Electromigration in Thin Films and Electronic Devices

Electromigration in Thin Films and Electronic Devices
Author: Choong-Un Kim
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 352
Release: 2011-08-28
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780857093752

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Understanding and limiting electromigration in thin films is essential to the continued development of advanced copper interconnects for integrated circuits. Electromigration in thin films and electronic devices provides an up-to-date review of key topics in this commercially important area. Part one consists of three introductory chapters, covering modelling of electromigration phenomena, modelling electromigration using the peridynamics approach and simulation and x-ray microbeam studies of electromigration. Part two deals with electromigration issues in copper interconnects, including x-ray microbeam analysis, voiding, microstructural evolution and electromigration failure. Finally, part three covers electromigration in solder, with chapters discussing topics such as electromigration-induced microstructural evolution and electromigration in flip-chip solder joints. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Electromigration in thin films and electronic devices is an essential reference for materials scientists and engineers in the microelectronics, packaging and interconnects industries, as well as all those with an academic research interest in the field. Provides up-to-date coverage of the continued development of advanced copper interconnects for integrated circuits Comprehensively reviews modelling of electromigration phenomena, modelling electromigration using the peridynamics approach and simulation, and x-ray microbeam studies of electromigration Deals with electromigration issues in copper interconnects, including x-ray microbeam analysis, voiding, microstructural evolution and electromigration failure

Metal Based Thin Films for Electronics

Metal Based Thin Films for Electronics
Author: Klaus Wetzig,Claus M. Schneider
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 388
Release: 2006-03-06
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9783527606474

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This up-to-date handbook covers the main topics of preparation, characterization and properties of complex metal-based layer systems. The authors -- an outstanding group of researchers -- discuss advanced methods for structure, chemical and electronic state characterization with reference to the properties of thin functional layers, such as metallization and barrier layers for microelectronics, magnetoresistive layers for GMR and TMR, sensor and resistance layers. As such, the book addresses materials specialists in industry, especially in microelectronics, as well as scientists, and can also be recommended for advanced studies in materials science, analytics, surface and solid state science.

Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment WEEE Handbook

Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment  WEEE  Handbook
Author: Vannessa Goodship,Ab Stevels
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 752
Release: 2012-08-30
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780857096333

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Electrical and electronic waste is a growing problem as volumes are increasing fast. Rapid product innovation and replacement, especially in information and communication technologies (ICT), combined with the migration from analog to digital technologies and to flat-screen televisions and monitors has resulted in some electronic products quickly reaching the end of their life. The EU directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) aims to minimise WEEE by putting organizational and financial responsibility on producers and distributors for collection, treatment, recycling and recovery of WEEE. Therefore all stakeholders need to be well-informed about their WEEE responsibilities and options. While focussing on the EU, this book draws lessons for policy and practice from all over the world. Part one introduces the reader to legislation and initiatives to manage WEEE. Part two discusses technologies for the refurbishment, treatment and recycling of waste electronics. Part three focuses on electronic products that present particular challenges for recyclers. Part four explores sustainable design of electronics and supply chains. Part five discusses national and regional WEEE management schemes and part six looks at corporate WEEE management strategies. With an authoritative collection of chapters from an international team of authors, Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) handbook is designed to be used as a reference by policy-makers, producers and treatment operators in both the developed and developing world. Draws lessons for waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) policy and practice from around the world Discusses legislation and initiatives to manage WEEE, including global e-waste initiatives, EU legislation relating to electronic waste, and eco-efficiency evaluation of WEEE take-back systems Sections cover technologies for refurbishment, treatment and recycling of waste, sustainable design of electronics and supply chains, national and regional waste management schemes, and corporate WEEE management strategies

Thin Film Growth

Thin Film Growth
Author: Zexian Cao
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 432
Release: 2011-07-18
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780857093295

