Human Colonization of the Arctic The Interaction Between Early Migration and the Paleoenvironment

Human Colonization of the Arctic  The Interaction Between Early Migration and the Paleoenvironment
Author: V.M. Kotlyakov,A. A. Velichko,S. A. Vasil'ev
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 650
Release: 2017-09-11
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780128135334

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Human Colonization of the Arctic: The Interaction Between Early Migration and the Paleoenvironment explores the relationship between humans and the environment during this early time of colonization, utilizing analytical methods from both the social and natural sciences to develop a unique, interdisciplinary approach that gives the reader a much broader understanding of the interrelationship between humanity and the environment. As colonization of the polar region was intermittent and irregular, based on how early humans interacted with the land, this book provides a glance into how humans developed new ways to make the region more habitable. The book applies not only to the physical continents, but also the arctic waters. This is how humans succeeded in crossing the Bering Strait and water area between Canadian Arctic Islands. About 4500 years ago , humans reached the northern extremity of Greenland and were able to live through the months of polar nights by both adapting to, and making, changes in their environment. Written by pioneering experts who understand the relationship between humans and the environment in the arctic Addresses why the patterns of colonization were so irregular Includes coverage of the earliest examples of humans, developing an understanding of ecosystem services for economic development in extreme climates Covers both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems

Arctic Governance in a Changing World

Arctic Governance in a Changing World
Author: Mary Durfee,Rachael Lorna Johnstone
Publsiher: Rowman & Littlefield
Total Pages: 344
Release: 2019-01-14
Genre: Political Science
ISBN: 9781442235649

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This comprehensive text explains the relationship between the Arctic and the wider world through the lenses of international relations, international law, and political economy. It is an essential resource for any student or scholar seeking a clear and succinct account of a region of ever-growing international importance.

Climate Changes in the Holocene

Climate Changes in the Holocene
Author: Eustathios Chiotis
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 406
Release: 2018-11-15
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9781351260237

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This book highlights climate as a complex physical, chemical, biological, and geological system, in perpetual change, under astronomical, predominantly, solar control. It has been shaped to some degree through the past glaciation cycles repeated in the last three million years. The Holocene, the current interglacial epoch which started ca. 11,700 years ago, marks the transition from the Stone Age to the unprecedented cultural evolution of our civilization. Significant climate changes have been recorded in natural archives during the Holocene, including the rapid waning of ice sheets, millennial shifting of the monsoonal fringe in the northern hemisphere, and abrupt centennial events. A typical case of severe environmental change is the greening of Sahara in the Early Holocene and the gradual desertification again since the fifth millennium before present. Climate Changes in the Holocene: Impact, Adaptation, and Resilience investigates the impact of natural climate changes on humans and civilization through case studies from various places, periods, and climates. Earth and human society are approached as a complex system, thereby emphasizing the necessity to improve adaptive capacity in view of the anthropogenic global warming and ecosystem degradation. Features: Written by distinguished experts, the book presents the fundamentals of the climate system, the unparalleled progress achieved in the last decade in the fields of intensified research for improved understanding of the carbon cycle, climate components, and their interaction. Presents the application of paleoclimatology and modeling in climate reconstruction. Examines the new era of satellite-based climate monitoring and the prospects of reduced carbon dioxide emissions.

Arctic One Health

Arctic One Health
Author: Morten Tryland
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 573
Release: 2022-05-25
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9783030878535

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This multidisciplinary book discusses the manifold challenges arctic marine and terrestrial wildlife, ecosystems and people face these times. Major health threats caused by the consequences of climate change, environmental pollution and increasing tourism in northern regions around the globe are explored. The most common infectious diseases in wild and domesticated arctic animals are reviewed and the impact they could have on circumpolar ecosystems as well as on the lives of arctic people are profoundly discussed. Moreover, the book reviews arctic hunting, herding and food conservation strategies and introduces veterinary medicine in remote indigenous communities. "Arctic One Health" is authored by experts based in arctic regions spanning from North America over Europe to Asia to cover a broad range of topics and perspectives. The book addresses researchers in Veterinary Medicine, Ecology, Microbiology and Anthropology. The book contributes towards achieving the UN Sustainable Developmental Goals, in particular SDG 15, Life on Land.

Global Change and Forest Soils

Global Change and Forest Soils
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 538
Release: 2019-11-23
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780444639998

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Global Change and Forest Soils: Cultivating Stewardship of a Finite Natural Resource, Volume 36, provides a state-of-the-science summary and synthesis of global forest soils that identifies concerns, issues and opportunities for soil adaptation and mitigation as external pressures from global changes arise. Where, how and why some soils are resilient to global change while others are at risk is explored, as are upcoming train wrecks and success stories across boreal, temperate, and tropical forests. Each chapter offers multiple sections written by leading soil scientists who comment on wildfires, climate change and forest harvesting effects, while also introducing examples of current global issues. Readers will find this book to be an integrated, up-to-date assessment on global forest soils. Presents sections on boreal, temperate and tropical soils for a diverse audience Serves as an important reference source for anyone interested in both a big-picture assessment of global soil issues and an in-depth examination of specific environmental topics Provides a unique synthesis of forest soils and their collective ability to respond to global change Offers chapters written by leading soil scientists Prepares readers to meet the daily challenges of drafting multi-resource environmental science and policy documents

