Imaging of the Human Brain in Health and Disease

Imaging of the Human Brain in Health and Disease
Author: Philip Seeman,Bertha Madras
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 532
Release: 2013-11-15
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780124186842

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Brain imaging technology remains at the forefront of advances in both our understanding of the brain and our ability to diagnose and treat brain disease and disorders. Imaging of the Human Brain in Health and Disease examines the localization of neurotransmitter receptors in the nervous system of normal, healthy humans and compares that with humans who are suffering from various neurologic diseases. Opening chapters introduce the basic science of imaging neurotransmitters, including sigma, acetylcholine, opioid, and dopamine receptors. Imaging the healthy and diseased brain includes brain imaging of anger, pain, autism, the release of dopamine, the impact of cannabinoids, and Alzheimer's disease. This book is a valuable companion to a wide range of scholars, students, and researchers in neuroscience, clinical neurology, and psychiatry, and provides a detailed introduction to the application of advanced imaging to the treatment of brain disorders and disease. A focused introduction to imaging healthy and diseased brains Focuses on the primary neurotransmitter release Includes sigma, acetylcholine, opioid, and dopamine receptors Presents the imaging of healthy and diseased brains via anger, pain, autism, and Alzheimer's disease

Brain Imaging in Behavioral Neuroscience

Brain Imaging in Behavioral Neuroscience
Author: Cameron S. Carter,Jeffrey W. Dalley
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 394
Release: 2011-11-04
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9783642287114

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This volume highlights the remarkable new developments in brain imaging, including those that apply magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET), that allow us to non invasively study the living human brain in health and in disease. These technological advances have allowed us to obtain new and powerful insights into the structure and function of the healthy brain as it develops across the life cycle, as well as the molecular make up of brain systems and circuits as they develop and change with age. New brain imaging technologies have also given us new insights into the causes of many common brain disorders, including ADHD, schizophrenia, depression and Alzheimer’s disease, which collectively affect a large segment of the population. These new insights have major implications for understanding and treating these brain disorders, and are providing clinicians with the first ever set of biomarkers that can be used to guide diagnosis and monitor treatment effects. The advances in brain imaging over the last 20 years, summarized in this volume, represent a major advance in modern biomedical sciences.

Advanced Brain Neuroimaging Topics in Health and Disease

Advanced Brain Neuroimaging Topics in Health and Disease
Author: Dorina Papageorgiou,George Christopoulos,Stelios Smirnakis
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 680
Release: 2014-05-31
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9789535112037

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The brain is the most complex computational device we know, consisting of highly interacting and redundant networks of areas, supporting specific brain functions. The rules by which these areas organize themselves to perform specific computations have only now started to be uncovered. Advances in non-invasive neuroimaging technologies have revolutionized our understanding of the functional anatomy of cortical circuits in health and disease states, which is the focus of this book. The first section of this book focuses on methodological issues, such as combining functional MRI technology with other brain imaging modalities. The second section examines the application of brain neuroimaging to understand cognitive, visual, auditory, motor and decision-making networks, as well as neurological diseases. The use of non-invasive neuroimaging technologies will continue to stimulate an exponential growth in understanding basic brain processes, largely as a result of sustained advances in neuroimaging methods and applications.

Imaging and monitoring astrocytes in health and disease

Imaging and monitoring astrocytes in health and disease
Author: Carole Escartin, Keith Murai
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2014-11-25
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: 9782889193936

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Astrocytes are key cellular partners to neurons in the brain. They play an important role in multiple processes such as neurotransmitter recycling, trophic support, antioxidant defense, ionic homeostasis, inflammatory modulation, neurovascular and neurometabolic coupling, neurogenesis, synapse formation and synaptic plasticity. In addition to their crucial involvement in normal brain physiology, it is well known that astrocytes adopt a reactive phenotype under most acute and chronic pathological conditions such as ischemia, trauma, brain cancer, epilepsy, demyelinating and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the functional impact of astrocyte reactivity is still unclear. During the last decades, the development of innovative approaches to study astrocytes has significantly improved our understanding of their prominent role in brain function and their contribution to disease states. In particular, new genetic tools, molecular probes, and imaging techniques that achieve high spatial and temporal resolution have revealed new insight into astrocyte functions in situ. This Research Topic provides a collection of cutting-edge techniques, approaches and models to study astrocytes in health and disease. It also suggests new directions to achieve discoveries on these fascinating cells.

