Early Vascular Aging EVA

Early Vascular Aging  EVA
Author: Peter M Nilsson,Michael Hecht Olsen,Stephane Laurent
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 376
Release: 2015-08-06
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780128016763

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Early Vascular Aging (EVA): New Directions in Cardiovascular Protection brings together the last decade of research related to the characterization of EVA, as well as the predictive power of pulse wave velocity (PWV). The book presents a novel approach to the problem of cardiovascular disease, showing it in relation to great vessels disease and revealing a comprehensive approach to the problem of increased rigidity of the great vessels, its causes, and further consequences. Information provided is accompanied by online access to a supplemental website with video clips of anatomic specimens, cardiac imaging, and surgical procedures. Introduces the latest information on early vascular aging (EVA), complete with summaries of recent evidence and guidelines for relevant risk factor control Ideal reference for the study of vascular aging, pulse wave velocity, arteriosclerosis, EVA, arterial stiffness, vascular, PWV biomarkers, and cardiovascular disease Contains all the relevant information available from different fields of knowledge (from basic biology to epidemiology) in regard to EVA Provides evidence that leads to a new target for interventions, early vascular aging (EVA) in subjects with early onset increased arterial stiffness Includes online access to a supplemental website with video clips of anatomic specimens, cardiac imaging, and surgical procedures

ASSOCIATION OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS AND EARLY VASCULAR AGEING IN TYROLEAN ADOLESCENTS EVA TYROL STUDY

ASSOCIATION OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS AND EARLY VASCULAR AGEING IN TYROLEAN ADOLESCENTS   EVA TYROL STUDY
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2017
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: OCLC:1163847600

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BACKGROUND AND AIM Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and has its origin early in life. The prevalence of classic CVD risk factors like smoking, overweight, hypertension and unfavorable blood lipids in childhood and adolescence is associated with an increased risk for CVD in adulthood. Therefore this study aims to assess vascular changes and predictors for early vascular ageing (EVA) in a large cohort of healthy Tyrolean adolescents.METHODS Volunteering Tyrolean schools and companies were invited to take part in this regional cohort study. Common risk factors for CVD like smoking, activity, and diet were assessed as well as anthropometric data (BMI, blood pressure) and blood lipids. Vascular changes were evaluated by measuring intima-media-thickness of the common carotid artery (cIMT) by high resolution ultrasound as a marker for subclinical atherosclerosis.RESULTS 1573 (691 male, 882 female) adolescents with a mean age of 16 years were included in this analysis. 1556 participants had ultrasound measurement of cIMT. In a multivariable linear regression analysis male sex, BMI, daily physical activity and systolic blood pressure showed a positive relation to mean cIMT. Maximum cIMT was predicted by sex, BMI and systolic blood pressure. CONCLUSION Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in Tyrolean adolescents and are associated with early vascular aging. The positive association between physical activity and mean cIMT may be explained by a non-atherosclerotic adaptation process. Maximum cIMT as a marker for first atherosclerotic lesions is not affected by physical activity.

Textbook of Vascular Medicine

Textbook of Vascular Medicine
Author: Rhian M. Touyz,Christian Delles
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 503
Release: 2019-08-02
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9783030164812

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This textbook focuses on the vascular biology and physiology that underlie vascular disorders in clinical medicine. Vascular biomedicine is a rapidly growing field as new molecular mechanisms of vascular health and disease are unraveled. Many of the major cardiovascular diseases including coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke and vascular dementia are diseases of the vasculature. In addition vascular injury underpins conditions like kidney failure and cardiovascular complications of diabetes. This field is truly multidisciplinary involving scientists in many domains such as molecular and vascular biology, cardiovascular physiology and pharmacology and immunology and inflammation. Clinically, specialists across multiple disciplines are involved in the management of patients with vascular disorders, including cardiologists, nephrologists, endocrinologists, neurologists and vascular surgeons. This book covers a wide range of topics and provides an overview of the discipline of vascular biomedicine without aiming at in-depth reviews, but rather offering up-to-date knowledge organized in concise and structured chapters, with key points and pertinent references. The structure of the content provides an integrative and translational approach from basic science (e.g. stem cells) to clinical medicine (e.g. cardiovascular disease). The content of this book is targeted to those who are new in the field of vascular biology and vascular medicine and is ideal for medical students, graduate and postgraduate students, clinical fellows and academic clinicians with an interest in the vascular biology and physiology of cardiovascular disease and related pathologies.

