Transforming Greenhouse Gas Emissions into Energy

Transforming Greenhouse Gas Emissions into Energy
Author: World Intellectual Property Organization
Publsiher: WIPO
Total Pages: 4
Release: 2014-11-10
Genre: Law
ISBN: 9789280523218

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Jenbacher engines are being used in several biogas projects that turn manure into energy.

Landfill Gas to Energy

Landfill Gas to Energy
Author: Hamid R. Amini
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 133
Release: 2011
Genre: Landfill gases
ISBN: OCLC:774405273

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Municipal solid waste (MSW) management strategies typically include a combination of three approaches, recycling, combustion, and landfill disposal. In the US approximately 54% of the generated MSW was landfilled in 2008, mainly because of its simplicity and cost-effectiveness. However, landfills remain a major concern due to potential landfill gas (LFG) emissions, generated from the chemical and biological processes occurring in the disposed waste. The main components of LFG are methane (50-60%) and carbon dioxide (40-50%). Although LFG poses a threat to the environment, if managed properly it is a valuable energy resource due to the methane content. Currently there are over 550 active LFG to energy (LFGTE) facilities in the US, producing renewable energy from LFG. A major challenge in designing/operating a LFGTE facility is the uncertainty in LFG generation rate predictions. LFG generation rates are currently estimated using models that are dependent upon the waste disposal history, moisture content, cover type, and gas collection system, which are associated with significant uncertainties. The objectives of this research were to: (1) Evaluate various approaches of estimating LFG generation and to quantify the uncertainty of the model outcomes based on case-study analysis, (2) Present a methodology to predict long-term LFGTE potential under various operating practices on a regional scale, and (3) Investigate costs and benefits of emitting vs. collecting LFG emissions with regards to operation strategies and regulations. The first-order empirical model appeared to be insensitive to the approach taken in quantifying the model parameters, suggesting that the model may be inadequate to accurately describe LFG generation and collection. The uncertainty values for the model were, in general, at their lowest within five years after waste placement ended. Because of the exponential nature, the uncertainty increased as LFG generation declined to low values decades after the end of waste placement. A methodology was presented to estimate LFGTE potential on a regional scale over a 25-year timeframe with consideration of modeling uncertainties. The methodology was demonstrated for the US state of Florida, and showed that Florida could increase the annual LFGTE production by more than threefold by 2035 through installation of LFGTE facilities at all landfills. Results showed that diverting food waste could significantly reduce fugitive LFG emissions, while having minimal effect on the LFGTE potential. Estimates showed that with enhanced landfill operation and energy production practices, LFGTE power density could be comparable to technologies such as wind, tidal, and geothermal. More aggressive operations must be considered to avoid fugitive LFG emissions, which could significantly affect the economic viability of landfills. With little economic motivation for US landfill owners to voluntarily reduce fugitive emissions, regulations are necessary to increase the cost of emitting GHGs. In light of the recent economic recession, it is not likely that a carbon tax will be established; while a carbon trading program will enforce emission caps and provide a tool to offset some costs and improve emission-reduction systems. Immediate action establishing a US carbon trading market with carbon credit pricing and trading supervised by the federal government may be the solution. Costs of achieving high lifetime LFG collection efficiencies are unlikely to be covered with revenues from tipping fee, electricity sales, tax credits, or carbon credit trading. Under scenarios of highly regulated LFG emissions, sustainable landfilling will require research, development, and application of technologies to reduce the marginal abatement cost, including: (1) Diverting rapidly decomposable waste to alternative treatment methods, (2) Reducing fugitive emissions through usage daily/intermediate covers with high oxidation potential, (3) Increasing the lifetime LFG collection efficiency, and (4) Increasing LFG energy value - for instance by producing high-methane gas through biologically altering the LFG generation pathway.

From Landfill Gas to Energy

From Landfill Gas to Energy
Author: Vasudevan Rajaram,Faisal Zia Siddiqui,M. Emran Khan
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 325
Release: 2011-12-15
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780203181423

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Converting old landfills to energy producing sites, while capturing emitted greenhouse gases, has faced numerous technical, financial and social challenges and developments lately. Also, the re-mining of landfills to recover useful land in dense urban areas and proper landfill closure has been a subject of discussion and investigation. Designed as

The Energy Challenge

The Energy Challenge
Author: Great Britain: Department of Trade and Industry
Publsiher: The Stationery Office
Total Pages: 216
Release: 2006-07-11
Genre: Business & Economics
ISBN: 0101688725