Magnetoencephalography an emerging neuroimaging tool for studying normal and abnormal human brain development

Magnetoencephalography  an emerging neuroimaging tool for studying normal and abnormal human brain development
Author: Christos Papadelis,Patricia Ellen Grant, Yoshio Okada,Hubert Preissl
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2015-10-12
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: 9782889196586

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Research on the human brain development has seen an upturn in the past years mostly due to novel neuroimaging tools that became available to study the anatomy and function of the developing brain. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) are beginning to be used more frequently in children to determine the gross anatomy and structural connectivity of their brain. Functional MRI and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) determine the hemodynamics and electroencephalography (EEG) the electrophysiological functions of the developing human brain. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) complements EEG as the only other technique capable of directly measuring the developing brain electrophysiology. Although MEG is still being used relatively rarely in pediatric studies, the recent development in this technology is beginning to demonstrate its utility in both basic and clinical neurosciences. MEG seems to be quite attractive for pediatric use, since it measures the human brain activity in an entirely passive manner without possessing any conceivable risk to the developing tissue. MEG sessions generally require minimal patient preparation, and the recordings are extremely well tolerated from children. Biomagnetic techniques also offer an indirect way to assess the functional brain and heart activity of fetuses in humans in utero by measuring the magnetic field outside the maternal abdomen. Magnetic field produced by the electrical activity in the heart and brain of the fetus is not attenuated by the vernix, a waxy film covering its entire skin. A biomagnetic instrument specifically designed for fetal studies has been developed for this purpose. Fetal MEG studies using such a system have shown that both spontaneous brain activity and evoked cortical activity can be measured from outside the abdomen of pregnant mothers. Fetal MEG may become clinically very useful for implementation and evaluation of intervention programs in at-risk populations. Biomagnetic instruments have also been developed for specifically measuring the brain activity in newborns, infants and older children. MEG studies have shown the usefulness of MEG for localizing active regions in the brain and also for tracking the longitudinal maturation of various sensory systems. Studies of pediatric patients are beginning to show interesting functional pathology in autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, epilepsy and other types of neurological and psychiatric disorders (Down syndrome, traumatic brain injury, Tourette syndrome, hearing deficits, childhood migraine). In this eBook, we compile the state of the art MEG and other neuroimaging studies focused on pediatric population in both health and disease. We believe a review of the recent studies of human brain development using MEG is quite timely, since we are witnessing advances not only in the instrumentation optimized for the pediatric population, but also in the research based on various types of MEG systems designed for both human fetuses in utero and neonates and older children.

Translational Pain Research

Translational Pain Research
Author: Lawrence Kruger,Alan R Light
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 432
Release: 2009-11-24
Genre: Health & Fitness
ISBN: 9781439812105

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One of the Most Rapidly Advancing Fields in Modern Neuroscience The success of molecular biology and the new tools derived from molecular genetics have revolutionized pain research and its translation to therapeutic effectiveness. Bringing together recent advances in modern neuroscience regarding genetic studies in mice and humans and the practicality of clinical trials, Translational Pain Research: From Mouse to Man effectively bridges the gap between basic research and patient care by humanely examining rodent models for pain associated with bone cancer, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, and cardiac episodes. Distinguished Team of International Contributors In addition to addressing the groundbreaking technical advances in tract tracing, endocannabinoids, cannabis, gene therapy, siRNA gene studies, and the role of glia, cytokines, P2X receptors and ATP, this book also presents cutting-edge information on: Nociceptor sensitization Muscle nociceptors and metabolite detection Visceral afferents in disease Innovative rodent model for bone cancer pain Highly specific receptor cloning Modular molecular mechanisms relevant to painful neuropathies This sharply focused work also discusses unexpected discoveries derived from brain-imaging studies related to thalamic pain. Translational Pain Research covers the progress made toward bringing laboratory science (much of it at the molecular level) to our understanding of pain phenomena in humans, with the ultimate goal of reducing the suffering that often accompanies pain and its indirect consequences.