Endothelial Dysfunction

Endothelial Dysfunction
Author: Helena Lenasi
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 430
Release: 2018-10-24
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9781789842531

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The endothelium enables communication between blood and tissues and is actively involved in cardiovascular homeostasis. Endothelial dysfunction has been recognized as an early step in the development of cardiovascular diseases: respectively, endothelium represents a potential therapeutic niche with multiple targets. The purpose of the book is to point out some recent findings of endothelial physiology and pathophysiology emphasizing various aspects of endothelial dysfunction connected to the body's internal and external environment. While basic features of the endothelium are presented in an introductory chapter, the authors of the following 17 chapters have provided extensive insight into some selected topics of endothelial (dys)function. The book would hopefully be useful for anyone interested in recapitulating endothelial (patho)physiology and expanding knowledge of molecular mechanisms involved in endothelial dysfunction, relevant also for further clinical investigations.

Vascular Aging Facts and Factors

Vascular Aging  Facts and Factors
Author: Elisabet Vila,Francesc Jiménez-Altayó,Paula Dantas
Publsiher: Frontiers E-books
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2022
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: 9782889190522

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The increasing mean age of the population in developed countries has turned out to be an economic and social problem. Cardiovascular disease has long been considered to be age related in terms of their onset and progression. As such, we can say that the increase in life expectancy goes in parallel with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. With age, a number of changes occur in the vasculature altering the homeostasis of the irrigated organs promoting target organ damage. While different adaptive mechanisms to protect vessels against mild stress have been described, the aging process induces a progressive failure of protective mechanisms, leading to vascular changes and higher susceptibility to cardiovascular diseases. Indeed, vascular aging is exacerbated by coexisting cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Compelling evidence indicates that diminished endothelial relaxation and increase, decrease, or no change in contractile responses to several agonists is associated with aging. There is an increase of vasoconstrictor factors expression and a decrease of vasodilators. Morphologic changes include lumen diameter enlargement, wall thickening and alterations of matrix substances as increased collagen or decreased elastin deposition, ultimately leading to greater arterial stiffening (reduced compliance). Importantly, arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Cellular and molecular mechanisms have also been documented. Senescence at the cellular level involves alterations in Ca2+ signaling and down regulation of anti-aging proteins. Both endothelial and smooth muscle cells change their number, morphology, function and their regenerative ability. Aging is also associated with a gradual loss of antioxidant defense mechanisms, a proinflammatory shift in the cytokine expression profile and a production of reactive oxygen species such as superoxide (O2-) that promotes the breakdown of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide and O2- interact to form peroxynitrite known to nitrosylate proteins affecting their physiological function. However, vascular wall proteins may also suffer from other potentially deleterious modifications as glycation (Maillard reaction) and glyco-oxidative reactions with increasing age, which could be linked to the age-associated changes in vascular function. Various strategies have shown benefit in preventing, delaying or attenuating vascular aging. For instance, a healthy lifestyle including low fat diet and/or exercise have a favorable effect. Nevertheless, it yet remains to be fully demonstrated whether vascular aging can be pharmacologically prevented. This Research Topic is intended to bring together research efforts to understand the causes and consequences of vascular aging and propose new therapeutic strategies for the management of vascular senescence.

Sex Specific Analysis of Cardiovascular Function

Sex Specific Analysis of Cardiovascular Function
Author: Peter L. M. Kerkhof,Virginia M. Miller
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 725
Release: 2018-07-26
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9783319779324

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This book gathers together contributions from internationally renowned authors in the field of cardiovascular systems and provides crucial insight into the importance of sex- and gender-concepts during the analysis of patient data. This innovative title is the first to offer the elements necessary to consider sex-related properties in both clinical and basic studies regarding the heart and circulation on multiscale levels (i.e. molecular, cellular, electrophysiologically, neuroendocrine, immunoregulatory, organ, allometric, and modeling). Observed differences at (ultra)cellular and organ level are quantified, with focus on clinical relevance and implications for diagnosis and patient management. Since the cardiovascular system is of vital importance for all tissues, Sex-Specific Analysis of Cardiovascular Function is an essential source of information for clinicians, biologists, and biomedical investigators. The wide spectrum of differences described in this book will also act as an eye-opener and serve as a handbook for students, teachers, scientists and practitioners.