Climate Change and the Health of Nations

Climate Change and the Health of Nations
Author: Anthony McMichael
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 400
Release: 2017-02-06
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: 9780190262952

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When we think of "climate change," we think of man-made global warming, caused by greenhouse gas emissions. But natural climate change has occurred throughout human history, and populations have had to adapt to the climate's vicissitudes. Anthony J. McMichael, a renowned epidemiologist and a pioneer in the field of how human health relates to climate change, is the ideal person to tell this story. Climate Change and the Health of Nations shows how the natural environment has vast direct and indirect repercussions for human health and welfare. McMichael takes us on a tour of human history through the lens of major transformations in climate. From the very beginning of our species some five million years ago, human biology has evolved in response to cooling temperatures, new food sources, and changing geography. As societies began to form, they too adapted in relation to their environments, most notably with the development of agriculture eleven thousand years ago. Agricultural civilization was a Faustian bargain, however: the prosperity and comfort that an agrarian society provides relies on the assumption that the environment will largely remain stable. Indeed, for agriculture to succeed, environmental conditions must be just right, which McMichael refers to as the "Goldilocks phenomenon." Global warming is disrupting this balance, just as other climate-related upheavals have tested human societies throughout history. As McMichael shows, the break-up of the Roman Empire, the bubonic Plague of Justinian, and the mysterious collapse of Mayan civilization all have roots in climate change. Why devote so much analysis to the past, when the daunting future of climate change is already here? Because the story of mankind�s previous survival in the face of an unpredictable and unstable climate, and of the terrible toll that climate change can take, could not be more important as we face the realities of a warming planet. This sweeping magnum opus is not only a rigorous, innovative, and fascinating exploration of how the climate affects the human condition, but also an urgent call to recognize our species' utter reliance on the earth as it is.

The Arctic in the Anthropocene

The Arctic in the Anthropocene
Author: Committee on Emerging Research Questions in the Arctic,Polar Research Board,National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies
Publsiher: National Academy Press
Total Pages: 224
Release: 2014-07-31
Genre: Nature
ISBN: 0309301831

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Once ice-bound, difficult to access, and largely ignored by the rest of the world, the Arctic is now front and center in the midst of many important questions facing the world today. Our daily weather, what we eat, and coastal flooding are all interconnected with the future of the Arctic. The year 2012 was an astounding year for Arctic change. The summer sea ice volume smashed previous records, losing approximately 75 percent of its value since 1980 and half of its areal coverage. Multiple records were also broken when 97 percent of Greenland's surface experienced melt conditions in 2012, the largest melt extent in the satellite era. Receding ice caps in Arctic Canada are now exposing land surfaces that have been continuously ice covered for more than 40,000 years. What happens in the Arctic has far-reaching implications around the world. Loss of snow and ice exacerbates climate change and is the largest contributor to expected global sea level rise during the next century. Ten percent of the world's fish catches comes from Arctic and sub-Arctic waters. The U.S. Geological Survey estimated that up to 13 percent of the world's remaining oil reserves are in the Arctic. The geologic history of the Arctic may hold vital clues about massive volcanic eruptions and the consequent release of massive amount of coal fly ash that is thought to have caused mass extinctions in the distant past. How will these changes affect the rest of Earth? What research should we invest in to best understand this previously hidden land, manage impacts of change on Arctic communities, and cooperate with researchers from other nations? "The Arctic in the Anthropocene" reviews research questions previously identified by Arctic researchers, and then highlights the new questions that have emerged in the wake of and expectation of further rapid Arctic change, as well as new capabilities to address them. This report is meant to guide future directions in U.S. Arctic research so that research is targeted on critical scientific and societal questions and conducted as effectively as possible. "The Arctic in the Anthropocene" identifies both a disciplinary and a cross-cutting research strategy for the next 10 to 20 years, and evaluates infrastructure needs and collaboration opportunities. The climate, biology, and society in the Arctic are changing in rapid, complex, and interactive ways. Understanding the Arctic system has never been more critical; thus, Arctic research has never been more important. This report will be a resource for institutions, funders, policy makers, and students. Written in an engaging style, "The Arctic in the Anthropocene" paints a picture of one of the last unknown places on this planet, and communicates the excitement and importance of the discoveries and challenges that lie ahead.

The Baltic Sea Basin

The Baltic Sea Basin
Author: Jan Harff,Svante Björck,Peer Hoth
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 449
Release: 2011-04-15
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9783642172205

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This book reports about the results of a Special Symposium “The Baltic Sea Basin”, held on August 11, 2008, within the frame of the 33rd IGC at Oslo, Norway in order to foster the understanding of the Baltic Basin as a unit in terms of genesis, structure, ongoing processes and utilization. It is the first time that in a joint publication, scientists from different disciplines give a comprehensive overview about the Baltic Sea basin in such a general sense. The book will be used not only by students and scientist but also by engineers and decision makers from industry and politics. Summarizing the state of the art in the investigation of the Baltic Sea Basin, but also in the resource utilisation of the basin the book will enhance the development of new monitoring strategies and technical device design including satellite observation methods, the establishment of international research laboratories, innovative topics for interdisciplinary research projects, etc.