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This publication sets out the findings of the Government's energy review, announced in November 2005, to assess recent developments in the energy sector policy since the Government's Energy White Paper (Cm. 5761, 2003, ISBN 0101576129) was published in 2003. The Government sets out its proposed means of addressing the challenges of carbon reduction and security of energy supply. Faced with a projected loss of up to a third of existing electricity generating capacity - through closure of coal and nuclear plants - over the next two decades, and with challenging targets for reducing carbon emissions by 60 per cent by 2050, the main proposals cover: energy efficiency; cleaner energy; renewable sources; replacing nuclear power stations; cleaning up fossil fuels; developing alternative fuels for transport. Security of supply is concerned with managing increased dependence on oil and gas imports, often from potentially unstable parts of the world; and ensuring that the market delivers substantial and timely investment in electricity generating capacity. The review sets out policies for securing electricity, coal, and gas supplies. The Government looks for competitive prices for energy to be delivered through effective markets.

The Urban Climate Challenge

The Urban Climate Challenge
Author: Craig Johnson,Noah Toly,Heike Schroeder
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 258
Release: 2015-02-20
Genre: Political Science
ISBN: 9781317680055

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Drawing upon a variety of empirical and theoretical perspectives, The Urban Climate Challenge provides a hands-on perspective about the political and technical challenges now facing cities and transnational urban networks in the global climate regime. Bringing together experts working in the fields of global environmental governance, urban sustainability and climate change, this volume explores the ways in which cities, transnational urban networks and global policy institutions are repositioning themselves in relation to this changing global policy environment. Focusing on both Northern and Southern experience across the globe, three questions that have strong bearing on the ways in which we understand and assess the changing relationship between cities and global climate system are examined. How are cities repositioning themselves in relation to the global climate regime? How are cities being repositioned – conceptually and epistemologically? What are the prospects for crafting policies that can reduce the urban carbon footprint while at the same time building resilience to future climate change? The Urban Climate Challenge will be of interest to scholars of urban climate policy, global environmental governance and climate change. It will be of interest to readers more generally interested in the ways in which cities are now addressing the inter-related challenges of sustainable urban growth and global climate change. Chapter 9 and Chapter 11 of this book is freely available as a downloadable Open Access PDF at www.tandfebooks.com/openaccess. It has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 license.

Sustainable Food Waste to Energy Systems

Sustainable Food Waste to Energy Systems
Author: Thomas Trabold,Callie W. Babbitt
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 292
Release: 2018-09-05
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780128111581

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Sustainable Food Waste-to-Energy Systems assesses the utilization of food waste in sustainable energy conversion systems. It explores all sources of waste generated in the food supply chain (downstream from agriculture), with coverage of industrial, commercial, institutional and residential sources. It provides a detailed analysis of the conventional pathways for food waste disposal and utilization, including composting, incineration, landfilling and wastewater treatment. Next, users will find valuable sections on the chemical, biochemical and thermochemical waste-to-energy conversion processes applicable for food waste and an assessment of commercially available sustainable food waste-to-energy conversion technologies. Sustainability aspects, including consideration of environmental, economic and social impacts are also explored. The book concludes with an analysis of how deploying waste-to-energy systems is dependent on cross-cutting research methods, including geographical information systems and big data. It is a useful resource for professionals working in waste-to-energy technologies, as well as those in the food industry and food waste management sector planning and implementing these systems, but is also ideal for researchers, graduate students, energy policymakers and energy analysts interested in the most recent advances in the field. Provides guidance on how specific food waste characteristics drive possible waste-to-energy conversion processes Presents methodologies for selecting among different waste-to-energy options, based on waste volumes, distribution and properties, local energy demand (electrical/thermal/steam), opportunities for industrial symbiosis, regulations and incentives and social acceptance, etc. Contains tools to assess potential environmental and economic performance of deployed systems Links to publicly available resources on food waste data for energy conversion

Meeting the energy challenge

Meeting the energy challenge
Author: Great Britain: Department of Trade and Industry
Publsiher: The Stationery Office
Total Pages: 342
Release: 2007-05-23
Genre: Business & Economics
ISBN: 0101712421

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There are two main energy challenges: tackling climate change by reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and ensuring clean and affordable energy as the country becomes increasingly dependent on imported fuel. These challenges have to be met against the backdrop of rising fossil fuel prices; slower than anticipated liberalisation of the EU energy markets; heightened awareness of the risk arising from remaining oil and gas reserves being concentrated in a few geographical regions; and a need for substantial new investment in power stations, the electricity grid and gas infrastructure. This White Paper sets out the Governments international and domestic strategy to address these challenges and ways to implement the Energy Review of 2006 and the 2006 Pre-Budget Report. There is a separate consultation document on nuclear power.