Accurate and Robust Automated Segmentation in T1 weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Human Brain

Accurate and Robust Automated Segmentation in T1 weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Human Brain
Author: Philip Novosad
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2020
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: OCLC:1198401327

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"Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful non-invasive imaging technique with wide-ranging applications in both research and the clinic. Combined with complementary clinical or psychological data, structural MRI of the human brain in both health and disease can be used to investigate a broad array of questions regarding the nature of the relationship between brain structure and health and behaviour. Structural MRI can also be used to obtain quantitative structural biomarkers, which, when combined with machine-learning classifiers, can be used for diagnostic and prognostic purposes in the clinic. Such applications require the segmentation of strutural MRI images into the various anatomical structures of the brain. While manual labelling by a human expert adhering to a well-defined protocol has long been considered the gold-standard approach, it is highly time consuming and subject to both inter- and intra-rater variability. Automated methods for neuroanatomical segmentation are therefore necessary, but require dataset-specific training data for good performance. A recent class of methods seek to transfer labels from a set of manually labelled `training images' to the `test images' under consideration. While these methods generally perform well when both the training and testing data come from homogeneous datasets consisting of images of subjects from a similar demographic and using similar MR scanner and pulse sequence, their performance can be substantially degraded when this condition is not met. Despite this requirement, generating a set of representative manually labelled training images for application to each different domain is highly impractical, particularly for modern `big data' conglomerate datasets consisting of images from tens to hundreds of different centres. Consequently, users often train their segmentation algorithms on pre-labelled images from disparate domains (or use a classifier pre-trained on such data), reducing the accuracy and statistical power of their subsequent analyses. The primary objective of this thesis is to develop and validate automated segmentation methods for T1-weighted (T1w) MRI which are more robust to differences between the training and testing data, allowing users to leverage existing labelled datasets to process T1w images of arbitrary domain. To this end, we first develop a novel brain extraction method based on a multi-resolution patch-based segmentation framework in combination with a machine-learning classifier to automatically identify and correct errors in the automated segmentation. Using five manually labelled datasets for validation, we demonstrate significantly improved cross-domain performance compared to nine other brain extraction methods. Second, we develop a more general purpose neuroanatomical segmentation method using a context-augmented convolutional neural network (CNN). Validation on three manually labelled datasets demonstrates new state-of-the-art segmentation accuracies on several multi-structure segmentation tasks, while being orders of magnitudes faster compared to more conventional segmentation methods. Finally, we extend the aforementioned CNN-based method specifically for cross-domain applications using a novel self-ensembling approach in combination with a rich data augmentation scheme. Validation using three manually labelled datasets from different domains demonstrates improved multi-structure segmentation performance in cross-domain applications"--

Angelo Mosso s Circulation of Blood in the Human Brain

Angelo Mosso s Circulation of Blood in the Human Brain
Author: Marcus E. Raichle,Gordon M. Shepherd
Publsiher: Oxford University Press, USA
Total Pages: 202
Release: 2014-09-29
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780199358984

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Modern brain imaging is revolutionizing the study of brain function in health and disease. However, few realize that its origins began in the nineteenth century with Dr. Angelo Mosso's pioneering experiments. A foremost Italian physiologist and scientist, Angelo Mosso studied several patients brought to him with head injuries that exposed their live brains to direct, long-term observation. He took advantage of these rare opportunities to document, for the first time, changes in cerebral blood flow in response to different stimuli, behaviors, and emotions, the very same changes that are now the basis for the measurements underlying modern functional brain imaging. Mosso was widely recognized by his contemporaries for his highly original studies, published both in Italian in 1878 and in German in 1881. Yet there has never been a translation through which this groundbreaking work could be appreciated by the English-speaking world. Indeed, Angelo Mosso's sophisticated experiments were to neuroscience what surgeon William Beaumont's in vivo observations were to gastric physiology fifty years earlier. This unique monograph establishes Mosso's rightful role as the pioneer of brain imaging. Through it, the modern reader, whether expert neuroscientist or interested student, can gain a new perspective on the author's remarkable insights: how behaviors as subtle as thinking about a subject or feeling an emotion produce the changes in pulsations of the brain that he observed and recorded for posterity. Special features of this volume include first a brief summary of Mosso's life. Two pioneers of modern brain imaging, Marcus E. Raichle (winner of the Kavli Prize for Neuroscience) and Gordon M. Shepherd (Yale University Professor of Neurobiology) then review Mosso's work and provide extensive commentary to explain its relevance to modern brain science. The authors not only emphasize Mosso's pioneering role in brain imaging, but also his fundamental contribution to the rise of cognitive neuroscience. The English translation (by historian of medicine Christiane Nockels Fabbri) follows, together with all of the plates and illustrations of the original volume. The result is a classic of neuroscience, now available for wide appreciation by neuroscientists, neurologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, historians of science and medicine, and the general public.