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Thin film technology is used in many applications such as microelectronics, optics, hard and corrosion resistant coatings and micromechanics, and thin films form a uniquely versatile material base for the development of novel technologies within these industries. Thin film growth provides an important and up-to-date review of the theory and deposition techniques used in the formation of thin films. Part one focuses on the theory of thin film growth, with chapters covering nucleation and growth processes in thin films, phase-field modelling of thin film growth and surface roughness evolution. Part two covers some of the techniques used for thin film growth, including oblique angle deposition, reactive magnetron sputtering and epitaxial growth of graphene films on single crystal metal surfaces. This section also includes chapters on the properties of thin films, covering topics such as substrate plasticity and buckling of thin films, polarity control, nanostructure growth dynamics and network behaviour in thin films. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Thin film growth is an essential reference for engineers in electronics, energy materials and mechanical engineering, as well as those with an academic research interest in the topic. Provides an important and up-to-date review of the theory and deposition techniques used in the formation of thin films Focusses on the theory and modelling of thin film growth, techniques and mechanisms used for thin film growth and properties of thin films An essential reference for engineers in electronics, energy materials and mechanical engineering

In Situ Characterization of Thin Film Growth

In Situ Characterization of Thin Film Growth
Author: Gertjan Koster,Guus Rijnders
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 296
Release: 2011-10-05
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780857094957

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Advanced techniques for characterizing thin film growth in situ help to develop improved understanding and faster diagnosis of issues with the process. In situ characterization of thin film growth reviews current and developing techniques for characterizing the growth of thin films, covering an important gap in research. Part one covers electron diffraction techniques for in situ study of thin film growth, including chapters on topics such as reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and inelastic scattering techniques. Part two focuses on photoemission techniques, with chapters covering ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry for characterization of thin film growth. Finally, part three discusses alternative in situ characterization techniques. Chapters focus on topics such as ion beam surface characterization, real time in situ surface monitoring of thin film growth, deposition vapour monitoring and the use of surface x-ray diffraction for studying epitaxial film growth. With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, In situ characterization of thin film growth is a standard reference for materials scientists and engineers in the electronics and photonics industries, as well as all those with an academic research interest in this area. Chapters review electron diffraction techniques, including the methodology for observations and measurements Discusses the principles and applications of photoemission techniques Examines alternative in situ characterisation techniques

Printed Films

Printed Films
Author: Maria Prudenziati,Jacob Hormadaly
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 608
Release: 2012-08-30
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780857096210

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Whilst printed films are currently used in varied devices across a wide range of fields, research into their development and properties is increasingly uncovering even greater potential. Printed films provides comprehensive coverage of the most significant recent developments in printed films and their applications. Materials and properties of printed films are the focus of part one, beginning with a review of the concepts, technologies and materials involved in their production and use. Printed films as electrical components and silicon metallization for solar cells are discussed, as are conduction mechanisms in printed film resistors, and thick films in packaging and microelectronics. Part two goes on to review the varied applications of printed films in devices. Printed resistive sensors are considered, as is the role of printed films in capacitive, piezoelectric and pyroelectric sensors, mechanical micro-systems and gas sensors. The applications of printed films in biosensors, actuators, heater elements, varistors and polymer solar cells are then explored, followed by a review of screen printing for the fabrication of solid oxide fuel cells and laser printed micro- and meso-scale power generating devices. With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Printed films is a key text for anyone working in such fields as microelectronics, fuel cell and sensor technology in both industry and academia. Provides a comprehensive analysis of the most significant recent developments in printed films and their applications Reviews the concepts, properties, technologies and materials involved in the production and use of printed films Analyses the varied applications of printed films in devices, including printed restrictive sensors for physical quantities and printed thick film mechanical micro-systems (MEMS), among others

Optical Thin Films and Coatings

Optical Thin Films and Coatings
Author: Angela Piegari,François Flory
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 864
Release: 2013-08-31
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780857097316

