Governing Access to Essential Resources

Governing Access to Essential Resources
Author: Katharina Pistor,Olivier De Schutter
Publsiher: Columbia University Press
Total Pages: 416
Release: 2015-12-08
Genre: Business & Economics
ISBN: 9780231540766

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Essential resources do more than satisfy people's needs. They ensure a dignified existence. Since the competition for essential resources, particularly fresh water and arable land, is increasing and standard legal institutions, such as property rights and national border controls, are strangling access to resources for some while delivering prosperity to others, many are searching for ways to ensure their fair distribution. This book argues that the division of essential resources ought to be governed by a combination of Voice and Reflexivity. Voice is the ability of social groups to choose the rules by which they are governed. Reflexivity is the opportunity to question one's own preferences in light of competing claims and to accommodate them in a collective learning process. Having investigated the allocation of essential resources in places as varied as Cambodia, China, India, Kenya, Laos, Morocco, Nepal, the arid American West, and peri-urban areas in West Africa, the contributors to this volume largely concur with the viability of this policy and normative framework. Drawing on their expertise in law, environmental studies, anthropology, history, political science, and economics, they weigh the potential of Voice and Reflexivity against such alternatives as pricing mechanisms, property rights, common resource management, political might, or brute force.

The Commons and a New Global Governance

The Commons and a New Global Governance
Author: Samuel Cogolati,Jan Wouters
Publsiher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Total Pages: 384
Release: 2018-12-28
Genre: Law
ISBN: 9781788118514

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Given the new-found importance of the commons in current political discourse, it has become increasingly necessary to explore the democratic, institutional, and legal implications of the commons for global governance today. This book analyses and explores the ground-breaking model of the commons and its relation to these debates.

Governing Renewable Natural Resources

Governing Renewable Natural Resources
Author: Fiona Nunan
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 252
Release: 2019-11-26
Genre: Nature
ISBN: 9780429628283

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In one volume, this book brings together a diversity of approaches, theory and frameworks that can be used to analyse the governance of renewable natural resources. Renewable natural resources are under pressure, with over-exploitation and degradation raising concern globally. Understanding governance systems and practice is essential for developing effective and fair solutions. This book introduces readers to key concepts and issues concerned with the governance of renewable natural resources and illustrates the diversity of approaches, theories and frameworks that have been used to analyse governance systems and practice. Each chapter provides an introduction to an area of literature and theory and demonstrates application through a case study. The book covers a range of geographical locations, with a focus on low- and middle-income countries, and several types of natural resources. The approaches and theories introduced include common property theory, political ecology, institutional analysis, the social -ecological systems framework and social network analysis. Findings from across the chapters support an analytical focus on institutions and local context and a practical focus on diverse, flexible and inclusive governance solutions. The book serves as an essential introduction to the governance of renewable natural resources for students, researchers and practitioners.

The Role of Government in Water Markets

The Role of Government in Water Markets
Author: Vanessa Casado-Perez
Publsiher: Taylor & Francis
Total Pages: 251
Release: 2016-12-19
Genre: Law
ISBN: 9781317222705

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While water is an increasingly scarce resource, most existing methods to allocate it are neither economically nor environmentally efficient. In these circumstances, water markets offer developed countries a form of regulatory response capable of overcoming many of the shortcomings of current water management. The debate on water markets is, however, a polarized one. This is mostly a result of the misunderstanding of the roles played by governments in water markets. Proponents mistakenly portrayed them as leaving governments, for the most part, out of the picture. Opponents, in turn, understand commodification of water and administration by public agencies as incompatible. Casado Pérez argues that both sides of the debate overlook that water markets require a deeper and more varied governmental intervention than markets for other goods. Drawing on economic theories of regulation based on market failure, she explains the different roles governments should play to ensure a well-functioning water market, and concludes that only the visible hand of governments can ensure the success of water markets. Casado Pérez proves her case by examining case studies of California and Spain to assess the success of their water markets. She explores why water markets were more extensively institutionalized in California than in Spain in the first ten years since their introduction and how the role of governments in each case study impacted water market operation. This unique analysis of governmental roles in water markets, alongside qualitative studies of California and Spain, offers valuable guidance to understand environmental markets and to face the challenges presented by water management in regions with periodical droughts.