Handbook of Pediatric Brain Imaging

Handbook of Pediatric Brain Imaging
Author: Hao Huang,Timothy Roberts
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 580
Release: 2021-10-27
Genre: Computers
ISBN: 9780128166420

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Handbook of Pediatric Brain Imaging: Methods and Applications presents state-of-the-art research on pediatric brain image acquisition and analysis from a broad range of imaging modalities, including MRI, EEG, MEG, PET, Ultrasound, NIRS and CT. With rapidly developing methods and applications of MRI, this book strongly emphasizes pediatric brain MRI, elaborating on the sub-categories of structure MRI, diffusion MRI, functional MRI, perfusion MRI and other MRI methods. It integrates a pediatric brain imaging perspective into imaging acquisition and analysis methods, covering head motion, small brain sizes, small cerebral blood flow of neonates, dynamic cortical gyrification, white matter tract growth, and much more. Presents state-of-the-art pediatric brain imaging methods and applications Shows how to optimize the pediatric neuroimaging acquisition and analysis protocols Illustrates how to obtain quantitative structural, functional and physiological measurements

Transmitters and Modulators in Health and Disease

Transmitters and Modulators in Health and Disease
Author: Seiji Shioda,Ikuo Homma,Nobumasa Kato
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 212
Release: 2009-07-25
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9784431990390

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Prominent international researchers contributed to this volume of reports advancing the study of brain function and morphology. Comprising investigations in several areas of neuroscience, the book includes research in neurodegenerative diseases and in neuroregeneration in adults. Described here are the effects of neuropeptides and biogenic amines on feeding, respiration, and other autonomic functions as well as on behavior. One chapter focuses on regulation of the blood brain barrier function by various neuropeptides, proteins, receptors, and transporters. Another is concerned with the modulation of higher brain functions by neuropeptides and biogenic monoamines. Yet another chapter presents research on ischemic neuronal damage and hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult mouse. Morphological or physiological techniques to study neuropeptides and neuromodulators influencing higher-order or brain-stem functions are given particular attention. The use of bio-imaging tools such as brain navigation systems and fMRIs with patients in a clinical setting creates new possibilities for investigation of human brain function and specialization of treatment.

Neurovascular Imaging by Combining Diffuse Optical Tomography and Electroencephalography Or Magnetoencephalography

Neurovascular Imaging by Combining Diffuse Optical Tomography and Electroencephalography Or Magnetoencephalography
Author: Katherine L. Perdue,Thayer School of Engineering
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 204
Release: 2012
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: OCLC:826999793

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Noninvasive human brain imaging has provided new insights into the function of the brain in health and disease. Advances in imaging technology have made it possible to measure neural and vascular dynamics simultaneously. Neural and vascular imaging methods generally have different spatial resolutions and sensitivity patterns, and measure physiology with different temporal scales and dynamics. Comparing neural and vascular imaging signals requires a detailed understanding of the physiological and anatomical origins of these signals. The goal of this work is to develop methods that advance the analysis and understanding of multimodal neurovascular imaging data. First, DOT sensitivity and its variation on the cortical surface are modeled in a simulated experimental population. Second, a method for evaluating head segmentations for the purposes of creating subject-specific multimodal forward models is described. Third, the effect of the spatial scale of cortical activity on DOT, fMRI, EEG and MEG sensor correlations and sensitivity is modeled. Finally, experimentally measured neural and vascular dynamics reported along with their relationship to the simulations previously presented. These new analyses will advance the interpretation of noninvasive neuroimaging data and may allow for biomarker development for neurological disorders that affect neural and vascular physiology.