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Optical coatings, including mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, beam splitters, and filters, are an integral part of most modern optical systems. Optical thin films and coatings provides an overview of thin film materials, the properties, design and manufacture of optical coatings and their use across a variety of application areas. Part one explores the design and manufacture of optical coatings. Part two highlights unconventional features of optical thin films including scattering properties of random structures in thin films, optical properties of thin film materials at short wavelengths, thermal properties and colour effects. Part three focusses on novel materials for optical thin films and coatings and includes chapters on organic optical coatings, surface multiplasmonics and optical thin films containing quantum dots. Finally, applications of optical coatings, including laser components, solar cells, displays and lighting, and architectural and automotive glass, are reviewed in part four. Optical thin films and coatings is a technical resource for researchers and engineers working with optical thin films and coatings, professionals in the security, automotive, space and other industries requiring an understanding of these topics, and academics interested in the field. An overview of the materials, properties, design and manufacture of thin films Special attention is given to the unconventional features and novel materials of optical thin films Reviews applications of optical coatings including laser components, solar cells, glasing, displays and lighting

Handbook of Flexible Organic Electronics

Handbook of Flexible Organic Electronics
Author: Stergios Logothetidis
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 478
Release: 2014-12-15
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781782420439

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Organic flexible electronics represent a highly promising technology that will provide increased functionality and the potential to meet future challenges of scalability, flexibility, low power consumption, light weight, and reduced cost. They will find new applications because they can be used with curved surfaces and incorporated in to a number of products that could not support traditional electronics. The book covers device physics, processing and manufacturing technologies, circuits and packaging, metrology and diagnostic tools, architectures, and systems engineering. Part one covers the production, properties and characterisation of flexible organic materials and part two looks at applications for flexible organic devices. Reviews the properties and production of various flexible organic materials. Describes the integration technologies of flexible organic electronics and their manufacturing methods. Looks at the application of flexible organic materials in smart integrated systems and circuits, chemical sensors, microfluidic devices, organic non-volatile memory devices, and printed batteries and other power storage devices.

Handbook of Organic Materials for Optical and Opto Electronic Devices

Handbook of Organic Materials for Optical and  Opto Electronic Devices
Author: Oksana Ostroverkhova
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 832
Release: 2013-08-31
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780857098764

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Small molecules and conjugated polymers, the two main types of organic materials used for optoelectronic and photonic devices, can be used in a number of applications including organic light-emitting diodes, photovoltaic devices, photorefractive devices and waveguides. Organic materials are attractive due to their low cost, the possibility of their deposition from solution onto large-area substrates, and the ability to tailor their properties. The Handbook of organic materials for optical and (opto)electronic devices provides an overview of the properties of organic optoelectronic and nonlinear optical materials, and explains how these materials can be used across a range of applications. Parts one and two explore the materials used for organic optoelectronics and nonlinear optics, their properties, and methods of their characterization illustrated by physical studies. Part three moves on to discuss the applications of optoelectronic and nonlinear optical organic materials in devices and includes chapters on organic solar cells, electronic memory devices, and electronic chemical sensors, electro-optic devices. The Handbook of organic materials for optical and (opto)electronic devices is a technical resource for physicists, chemists, electrical engineers and materials scientists involved in research and development of organic semiconductor and nonlinear optical materials and devices. Comprehensively examines the properties of organic optoelectronic and nonlinear optical materials Discusses their applications in different devices including solar cells, LEDs and electronic memory devices An essential technical resource for physicists, chemists, electrical engineers and materials scientists

Nanostructured Semiconductor Oxides for the Next Generation of Electronics and Functional Devices

Nanostructured Semiconductor Oxides for the Next Generation of Electronics and Functional Devices
Author: Serge Zhuiykov
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 466
Release: 2014-02-14
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781782422242

