Human Embryos and Preimplantation Genetic Technologies

Human Embryos and Preimplantation Genetic Technologies
Author: E. Scott Sills,Gianpiero D. Palermo
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 222
Release: 2019-05-01
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780128167441

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Human Embryos and Preimplantation Genetic Technologies: Ethical, Social, and Public Policy Aspects presents the first holistic analysis of PGD and PGS as it is practiced and regulated worldwide. In addition to scientific and technical aspects, the book provides perspectives on the ethical, legal, religious, policy and social implications of global assisted reproduction technologies, including in Africa, Asia, Europe, North and South America, and Australia. Chapters cover history, ethics, feminism, family dynamics, psychological and interpersonal factors, the current state of PGD and PGS in 20 different sovereign nations and religious communities, and provide an analysis of public policy concerns and future directions. Provides an in-depth discussion of PGD and PGS as practiced and regulated worldwide Offers an accessible resource for researchers, medical professionals, patients, regulators and policymakers seeking expert opinions on PGS and PGD Contains chapters contributed by international clinicians, researchers and thought leaders in the field of assisted reproductive technology

Heritable Human Genome Editing

Heritable Human Genome Editing
Author: The Royal Society,National Academy of Sciences,National Academy of Medicine,International Commission on the Clinical Use of Human Germline Genome Editing
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 238
Release: 2021-01-16
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780309671132

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Heritable human genome editing - making changes to the genetic material of eggs, sperm, or any cells that lead to their development, including the cells of early embryos, and establishing a pregnancy - raises not only scientific and medical considerations but also a host of ethical, moral, and societal issues. Human embryos whose genomes have been edited should not be used to create a pregnancy until it is established that precise genomic changes can be made reliably and without introducing undesired changes - criteria that have not yet been met, says Heritable Human Genome Editing. From an international commission of the U.S. National Academy of Medicine, U.S. National Academy of Sciences, and the U.K.'s Royal Society, the report considers potential benefits, harms, and uncertainties associated with genome editing technologies and defines a translational pathway from rigorous preclinical research to initial clinical uses, should a country decide to permit such uses. The report specifies stringent preclinical and clinical requirements for establishing safety and efficacy, and for undertaking long-term monitoring of outcomes. Extensive national and international dialogue is needed before any country decides whether to permit clinical use of this technology, according to the report, which identifies essential elements of national and international scientific governance and oversight.

Human Preimplantation Embryo Selection

Human Preimplantation Embryo Selection
Author: Jacques Cohen,Kay Elder
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 384
Release: 2007-09-26
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780203089712

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The most profound dilemma in assisted reproduction to date is the inability to recognize potentially viable embryos before their replacement into the reproductive tract. Application of increasingly advanced new technology has allowed the field of embryo evaluation to evolve rapidly and dramatically over the past five years.Human Preimplantation Emb

Comparative Legal Frameworks for Pre Implantation Embryonic Genetic Interventions

Comparative Legal Frameworks for Pre Implantation Embryonic Genetic Interventions
Author: Pin Lean Lau
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 326
Release: 2019-08-01
Genre: Law
ISBN: 9783030223083

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This book discusses the possibilities for the use of ​international human rights law ​(and specifically, international biomedical laws related to the protection of human rights and the human genome) to provide a guiding framework for the future regulation of genetic modifications applied to human embryos and other precursor materials, when these are made with the aim of implanting a genetically altered embryo in a woman. The significance and timeliness of the work derives from the recent availability of CRISPR/​Cas9 and other gene editing tools, and from lacunae in international law regarding the legality of embryo modification with these tools and appropriate governance structures for the oversight of resulting practices. The emergence of ​improved genome editing tools like CRISPR/Cas9, holds the promise of eradicating genetic diseases in the near future. But its possible future applications with Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) raises a plethora of legal and ethical concerns about "remaking" future human beings. The work aims to address an urgent call, to embed these rising concerns about biomedical advancements into the fundamental tailoring of legal systems. Suitable regulatory approaches, coupled with careful reflection of global biomedical laws and individual constitutional systems must be explored. The Book analyzes the impact of reproductive biomedical technologies on the legal and ethical dimensions of regulatory frameworks in selected constitutional systems like the US, the UK, Australia, Malaysia and Thailand. Employing a comparative law methodology, the work reveals a dynamic intersection between legal cultures, socio-philosophical reasoning and the development of a human rights-based framework in bio-political studies. Navigating towards a truly internationalized biomedical approach to emerging technologies, it presents an understanding why a renegotiation and reinvigoration of a contemporary and "new" universal shared values system in the ​international human rights discourse is now necessary.