The Politics of Fresh Water

The Politics of Fresh Water
Author: Catherine M. Ashcraft,Tamar Mayer
Publsiher: Taylor & Francis
Total Pages: 244
Release: 2016-12-08
Genre: Political Science
ISBN: 9781317509981

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Water scarcity is not simply the result of what nature has to offer but always involves power relations and political decisions. This volume discusses the politics of the freshwater crisis, specifically how access to water is determined in different regions and historical periods, how conflict is constructed and managed, and how identity and efforts to control water systems, through development, technologies, and institutions, shape one another. The book analyzes responses to the water crisis as efforts to mitigate water insecurity and as expressions of collective identity that legitimate, resist, or seek to transform existing inequalities. The chapters focus on different processes that contribute to freshwater scarcity, including land use decisions, pollution, privatization, damming, climate change, discrimination, water management institutions and technology. Case studies are included from North and South America, Africa, Asia, Europe and New Zealand.

Fundamentals of Board Busyness and Corporate Governance

Fundamentals of Board Busyness and Corporate Governance
Author: Vu Quang Trinh
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 89
Release: 2021-11-25
Genre: Business & Economics
ISBN: 9783030892289

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This book delivers the essential concepts and theoretical perspectives of corporate governance and board busyness. It uses the unique context of a dual banking system to capture the potential effects of such aspects on corporate outcomes. Board busyness refers to a board with a substantial proportion of “busy” members who hold multiple directorships. In most cases, directors are “over-boarded,” which means that they hold an excessive number of seats across different boards. The busyness of individuals is gauged to infer their monitoring and recommending abilities through their involvement, efforts, knowledge, skills, and experience, and hence, their behaviour in financial contexts. Yet an assessment of board busyness and its effects is challenging and inconclusive concerning the two opposing arguments surrounding this board attribute: reputation and busyness. The book is the first to thoroughly discuss this up-to-date concept within the dual banking system, and it is designed to help new researchers in this field and students boost their research and academic careers.

The Misery of International Law

The Misery of International Law
Author: John Linarelli,Margot E Salomon,Muthucumaraswamy Sornarajah
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 200
Release: 2018-03-23
Genre: Law
ISBN: 9780191068706

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Poverty, inequality, and dispossession accompany economic globalization. Bringing together three international law scholars, this book addresses how international law and its regimes of trade, investment, finance, as well as human rights, are implicated in the construction of misery, and how international law is producing, reproducing, and embedding injustice and narrowing the alternatives that might really serve humanity. Adopting a pluralist approach, the authors confront the unconscionable dimensions of the global economic order, the false premises upon which they are built, and the role of international law in constituting and sustaining them. Combining insights from radical critiques, political philosophy, history, and critical development studies, the book explores the pathologies at work in international economic law today. International law must abide by the requirements of justice if it is to make a call for compliance with it, but this work claims it drastically fails do so. In a legal order structured around neoliberal ideologies rather than principles of justice, every state can and does grab what it can in the economic sphere on the basis of power and interest, legally so and under colour of law. This book examines how international law on trade and foreign investment and the law and norms on global finance has been shaped to benefit the rich and powerful at the expense of others. It studies how a set of principles, in the form of a New International Economic Order (NIEO), that could have laid the groundwork for a more inclusive international law without even disrupting its market-orientation, were nonetheless undermined. As for international human rights law, it is under the terms of global capitalism that human rights operate. Before we can understand how human rights can create more just societies, we must first expose the ways in which they reflect capitalist society and how they assist in reproducing the underlying terms of immiseration that will continue to create the need for human rights protection. This book challenges conventional justifications of economic globalization and eschews false choices. It is not about whether one is "for" or "against" international trade, foreign investment, or global finance. The issue is to resolve how, if we are to engage in trade, investment, and finance, we do so in a manner that is accountable to persons whose lives are affected by international law. The deployment of human rights for their part must be considered against the ubiquity of neoliberal globalization under law, and not merely as a discrete, benevolent response to it.

