Foaming with Supercritical Fluids

Foaming with Supercritical Fluids
Author: Ernesto Di Maio,Salvatore Iannace,Giuseppe Mensitieri
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 484
Release: 2021-11-06
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780444637369

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Foaming with Supercritical Fluids, Volume Nine provides a comprehensive description of the use of supercritical fluids as blowing agents in polymer foaming. To this aim, the fundamental issues on which the proper design and control of this process are rooted are discussed in detail, with specific attention devoted to the theoretical and experimental aspects of sorption thermodynamics of a blowing agent within a polymer, the effect of the absorbed blowing agent on the thermal, interfacial and rheological properties of the expanding matter, and the phase separation of the gaseous phase, and of the related bubble nucleation and growth phenomena. Several foaming technologies based on the use of supercritical blowing agents are then described, addressing the main issues in the light of the underlying chemical-physical phenomena. Offers strong fundamentals on polymer properties important on foaming Outlines the use of supercritical fluids for foaming Covers theoretical points-of-view, including foam formation of the polymer/gas solution to the setting of the final foam Discusses the several processing technologies and applications

Polymer Processing with Supercritical Fluids

Polymer Processing with Supercritical Fluids
Author: Vannessa Goodship,Erich Okoth Ogur
Publsiher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing
Total Pages: 138
Release: 2005
Genre: Science
ISBN: 1859574947

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SCFs are currently the subjects of intense research and commercial interest. Applications such as the RESS (rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions) process are part of standard industrial practice. In view of their ever-growing importance in the polymer industry there is a need to fully comprehend how supercritical fluids interrelate with polymeric materials to realise the potential that can be gained from their use. The authors review the basic principles of SCFs and their application within the polymer industry: characteristics and properties, extraction of unwanted residual products, polymerisation solvents, and polymer impregnation. Processing applications such as plasticisation, foaming and blending are also considered. There is discussion of the potential within the polymer recycling industry for use of SCFs as cleaning agents or within supercritical oxidation processes. Around 400 references with abstracts from recent global literature accompany this review, sourced from the Polymer Library, to facilitate further reading. A subject index and a company index are included.

Advanced Nanotechnology and Application of Supercritical Fluids

Advanced Nanotechnology and Application of Supercritical Fluids
Author: Inamuddin,Abdullah M. Asiri
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 245
Release: 2020-07-27
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9783030449841

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Globalization and industrialization involve a number of reactions, products, extractions, and separations that require the use of organic solvents. These solvents are responsible for a number of ecological concerns, including atmospheric and land toxicity. Conventional organic solvents are regarded as volatile organic compounds; some are even limited due to their potential for ozone layer depletion. While supercritical liquids exhibit physical properties that could make them ideal substitutes for these volatile compounds, there is particular interest in the use of carbon dioxide as a solvent of crude material. In particular, carbon dioxide has apparent ‘green’ properties, like its noncombustible nature, the fact that it is generally nonpoisonous, and its relative inertness. Thus, the use of supercritical carbon dioxide can provide practical improvements to the sustainability of industrial products and processes. This book provides in-depth literature in the area of industrial green processes, focusing on the separation, purification, and extraction of compounds utilizing supercritical carbon dioxide as a green solvent.

Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies

Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies
Author: Igor Pioro
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 222
Release: 2020-05-20
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9781838807085

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Using SuperCritical Fluids (SCFs) in various processes is not new, because Mother Nature has been processing minerals in aqueous solutions at critical and supercritical pressures for billions of years. Somewhere in the 20th century, SCFs started to be used in various industries as working fluids, coolants, chemical agents, etc. Written by an international team of experts and complete with the latest research, development, and design, Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies is a unique technical book, completely dedicated to modern and advanced applications of supercritical fluids in various industries.Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies provides engineers and specialists in various industries dealing with SCFs as well as researchers, scientists, and students of the corresponding departments with a comprehensive overview of the current status, latest trends and developments of these technologies.Dr Igor Pioro is a professor at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Canada, and the Founding Editor of the ASME Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science.

Polymer Nanocomposite Foams

Polymer Nanocomposite Foams
Author: Vikas Mittal
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 264
Release: 2013-10-18
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781466558137

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Advancements in polymer nanocomposite foams have led to their application in a variety of fields, such as automotive, packaging, and insulation. Employing nanocomposites in foam formation enhances their property profiles, enabling a broader range of uses, from conventional to advanced applications. Since many factors affect the generation of nanost

Supercritical Fluid Nanotechnology

Supercritical Fluid Nanotechnology
Author: Concepcion Domingo Pascual,Pascale Subra-Paternault
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 566
Release: 2015-10-22
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9789814613415

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The environmental and climate program demands technological solutions in the chemical industry that incorporate prevention of pollution. Major advances are needed to reduce the use of organic solvents, such as methanol, toluene, xylene, methyl ethyl ketone, and dichloromethane, which account for 27 percent of total toxics release inventory chemical

Polymeric Foams

Polymeric Foams
Author: Shau-Tarng Lee,Dieter Peter Klaus Scholz
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 302
Release: 2008-12-24
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 1420061267

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Explores the Latest Developments in Polymeric Foams Since the 1960s polymeric foams have grown into a solid industry that affects almost every aspect of modern life. The industry has weathered the energy crisis in the 70s, ozone issues in the 80s, and recycle/reuse in the 90s. However, the pace of development and social climate is rapidly changing again, putting the spotlight even more firmly on performance, sustainable resources, and energy security. Coverage of New Products, Technologies, and Regulations Exploring new concepts, innovations, and developments in the field, Polymeric Foams: Technology and Development in Regulation, Process, and Products provides an international perspective on the direction of foam technologies and applications, focusing on the progress in blowing agent research and hydrofluorocarbons for the polyurethane foam industry. The text covers new foam products, including PP/PS interpolymer, nano-, and biodegradable foams. It also examines new technologies, such as injection foam molding and PVC foam; industry and environmental regulations; and research on foam performance, emission impact, and economic effects. Clearly Follows the Development Process As in most fields these days, efforts to be environmentally friendly and achieve enhanced performance for specialty applications drive research and development. Presenting a clear picture of the development process, this book covers not only new directions in the industry, but how they will impact current and future development.

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids
Author: Richard Smith Jr.,Hiroshi Inomata,Cor Peters
Publsiher: Newnes
Total Pages: 752
Release: 2013-12-08
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780080931302

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This text provides an introduction to supercritical fluids with easy-to-use Excel spreadsheets suitable for both specialized-discipline (chemistry or chemical engineering student) and mixed-discipline (engineering/economic student) classes. Each chapter contains worked examples, tip boxes and end-of-the-chapter problems and projects. Part I covers web-based chemical information resources, applications and simplified theory presented in a way that allows students of all disciplines to delve into the properties of supercritical fluids and to design energy, extraction and materials formation systems for real-world processes that use supercritical water or supercritical carbon dioxide. Part II takes a practical approach and addresses the thermodynamic framework, equations of state, fluid phase equilibria, heat and mass transfer, chemical equilibria and reaction kinetics of supercritical fluids. Spreadsheets are arranged as Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) functions and macros that are completely (source code) accessible for students who have interest in developing their own programs. Programming is not required to solve problems or to complete projects in the text. Property worksheets/spreadsheets that are easy to use in learning environments Worked examples with Excel VBA Worksheet functions allow users to design their own processes Fluid phase equilibria and chemical equilibria worksheets allow users to change conditions, study new solutes, co-solvents, chemical systems or reactions