The Cambridge Handbook of Successful Aging

The Cambridge Handbook of Successful Aging
Author: Rocío Fernández-Ballesteros,Athanase Benetos,Jean-Marie Robine
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2019-01-24
Genre: Psychology
ISBN: 9781108641432

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Recent studies show that more people than ever before are reaching old age in better health and enjoying that health for a longer time. This Handbook outlines the latest discoveries in the study of aging from bio-medicine, psychology, and socio-demography. It treats the study of aging as a multidisciplinary scientific subject, since it requires the interplay of broad disciplines, while offering high motivation, positive attitudes, and behaviors for aging well, and lifestyle changes that will help people to stay healthier across life span and in old age. Written by leading scholars from various academic disciplines, the chapters delve into the most topical aspects of aging today - including biological mechanisms of aging, aging with health, active and productive aging, aging with satisfaction, aging with respect, and aging with dignity. Aimed at health professionals as well as general readers, this Cambridge Handbook offers a new, positive approach to later life.

Integrative Cardiology

Integrative Cardiology
Author: Massimo Fioranelli
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 276
Release: 2017-02-10
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9783319400105

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This book is a detailed guide to a new integrative approach to the prevention and treatment of various cardiac disorders and risk factors, including coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. This approach combines various strategies, including metabolic cardiology, low-dose medicine, exercise programs, stress management programs, evaluation for inherited risk factors, and various other healing modalities. Metabolic cardiology focuses on the prevention, management, and treatment of cardiovascular disease at the cellular level through biochemical interventions with nutritional supplements that can promote energy production in the heart. Low-dose medicine, on the other hand, interprets pathological phenomena as an imbalance in intercellular signaling that may be corrected through the administration of low physiological doses of messenger molecules. Therapies outside of mainstream medicine may also be deployed in integrative cardiology, for example acupuncture, herbal medicine, and homeopathy. Integrative Cardiology will be of interest to all practitioners wishing to learn about an approach that incorporates the incredible advances in medication and technology with a focus on nutrition, lifestyle, and mind–body influences.

Brain Aging

Brain Aging
Author: David R. Riddle
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 408
Release: 2007-04-19
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 1420005529

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Recognition that aging is not the accumulation of disease, but rather comprises fundamental biological processes that are amenable to experimental study, is the basis for the recent growth of experimental biogerontology. As increasingly sophisticated studies provide greater understanding of what occurs in the aging brain and how these changes occur

Cellular Senescence in Disease

Cellular Senescence in Disease
Author: Manuel Serrano,Daniel Munoz-Espin
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 472
Release: 2021-11-27
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780128225158

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Research in the field of senescence has boomed recently due to the gradual realization that senescent cells are associated with a significant number of diseases. The genetic or pharmacological elimination of senescent cells can cause widespread benefits and improves outcomes for most of those diseases. Cellular Senescence in Diseases presents an updated review of the role of cellular senescence in multiple pathologies. Focus is given to those diseases where the implication of senescence has been more extensively documented, such as (cancer, lung and liver diseases, diabetes, Neurodegenerative diseases and others). The Editors recruited a group of worldwide experts in each individual pathology to review the role of cellular senescence in each one of them, aiming at identifying potential therapeutic pathways. The first two chapters provide an overview of the cellular senescence principles. Next, the chapters are divided into specific diseases. Cancer, including premalignant lesions (OIS), Advanced disease (TIS), and Metastasis are covered. The following condition covered is Lund diseases, including IPF, COPD, and Pulmonary Hypertension. Next Liver Diseases are covered, including Fibrosis and Cirrhosis, and Fatty liver disease. Next there is coverage for Kidney implications, including fibrosis and transplantation. Vascular diseases are covered next including infarction and hear fibrosis, and atherosclerosis. Both diabetes types 1 and 2 are covered next. Following chapters cover Obesity, Sarcopenia, and Bone and Cartilage disorders, respectively. Neurodegenerative diseases are covered next, focusing on Alzheimer and Parkinson. The next chapter discusses accumulation of senescent cell in tissues during aging. The two final chapters cover current developments and conclusions. Cellular Senescence in Diseases is designed for researchers and clinicians with a focus on the cellular mechanisms of diseases. All chapters cover current experimental therapeutic approaches to eliminate or cancel the pathological effects of senescent cells. Pharmaceutical scientists may also benefit from the contents of the book in the exploration of novel therapeutic opportunities. Provides a thorough introduction to Cellular Senescence Covers all major pathologies for which cellular senescence has shown evidence of involvement Focuses on possible therapeutic pathways Edited and authored by worldwide experts

Promoting Cardiovascular Health in the Developing World

Promoting Cardiovascular Health in the Developing World
Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Committee on Preventing the Global Epidemic of Cardiovascular Disease: Meeting the Challenges in Developing Countries
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 482
Release: 2010-07-29
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780309147743