Changes in Land Access and Governance in West Africa

Changes in Land Access and Governance in West Africa
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: IIED
Total Pages: 92
Release: 2006
Genre: Land tenure
ISBN: 9781843696131

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Just Financial Markets

Just Financial Markets
Author: Lisa Herzog
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 352
Release: 2017-04-13
Genre: Business & Economics
ISBN: 9780198755661

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Financial markets raise not only questions of economic efficiency, but also questions of justice - especially in highly 'financialized' societies such as ours. This volume brings together leading scholars from political theory, law, and economics in order to discuss the relationship between financial markets and justice. This relationship is multi-facetted: it concerns not only the normative foundations of how we think about justice and financial markets, but alsothe legal framework within which financial markets take place, and which currently tends to favour certain players more than others. There are also questions of justice with regard to specificinstitutions such as central banks or rating agencies, and with regard to the representation of women and other minorities in financial markets. And finally, there is the question of why reform is so slow. This accesible volume brings together analyses and proposals for reform, inviting us to rethink the place and role of financial markets in our societies.

Urban Governance Voice and Poverty in the Developing World

Urban Governance Voice and Poverty in the Developing World
Author: Nick Devas
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2014-10-14
Genre: Architecture
ISBN: 9781136549304

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Poverty and governance are both issues high on the agenda of international agencies and governments in the South. With urban areas accounting for a steadily growing share of the world's poor people, an international team of researchers focused their attention on the hitherto little-studied relationship between urban governance and urban poverty. In their timely and in-depth examination of ten cities in Africa, Asia and Latin America, they demonstrate that in many countries the global trends towards decentralization and democratization offer new opportunities for the poor to have an influence on the decisions that affect them. They also show how that influence depends on the nature of those democratic arrangements and decision-making processes at the local level, as well as on the ability of the poor to organize. The study involved interviews with key actors within and outside city governments, discussions with poverty groups, community organizations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), as well as analyses of data on poverty, services and finance. This book presents insights, conclusions and practical examples that are of relevance for other cities. It outlines policy implications for national and local governments, NGOs and donor agencies, and highlights ways in which poor people can use their voice to influence the various institutions of city governance.

Routledge Handbook of Food as a Commons

Routledge Handbook of Food as a Commons
Author: Jose Luis Vivero-Pol,Tomaso Ferrando,Olivier De Schutter,Ugo Mattei
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 408
Release: 2018-12-17
Genre: Law
ISBN: 9781351665520

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From the scientific and industrial revolution to the present day, food – an essential element of life – has been progressively transformed into a private, transnational, mono-dimensional commodity of mass consumption for a global market. But over the last decade there has been an increased recognition that this can be challenged and reconceptualized if food is regarded and enacted as a commons. This Handbook provides the first comprehensive review and synthesis of knowledge and new thinking on how food and food systems can be thought, interpreted and practiced around the old/new paradigms of commons and commoning. The overall aim is to investigate the multiple constraints that occur within and sustain the dominant food and nutrition regime and to explore how it can change when different elements of the current food systems are explored and re-imagined from a commons perspective. Chapters do not define the notion of commons but engage with different schools of thought: the economic approach, based on rivalry and excludability; the political approach, recognizing the plurality of social constructions and incorporating epistemologies from the South; the legal approach that describes three types of proprietary regimes (private, public and collective) and different layers of entitlement (bundles of rights); and the radical-activist approach that considers the commons as the most subversive, coherent and history-rooted alternative to the dominant neoliberal narrative. These schools have different and rather diverging epistemologies, vocabularies, ideological stances and policy proposals to deal with the construction of food systems, their governance, the distributive implications and the socio-ecological impact on Nature and Society. The book sparks the debate on food as a commons between and within disciplines, with particular attention to spaces of resistance (food sovereignty, de-growth, open knowledge, transition town, occupations, bottom-up social innovations) and organizational scales (local food, national policies, South–South collaborations, international governance and multi-national agreements). Overall, it shows the consequences of a shift to the alternative paradigm of food as a commons in terms of food, the planet and living beings.

Governing Markets as Knowledge Commons

Governing Markets as Knowledge Commons
Author: Erwin Dekker,Pavel Kuchař
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 300
Release: 2021-12-31
Genre: Business & Economics
ISBN: 9781108483599

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Volume compiles studies of the production and reproduction of market-supporting social infrastructures through the prism of knowledge commons.