Discovering the Brain

Discovering the Brain
Author: National Academy of Sciences,Institute of Medicine,Sandra Ackerman
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 194
Release: 1992-01-01
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780309045292

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The brain ... There is no other part of the human anatomy that is so intriguing. How does it develop and function and why does it sometimes, tragically, degenerate? The answers are complex. In Discovering the Brain, science writer Sandra Ackerman cuts through the complexity to bring this vital topic to the public. The 1990s were declared the "Decade of the Brain" by former President Bush, and the neuroscience community responded with a host of new investigations and conferences. Discovering the Brain is based on the Institute of Medicine conference, Decade of the Brain: Frontiers in Neuroscience and Brain Research. Discovering the Brain is a "field guide" to the brain--an easy-to-read discussion of the brain's physical structure and where functions such as language and music appreciation lie. Ackerman examines How electrical and chemical signals are conveyed in the brain. The mechanisms by which we see, hear, think, and pay attention--and how a "gut feeling" actually originates in the brain. Learning and memory retention, including parallels to computer memory and what they might tell us about our own mental capacity. Development of the brain throughout the life span, with a look at the aging brain. Ackerman provides an enlightening chapter on the connection between the brain's physical condition and various mental disorders and notes what progress can realistically be made toward the prevention and treatment of stroke and other ailments. Finally, she explores the potential for major advances during the "Decade of the Brain," with a look at medical imaging techniques--what various technologies can and cannot tell us--and how the public and private sectors can contribute to continued advances in neuroscience. This highly readable volume will provide the public and policymakers--and many scientists as well--with a helpful guide to understanding the many discoveries that are sure to be announced throughout the "Decade of the Brain."

Collaborative Efforts for Understanding the Human Brain

Collaborative Efforts for Understanding the Human Brain
Author: Sook-Lei Liew,Lianne Schmaal,Neda Jahanshad
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2019-10-10
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: 9782889630295

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The human brain is incredibly complex, and the more we learn about it, the more we realize how much we need a truly interdisciplinary team to make sense of its intricacies. This eBook presents the latest efforts in collaborative team science from around the world, all aimed at understanding the human brain.

Microglia in Health and Disease A Unique Immune Cell Population

Microglia in Health and Disease  A Unique Immune Cell Population
Author: Alessandro Michelucci,Michel Mittelbronn,Diego Gomez-Nicola
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2018-10-05
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: 9782889456017

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Microglia are essential for the development and function of the adult brain. Their ontogeny, together with the absence of turnover from the periphery and the singular environment of the central nervous system (CNS), make microglia a unique cell population compared to other tissue-macrophages. The unique properties and functions of microglial cells, such as their role in synaptic pruning or the exceptional capacity to scan the brain parenchyma and rapidly react to its perturbations, have emerged in recent years. In the coming years, understanding how microglia acquire and maintain their unique profiles in order to fulfil distinct tasks in the healthy CNS and how these are altered in disease, will be essential to develop strategies to diagnose or treat CNS disorders with an immunological component. This Research Topic covers several aspects of microglial biology, ranging from their origin and the functional role of microglia during development and lifespan, their molecular properties compared with other brain and peripheral immune cells to microglial phenotypes and functional states in neurodegenerative diseases and brain tumours. In conclusion, the present Research Topic provides a comprehensive overview of our current understanding of several cellular and molecular mechanisms that make microglia a unique immune cell population within the healthy CNS as well as under inflammatory, neurodegenerative and tumorigenic processes.

Advanced Optical Methods for Brain Imaging

Advanced Optical Methods for Brain Imaging
Author: Fu-Jen Kao,Gerd Keiser,Ankur Gogoi
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 334
Release: 2018-05-14
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9789811090202

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This book highlights the rapidly developing field of advanced optical methods for structural and functional brain imaging. As is known, the brain is the most poorly understood organ of a living body. It is indeed the most complex structure in the known universe and, thus, mapping of the brain has become one of the most exciting frontlines of contemporary research. Starting from the fundamentals of the brain, neurons and synapses, this book presents a streamlined and focused coverage of the core principles, theoretical and experimental approaches, and state-of-the-art applications of most of the currently used imaging methods in brain research. It presents contributions from international leaders on different photonics-based brain imaging modalities and techniques. Included are comprehensive descriptions of many of the technology driven spectacular advances made over the past few years that have allowed novel insights of the structural and functional details of neurons. The book is targeted at researchers, engineers and scientists who are working in the field of brain imaging, neuroscience and connectomics. Although this book is not intended to serve as a textbook, it will appeal to undergraduate students engaged in the specialization of brain imaging.