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Cardiovascular disease (CVD), once thought to be confined primarily to industrialized nations, has emerged as a major health threat in developing countries. Cardiovascular disease now accounts for nearly 30 percent of deaths in low and middle income countries each year, and is accompanied by significant economic repercussions. Yet most governments, global health institutions, and development agencies have largely overlooked CVD as they have invested in health in developing countries. Recognizing the gap between the compelling evidence of the global CVD burden and the investment needed to prevent and control CVD, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) turned to the IOM for advice on how to catalyze change. In this report, the IOM recommends that the NHLBI, development agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and governments work toward two essential goals: creating environments that promote heart healthy lifestyle choices and help reduce the risk of chronic diseases, and building public health infrastructure and health systems with the capacity to implement programs that will effectively detect and reduce risk and manage CVD. To meet these goals, the IOM recommends several steps, including improving cooperation and collaboration; implementing effective and feasible strategies; and informing efforts through research and health surveillance. Without better efforts to promote cardiovascular health, global health as a whole will be undermined.

Technical Aspects of Modern Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

Technical Aspects of Modern Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery
Author: Mario Gaudino
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 378
Release: 2020-11-08
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780128203491

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Coronary surgery encompasses two thirds of all adult cardiac surgery cases. With the endless pursuit of better outcomes, modern coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has become technically more complex in ways that are well beyond the training of the average cardiac surgeon. The old concept of "one-technique-fits-all" has been abandoned in favour of a specialized approach tailored to the individual patient. In fact, in recent years, there is a growing movement towards establishing coronary surgery as a super-specialization of cardiac surgery. Technical Aspects of Modern Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery aims to expand on both the basics and complexities of the technical aspects of coronary surgery. It serves as an up to date resource that illustrates and details the advancement and techniques in this field which may soon become a separate super-specialty. With a particular emphasis on illustrations, the book will be an essential reference book for both established surgeons that have no experience in advanced CABG, and the new generation of CABG surgeons. A complete and concise resource on all aspects of coronary surgery In-depth illustrative review of various coronary techniques Covers both current recommendations and well-established practices in the field

Clinical Epidemiology

Clinical Epidemiology
Author: Diederick E. Grobbee,Professor of Clinical Epidemiology Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care University Medical Center Utrecht Utrecht Netherlands Diederick E Grobbee,Arno W. Hoes
Publsiher: Jones & Bartlett Publishers
Total Pages: 450
Release: 2014-01-01
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9781449674335

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Now updated with new data and examples throughout, Clinical Epidemiology: Principles, Methods, and Applications for Clinical Research, Second Edition is a comprehensive resource that introduces the reader to the basics of clinical epidemiology and explores the principles and methods that can be used to obtain quantitative evidence on the effects of interventions and on the diagnosis, etiology, and prognosis of disease. The everyday challenges of clinical research and the quantitative knowledge required to practice medicine are also examined, making this book a valuable reference for both graduate and undergraduate students in medicine and related disciplines, as well as for professionals involved in the design and conduct of clinical research.

Hypertension in the Elderly

Hypertension in the Elderly
Author: L. Michael Prisant
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 532
Release: 2007-11-05
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9781592599110

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A comprehensive review of all aspects of hypertension in the elderly using the most current clinical data. Topics range from basic concepts, epidemiology and trials, and evaluation and management, to pharmacologic treatment, special populations, and adherence, all presented with an emphasis on the optimal management of patients. The authors examine in detail the mechanisms of hypertension in the elderly, the lifestyle trials and outcomes trials that were conducted in older persons, as well as the problems of clinical evaluation, secondary hypertension, adherence, and target organ damage. Extensive discussions of pharmacologic therapy detail the role of all the major drug classes.

The Plasticity of Sex

The Plasticity of Sex
Author: Marianne J. Legato
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 318
Release: 2020-05-19
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780128159699

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The Plasticity of Sex: The Molecular Biology and Clinical Features of Genomic Sex, Gender Identity and Sexual Behavior provides a comprehensive view on the development of human sexuality. As there has been a crescendo of interest over the past several decades about the nature and diversity of human sexuality, this reference brings the evidence-based research into one place. The emergence of issues surrounding gender identity, genital ambivalence and the transition from one sex to another is striking, with the public and treating physicians alike clamoring for an evidence-based, comprehensive treatment of human sexuality and all its variations. This is a must-have reference for biomedical researchers in endocrinology, neuroscience, development biology, medical students, residents, and practicing physicians from all medical areas. Winner of the 2021 PROSE Award in Biomedicine from the Association of American Publishers! Discusses the role of biology in gender identity from research in genetics, endocrinology and neuroscience Addresses important health disparities and how to address them when treating the transgender patient Reviews evidence-based information on the biological basis and impact of environmental and hormonal factors at different life stages Outlines schema for treating variations in the sexuality and sexual function of the individual patient