Governance Natural Resources and Post Conflict Peacebuilding

Governance  Natural Resources and Post Conflict Peacebuilding
Author: Carl Bruch,Carroll Muffett,Sandra S. Nichols
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 1142
Release: 2016-04-07
Genre: Law
ISBN: 9781136272066

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When the guns are silenced, those who have survived armed conflict need food, water, shelter, the means to earn a living, and the promise of safety and a return to civil order. Meeting these needs while sustaining peace requires more than simply having governmental structures in place; it requires good governance. Natural resources are essential to sustaining people and peace in post-conflict countries, but governance failures often jeopardize such efforts. This book examines the theory, practice, and often surprising realities of post-conflict governance, natural resource management, and peacebuilding in fifty conflict-affected countries and territories. It includes thirty-nine chapters written by more than seventy researchers, diplomats, military personnel, and practitioners from governmental, intergovernmental, and nongovernmental organizations. The book highlights the mutually reinforcing relationship between natural resource management and good governance. Natural resource management is crucial to rebuilding governance and the rule of law, combating corruption, improving transparency and accountability, engaging disenfranchised populations, and building confidence after conflict. At the same time, good governance is essential for ensuring that natural resource management can meet immediate needs for post-conflict stability and development, while simultaneously laying the foundation for a sustainable peace. Drawing on analyses of the close relationship between governance and natural resource management, the book explores lessons from past conflicts and ongoing reconstruction efforts; illustrates how those lessons may be applied to the formulation and implementation of more effective governance initiatives; and presents an emerging theoretical and practical framework for policy makers, researchers, practitioners, and students. Governance, Natural Resources, and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding is part of a global initiative to identify and analyze lessons in post-conflict peacebuilding and natural resource management. The project has generated six books of case studies and analyses, with contributions from practitioners, policy makers, and researchers. Other books in this series address high-value resources, land, water, livelihoods, and assessing and restoring natural resources.

Monsoon Economies

Monsoon Economies
Author: Tirthankar Roy
Publsiher: MIT Press
Total Pages: 230
Release: 2022-04-12
Genre: Nature
ISBN: 9780262369275

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How interventions to mitigate climate-caused poverty and inequality in India came at a cost to environmental sustainability. In the monsoon regions of South Asia, the rainy season sustains life but brings with it the threat of floods, followed by a long stretch of the year when little gainful work is possible and the threat of famine looms. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, a series of interventions by Indian governments and other actors mitigated these conditions, enabling agricultural growth, encouraging urbanization, and bringing about a permanent decrease in death rates. But these actions—largely efforts to ensure wider access to water—came at a cost to environmental sustainability. In Monsoon Economies, Tirthankar Roy explores the interaction between the environment and the economy in the emergence of modern India. Roy argues that the tropical monsoon climate makes economic and population growth contingent on water security. But in a water-scarce world, the means used to increase water security not only created environmental stresses but also made political conflict more likely. Roy investigates famine relief, the framing of a seasonal “water famine,” and the concept of public trust in water; the political movements that challenged socially sanctioned forms of deprivation; water as a public good; water quality in cities; the shift from impounding river water in dams and reservoirs to exploring groundwater; the seasonality of a monsoon economy; and economic lessons from India for a world facing environmental degradation.

Rights based Litigation Urban Governance and Social Justice in South Africa

Rights based Litigation  Urban Governance and Social Justice in South Africa
Author: Marius Pieterse
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 244
Release: 2017-09-08
Genre: Law
ISBN: 9781351671972

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Rights-based Litigation, Urban Governance and Social Justice in South Africa considers the overlap between legal and everyday struggles for social and spatial justice in the particular context of Johannesburg, South Africa. Drawing from literature across disciplines of law, urban geography and urban planning, as well as from reported case-law concerning the invocation of constitutional rights in Johannesburg and other South African cities, the book critically examines whether, and to what extent, the invocation of legal rights before South African courts have contributed to the advancement of social justice in the city. It considers the impact of the legal assertion of different constituent aspects of the so-called "right to the city" on the many people simultaneously performing the right, the governance structures responsible for enabling and facilitating its enjoyment and, thirdly, the physical place in which it is performed. Drawing broad conclusions on the utility of rights-based litigation for the achievement of social change and spatial justice, this book will be of interest to students and scholars of South Africa, constitutional law, human rights law, regulatory law, sociology of rights, studies of law and society, urban studies, urban geography, governance studies, and development studies.