Metallic Films for Electronic Optical and Magnetic Applications

Metallic Films for Electronic  Optical and Magnetic Applications
Author: Katayun Barmak,Kevin Coffey
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 656
Release: 2014-02-13
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780857096296

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Metallic films play an important role in modern technologies such as integrated circuits, information storage, displays, sensors, and coatings. Metallic Films for Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Applications reviews the structure, processing and properties of metallic films. Part one explores the structure of metallic films using characterization methods such as x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. This part also encompasses the processing of metallic films, including structure formation during deposition and post-deposition reactions and phase transformations. Chapters in part two focus on the properties of metallic films, including mechanical, electrical, magnetic, optical, and thermal properties. Metallic Films for Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Applications is a technical resource for electronics components manufacturers, scientists, and engineers working in the semiconductor industry, product developers of sensors, displays, and other optoelectronic devices, and academics working in the field. Explores the structure of metallic films using characterization methods such as x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy Discusses processing of metallic films, including structure formation during deposition and post-deposition reactions and phase transformations Focuses on the properties of metallic films, including mechanical, electrical, magnetic, optical, and thermal properties

Magnetic Nano and Microwires

Magnetic Nano  and Microwires
Author: Manuel Vázquez
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 870
Release: 2015-05-27
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780081001813

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Magnetic nanowires and microwires are key tools in the development of enhanced devices for information technology (memory and data processing) and sensing. Offering the combined characteristics of high density, high speed, and non-volatility, they facilitate reliable control of the motion of magnetic domain walls; a key requirement for the development of novel classes of logic and storage devices. Part One introduces the design and synthesis of magnetic nanowires and microwires, reviewing the growth and processing of nanowires and nanowire heterostructures using such methods as sol-gel and electrodeposition combinations, focused-electron/ion-beam-induced deposition, chemical vapour transport, quenching and drawing and magnetic interactions. Magnetic and transport properties, alongside domain walls, in nano- and microwires are then explored in Part Two, before Part Three goes on to explore a wide range of applications for magnetic nano- and microwire devices, including memory, microwave and electrochemical applications, in addition to thermal spin polarization and configuration, magnetocalorific effects and Bloch point dynamics. Detailed coverage of multiple key techniques for the growth and processing of nanowires and microwires Reviews the principles and difficulties involved in applying magnetic nano- and microwires to a wide range of applications Combines the expertise of specialists from around the globe to give a broad overview of current and future trends

Rare Earth and Transition Metal Doping of Semiconductor Materials

Rare Earth and Transition Metal Doping of Semiconductor Materials
Author: Volkmar Dierolf,Ian Ferguson,John M Zavada
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 470
Release: 2016-01-23
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780081000601

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Rare Earth and Transition Metal Doping of Semiconductor Material explores traditional semiconductor devices that are based on control of the electron’s electric charge. This book looks at the semiconductor materials used for spintronics applications, in particular focusing on wide band-gap semiconductors doped with transition metals and rare earths. These materials are of particular commercial interest because their spin can be controlled at room temperature, a clear opposition to the most previous research on Gallium Arsenide, which allowed for control of spins at supercold temperatures. Part One of the book explains the theory of magnetism in semiconductors, while Part Two covers the growth of semiconductors for spintronics. Finally, Part Three looks at the characterization and properties of semiconductors for spintronics, with Part Four exploring the devices and the future direction of spintronics. Examines materials which are of commercial interest for producing smaller, faster, and more power-efficient computers and other devices Analyzes the theory behind magnetism in semiconductors and the growth of semiconductors for spintronics Details the properties of semiconductors for spintronics

Epitaxial Growth of Complex Metal Oxides

Epitaxial Growth of Complex Metal Oxides
Author: Gertjan Koster,M Huijben,Guus Rijnders
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 504
Release: 2015-05-14
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781782422556