Born and Made

Born and Made
Author: Sarah Franklin,Celia Roberts
Publsiher: Princeton University Press
Total Pages: 283
Release: 2006-10-30
Genre: Social Science
ISBN: 9781400835423

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Are new reproductive and genetic technologies racing ahead of a society that is unable to establish limits to their use? Have the "new genetics" outpaced our ability to control their future applications? This book examines the case of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), the procedure used to prevent serious genetic disease by embryo selection, and the so-called "designer baby" method. Using detailed empirical evidence, the authors show that far from being a runaway technology, the regulation of PGD over the past fifteen years provides an example of precaution and restraint, as well as continual adaptation to changing social circumstances. Through interviews, media and policy analysis, and participant observation at two PGD centers in the United Kingdom, Born and Made provides an in-depth sociological examination of the competing moral obligations that define the experience of PGD. Among the many novel findings of this pathbreaking ethnography of reproductive biomedicine is the prominence of uncertainty and ambivalence among PGD patients and professionals--a finding characteristic of the emerging "biosociety," in which scientific progress is inherently paradoxical and contradictory. In contrast to much of the speculative futurology that defines this field, Born and Made provides a timely and revealing case study of the on-the-ground decision-making that shapes technological assistance to human heredity.

The End of Sex and the Future of Human Reproduction

The End of Sex and the Future of Human Reproduction
Author: Henry T. Greely
Publsiher: Harvard University Press
Total Pages: 381
Release: 2016-05-30
Genre: Law
ISBN: 9780674728967

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Within twenty, maybe forty, years most people in developed countries will stop having sex for the purpose of reproduction. Instead, prospective parents will be told as much as they wish to know about the genetic makeup of dozens of embryos, and they will pick one or two for implantation, gestation, and birth. And it will be safe, lawful, and free. In this work of prophetic scholarship, Henry T. Greely explains the revolutionary biological technologies that make this future a seeming inevitability and sets out the deep ethical and legal challenges humanity faces as a result. “Readers looking for a more in-depth analysis of human genome modifications and reproductive technologies and their legal and ethical implications should strongly consider picking up Greely’s The End of Sex and the Future of Human Reproduction...[It has] the potential to empower readers to make informed decisions about the implementation of advancements in genetics technologies.” —Dov Greenbaum, Science “[Greely] provides an extraordinarily sophisticated analysis of the practical, political, legal, and ethical implications of the new world of human reproduction. His book is a model of highly informed, rigorous, thought-provoking speculation about an immensely important topic.” —Glenn C. Altschuler, Psychology Today

Born and Made

Born and Made
Author: Sarah Franklin,Celia Roberts
Publsiher: Princeton University Press
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2006-11-19
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780691121932

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This book examines the case of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), the procedure used to prevent serious genetic disease by embryo selection, and the so-called 'designer baby' method. Using detailed empirical evidence, the authors show that far from being a runaway technology, the regulation of PGD over the past fifteen years provides an example of precaution and restraint, as well as continual adaptation to changing social circumstances.Through interviews, media and policy analysis, and participant observation at two PGD centers in the United Kingdom, 'Born and Made' provides an in-depth sociological examination of the competing moral obligations that define the experience of PGD. Among the many novel findings of this pathbreaking ethnography of reproductive biomedicine is the prominence of uncertainty and ambivalence among PGD patients and professionals - a finding characteristic of the emerging 'biosociety', in which scientific progress is inherently paradoxical and contradictory.

Assisted Conception Research Ethics and Law

Assisted Conception  Research  Ethics and Law
Author: Jennifer Gunning
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 226
Release: 2017-11-01
Genre: Social Science
ISBN: 9781351723305

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This title was first published in 2003. Assisted conception is an area where it often seems that all the ethical and legal issues have been covered and then technology advances and the discussions start all over again. The book is an anthology of papers presented during a project looking at thearaputic research in assisted conception (TRAC). It is divided into three areas addressing research, ethics and law. Each chapter begins with an overview of the issues, with the aim being to present new perspectives rather than covering old ground. The European Convention on Human rights and Biomedicine came into force on December 1, 1999. The Convention allows thearaputic research and research on spare embryos but forbid fundamental research, which may be essential to the safe development of new techniques. This also means that people may become part of an experimental process without their consent. The project brings together clinicians, embryologists, lawyers and ethicists to ascertain whether there might be a risk of infertility patients being exposed to insufficiently tested procedures and to see if there is a need for fundamental research in this area. It also looks at the legislative safeguards that exist and whether a European standard for treatment should be set.