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Nanostructured Semiconductor Oxides for the Next Generation of Electronics and Functional Devices focuses on the development of semiconductor nanocrystals, their technologies and applications, including energy harvesting, solar cells, solid oxide fuel cells, and chemical sensors. Semiconductor oxides are used in electronics, optics, catalysts, sensors, and other functional devices. In their 2D form, the reduction in size confers exceptional properties, useful for creating faster electronics and more efficient catalysts. After explaining the physics affecting the conductivity and electron arrangement of nanostructured semiconductors, the book addresses the structural and chemical modification of semiconductor nanocrystals during material growth. It then covers their use in nanoscale functional devices, particularly in electronic devices and carbon nanotubes. It explores the impact of 2D nanocrystals, such as graphene, chalcogenides, and oxide nanostructures, on research and technology, leading to a discussion of incorporating graphene and semiconductor nanostructures into composites for use in energy storage. The final three chapters focus on the applications of these functional materials in photovoltaic cells, solid oxide fuel cells, and in environmental sensors including pH, dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, and dissolved metal ion sensors. Nanostructured Semiconductor Oxides for the Next Generation of Electronics and Functional Devices is a crucial resource for scientists, applied researchers, and production engineers working in the fabrication, design, testing, characterization, and analysis of new semiconductor materials. This book is a valuable reference for those working in the analysis and characterization of new nanomaterials, and for those who develop technologies for practical devices fabrication. Focuses on the development of semiconductor nanocrystals, their technologies and applications, including energy harvesting, solar cells, solid oxide fuel cells, and chemical sensors Reviews fundamental physics of conductivity and electron arrangement before proceeding to practical applications A vital resource for applied researchers and production engineers working with new semiconductor materials

Electrical Processes in Organic Thin Film Devices

Electrical Processes in Organic Thin Film Devices
Author: Michael C. Petty
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 480
Release: 2022-01-24
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781119631347

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Electrical Processes in Organic Thin Film Devices A one-stop examination of fundamental electrical behaviour in organic electronic device architectures In Electrical Processes in Organic Thin Film Devices: From Bulk Materials to Nanoscale Architectures, distinguished researcher Michael C. Petty delivers an in-depth treatment of the electrical behaviour of organic electronic devices focused on first principles. The author describes the fundamental electrical behaviour of various device architectures and offers an introduction to the physical processes that play a role in the electrical conductivity of organic materials. Beginning with band theory, the text moves on to address the effects of thin film device architectures and nanostructures. The book discusses the applications to devices currently in the marketplace, like displays, as well as those under development (transistors, solar cells, and memories). Electrical Processes in Organic Thin Film Devices also describes emerging organic thin film architectures and explores the potential for single molecule electronics and biologically inspired devices. Finally, the book also includes: A detailed introduction to electronic and vibrational states in organic solids, including classical band theory, disordered semiconductors, and lattice vibrations Comprehensive explorations of electrical conductivity, including electronic and ionic processes, carrier drift, diffusion, the Boltzmann Transport Equation, excess carriers, recombination, doping, and superconductivity An overview of important electro-active organic materials, like molecular crystals, charge-transfer complexes, conductive polymers, carbon nanotubes, and graphene Practical considerations of defects and nanoscale phenomena, including transport processes in low-dimensional systems, surfaces and interface states In-depth examinations of metal contacts, including ohmic contacts, the Schottky Barrier, and metal/molecule contacts A systematic guide to the operating principles of metal/insulator/semiconductor structures and the field effect A set of problems (with solutions on-line) for each chapter of the book Perfect for electronics developers and researchers in both industry and academia who study and work with molecular and nanoscale electronics, Electrical Processes in Organic Thin Film Devices also deserves a place in the libraries of undergraduate and postgraduate students in courses on molecular electronics, organic electronics, and plastic electronics.