Sustainability in the Chemical Industry

Sustainability in the Chemical Industry
Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology,Committee on Grand Challenges for Sustainability in the Chemical Industry
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 206
Release: 2005-11-21
Genre: Science
ISBN: 0309133556

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Through innovative design, creation, processing, use, and disposal of substances, the chemical industry plays a major role in advancing applications to support sustainability in a way that will allow humanity to meet current environmental, economic, and societal needs without compromising the progress and success of future generations. Based on a workshop held in February 2005 that brought together a broad cross section of disciplines and organizations in the chemical industry, this report identifies a set of overarching Grand Challenges for Sustainability research in chemistry and chemical engineering to assist the chemical industry in defining a sustainability agenda. These Grand Challenges include life cycle analysis, renewable chemical feedstocks, and education, among others.

Review

Review
Author: Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 1999
Genre: Nuclear energy
ISBN: OSU:32435076147438

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Energy Research Abstracts

Energy Research Abstracts
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 1994
Genre: Power resources
ISBN: MSU:31293011519075

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Global Climate Change The Technology Challenge

Global Climate Change   The Technology Challenge
Author: Frank Princiotta
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 420
Release: 2011-05-19
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9789048131532

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In order to avoid the potentially catastrophic impacts of global warming, the current 3% CO2 global emission growth rate must be transformed to a 1 to 3% declining rate, as soon as possible. This will require a rapid and radical transformation of the world’s energy production and end use systems. The current generation of energy technologies are not capable of achieving the level of mitigation required. Next generations of renewable, low carbon generation and end use technologies will be needed. This book quantifies the mitigation challenge. It then considers the status of key technologies needed to protect the planet from serious climate change impact. Current and emerging technologies are characterized for their mitigation potential, status of development and potential environmental impacts. Power generation, mobile sources, industrial and building sectors are evaluated in detail. The importance and unique challenges for rapidly developing countries, such as China and India are discussed. Current global research and development efforts for key technologies are discussed. It is concluded that it will be necessary to substantially upgrade and accelerate the current worldwide RDD&D effort on both emerging energy technologies and those enabling technologies needed to improve mitigation effectiveness and economics. It will also be necessary to carefully evaluate the potential environmental characteristics of next generation technologies to avoid unacceptable health and ecological impacts. Finally, given the monumental technological challenge associated with transforming the world’s energy system, geoengineering options are evaluated, since if successfully deployed, they have the potential to allow more time for the necessary energy system transformation. ‘This book on Climate Change not only gives a clear picture of the problem but suggests many of the pitfalls in solving it and recommends strongly, a research program to fill the gaps in our knowledge. It is a most useful reference book for all aspects of the problem.’ William D. Ruckelshaus, Madrona Venture Group/Evergreen Venture

Nanotechnology for the Energy Challenge

Nanotechnology for the Energy Challenge
Author: Javier García-Martínez
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 664
Release: 2013-05-20
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9783527665129

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With the daunting energy challenges faced by Mankind in the 21st century, revolutionary new technologies will be the key to a clean, secure and sustainable energy future. Nanostructures often have surprising and very useful capabilities and are thus paving the way for new methodologies in almost every kind of industry. This exceptional monograph provides an overview of the subject, and presents the current state of the art with regard to different aspects of sustainable production, efficient storage and low-impact use of energy. Comprised of eighteen chapters, the book is divided in three thematic parts: Part I Sustainable Energy Production covers the main developments of nanotechnology in clean energy production and conversion, including photovoltaics, hydrogen production, thermal-electrical energy conversion and fuel cells. Part II Efficient Energy Storage is concerned with the potential use of nanomaterials in more efficient energy storage systems such as advanced batteries, supercapacitors and hydrogen storage. Part III Energy Sustainability shows how nanotechnology helps to use energy more efficiently, and the mitigation of impacts to the environment, with special emphasis on energy savings through green nanofabrication, advanced catalysis, nanostructured light-emitting and eletrochromic devices and CO2 capture by nanoporous materials . An essential addition to any bookshelf, it will be invaluable to a variety of research fields including materials science, chemical engineering, solid state, surface, industrial, and physical chemistry, as this is a subject that is very interdisciplinary.

Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development and Independent Agencies Appropriations for 2004

Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development  and Independent Agencies Appropriations for 2004
Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2003
Genre: United States
ISBN: STANFORD:36105050319883

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108 1 Hearings Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development and Independent Agencies Appropriations For 2004 Part 3 April 2 2003

108 1 Hearings  Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development  and Independent Agencies Appropriations For 2004  Part 3  April 2  2003
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2003
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: UOM:39015090413306

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Solar Energy Update

Solar Energy Update
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 1983
Genre: Solar energy
ISBN: UOM:39015024361530

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