Conservation

The Baseline Concept in Biodiversity Conservation
Author: Laurent Godet,Simon Dufour,Anne-Julia Rollet
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 293
Release: 2022-10-18
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9781786308887

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The Anthropocene era has been marked by such significant human pressure that it has led to the sixth mass extinction. The Baseline Concept in Biodiversity Conservation interprets human domination of the Earth as the process of gradual landscape change, the execution of which is neither linear nor homogeneous. This book is structured around three key questions: Where and when did everything go wrong? How do we define baseline states for biodiversity conservation strategies? How are reference states mobilized in a concrete way through case studies? Today, biodiversity conservation faces a dilemma that this book sheds light on: return to states less modified by humans than today but in a world that has changed significantly; or, let the nature of tomorrow express itself where it still can but without a road map.

Abolishing Nuclear Weapons

Abolishing Nuclear Weapons
Author: George Perkovich,James M. Acton
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 337
Release: 2009
Genre: Nuclear arms control
ISBN: OCLC:474018108

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The groundbreaking paper Abolishing Nuclear Weapons by George Perkovich and James Acton was first published by the International Institute for Strategic Studies as an Adelphi Paper in September 2008. One of the paper's main aims was to jump-start a broad international debate about how to achieve the immensely important and equally difficult goal of nuclear disarmament. The present volume takes the next step. Perkovich and Acton have invited a distinguished group of experts -- current and former officials, respected analysts and authors -- from thirteen countries, nuclear and non-nuclear, to critique the Adelphi Paper, which is reprinted here. Their diverse views explore pathways around obstacles to nuclear disarmament and sharpen questions requiring further deliberation. The volume concludes with an essay by Perkovich and Acton that works through some of the key questions and dilemmas raised by the critiques.

Transparency in Nuclear Warheads and Materials

Transparency in Nuclear Warheads and Materials
Author: Institut international de recherches pour la paix
Publsiher: Sipri Monograph
Total Pages: 276
Release: 2003
Genre: Political Science
ISBN: 0199252424

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These studies address the technical means and procedures for establishing transparency in nuclear warheads and materials in the nuclear weapons states.