Modeling Characterization and Production of Nanomaterials

Modeling  Characterization and Production of Nanomaterials
Author: V Tewary,Y Zhang
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 554
Release: 2015-03-17
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781782422358

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Nano-scale materials have unique electronic, optical, and chemical properties which make them attractive for a new generation of devices. Part one of Modeling, Characterization, and Production of Nanomaterials: Electronics, Photonics and Energy Applications covers modeling techniques incorporating quantum mechanical effects to simulate nanomaterials and devices, such as multiscale modeling and density functional theory. Part two describes the characterization of nanomaterials using diffraction techniques and Raman spectroscopy. Part three looks at the structure and properties of nanomaterials, including their optical properties and atomic behaviour. Part four explores nanofabrication and nanodevices, including the growth of graphene, GaN-based nanorod heterostructures and colloidal quantum dots for applications in nanophotonics and metallic nanoparticles for catalysis applications. Comprehensive coverage of the close connection between modeling and experimental methods for studying a wide range of nanomaterials and nanostructures Focus on practical applications and industry needs, supported by a solid outlining of theoretical background Draws on the expertise of leading researchers in the field of nanomaterials from around the world

Advances in Delay tolerant Networks DTNs

Advances in Delay tolerant Networks  DTNs
Author: J Rodrigues
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 298
Release: 2014-11-20
Genre: Computers
ISBN: 9780857098467

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Part one looks at delay-tolerant network architectures and platforms including DTN for satellite communications and deep-space communications, underwater networks, networks in developing countries, vehicular networks and emergency communications. Part two covers delay-tolerant network routing, including issues such as congestion control, naming, addressing and interoperability. Part three explores services and applications in delay-tolerant networks, such as web browsing, social networking and data streaming. Part four discusses enhancing the performance, reliability, privacy and security of delay-tolerant networks. Chapters cover resource sharing, simulation and modeling and testbeds. Reviews the different types of DTN and shows how they can be applied in satellite and deep-space communications, vehicular and underwater communications, and during large-scale disasters Considers the potential for rapid selection and dissemination of urgent messages is considered Reviews the breadth of areas in which DTN is already providing solutions and the prospects for its wider adoption

Introduction to the Physics of Nanoelectronics

Introduction to the Physics of Nanoelectronics
Author: Seng Ghee Tan,Mansoor B. A Jalil
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 312
Release: 2012-03-28
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780857095886

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This book provides an introduction to the physics of nanoelectronics, with a focus on the theoretical aspects of nanoscale devices. The book begins with an overview of the mathematics and quantum mechanics pertaining to nanoscale electronics, to facilitate the understanding of subsequent chapters. It goes on to encompass quantum electronics, spintronics, Hall effects, carbon and graphene electronics, and topological physics in nanoscale devices. Theoretical methodology is developed using quantum mechanical and non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) techniques to calculate electronic currents and elucidate their transport properties at the atomic scale. The spin Hall effect is explained and its application to the emerging field of spintronics – where an electron’s spin as well as its charge is utilised – is discussed. Topological dynamics and gauge potential are introduced with the relevant mathematics, and their application in nanoelectronic systems is explained. Graphene, one of the most promising carbon-based nanostructures for nanoelectronics, is also explored. Begins with an overview of the mathematics and quantum mechanics pertaining to nanoscale electronics Encompasses quantum electronics, spintronics, Hall effects, carbon and graphene electronics, and topological physics in nanoscale devices Comprehensively introduces topological dynamics and gauge potential with the relevant mathematics, and extensively discusses their application in nanoelectronic systems

Electronic Thin Film Reliability

Electronic Thin Film Reliability
Author: King-Ning Tu
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2010-11-25
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781139492706

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Thin films are widely used in the electronic device industry. As the trend for miniaturization of electronic devices moves into the nanoscale domain, the reliability of thin films becomes an increasing concern. Building on the author's previous book, Electronic Thin Film Science by Tu, Mayer and Feldman, and based on a graduate course at UCLA given by the author, this new book focuses on reliability science and the processing of thin films. Early chapters address fundamental topics in thin film processes and reliability, including deposition, surface energy and atomic diffusion, before moving onto systematically explain irreversible processes in interconnect and packaging technologies. Describing electromigration, thermomigration and stress migration, with a closing chapter dedicated to failure analysis, the reader will come away with a complete theoretical and practical understanding of electronic thin film reliability. Kept mathematically simple, with real-world examples, this book is ideal for graduate students, researchers and practitioners.