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The atomic arrangement and subsequent properties of a material are determined by the type and conditions of growth leading to epitaxy, making control of these conditions key to the fabrication of higher quality materials. Epitaxial Growth of Complex Metal Oxides reviews the techniques involved in such processes and highlights recent developments in fabrication quality which are facilitating advances in applications for electronic, magnetic and optical purposes. Part One reviews the key techniques involved in the epitaxial growth of complex metal oxides, including growth studies using reflection high-energy electron diffraction, pulsed laser deposition, hybrid molecular beam epitaxy, sputtering processes and chemical solution deposition techniques for the growth of oxide thin films. Part Two goes on to explore the effects of strain and stoichiometry on crystal structure and related properties, in thin film oxides. Finally, the book concludes by discussing selected examples of important applications of complex metal oxide thin films in Part Three. Provides valuable information on the improvements in epitaxial growth processes that have resulted in higher quality films of complex metal oxides and further advances in applications for electronic and optical purposes Examines the techniques used in epitaxial thin film growth Describes the epitaxial growth and functional properties of complex metal oxides and explores the effects of strain and defects

Optical Thin Films and Coatings

Optical Thin Films and Coatings
Author: Angela Piegari,François Flory
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 864
Release: 2013-08-31
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780857097316

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Optical coatings, including mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, beam splitters, and filters, are an integral part of most modern optical systems. Optical thin films and coatings provides an overview of thin film materials, the properties, design and manufacture of optical coatings and their use across a variety of application areas. Part one explores the design and manufacture of optical coatings. Part two highlights unconventional features of optical thin films including scattering properties of random structures in thin films, optical properties of thin film materials at short wavelengths, thermal properties and colour effects. Part three focusses on novel materials for optical thin films and coatings and includes chapters on organic optical coatings, surface multiplasmonics and optical thin films containing quantum dots. Finally, applications of optical coatings, including laser components, solar cells, displays and lighting, and architectural and automotive glass, are reviewed in part four. Optical thin films and coatings is a technical resource for researchers and engineers working with optical thin films and coatings, professionals in the security, automotive, space and other industries requiring an understanding of these topics, and academics interested in the field. An overview of the materials, properties, design and manufacture of thin films Special attention is given to the unconventional features and novel materials of optical thin films Reviews applications of optical coatings including laser components, solar cells, glasing, displays and lighting

Thin Films on Silicon

Thin Films on Silicon
Author: Vijay Narayanan,Martin M Frank,Alexander A Demkov
Publsiher: World Scientific
Total Pages: 552
Release: 2016-08-15
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9789814740494

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This volume provides a broad overview of the fundamental materials science of thin films that use silicon as an active substrate or passive template, with an emphasis on opportunities and challenges for practical applications in electronics and photonics. It covers three materials classes on silicon: Semiconductors such as undoped and doped Si and SiGe, SiC, GaN, and III-V arsenides and phosphides; dielectrics including silicon nitride and high-k, low-k, and electro-optically active oxides; and metals, in particular silicide alloys. The impact of film growth and integration on physical, electrical, and optical properties, and ultimately device performance, is highlighted.

Thin metal films on weakly interacting substrates

Thin metal films on weakly interacting substrates
Author: Andreas Jamnig
Publsiher: Linköping University Electronic Press
Total Pages: 108
Release: 2020-09-30
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: 9789179298203

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Vapor-based growth of thin metal films with controlled morphology on weakly-interacting substrates (WIS), including oxides and van der Waals materials, is essential for the fabrication of multifunctional metal contacts in a wide array of optoelectronic devices. Achieving this entails a great challenge, since weak film/substrate interactions yield a pronounced and uncontrolled 3D morphology. Moreover, the far-from-equilibrium nature of vapor-based film growth often leads to generation of mechanical stress, which may further compromise device reliability and functionality. The objectives of this thesis are related to metal film growth on WIS and seek to: (i) contribute to the understanding of atomic-scale processes that control film morphological evolution; (ii) elucidate the dynamic competition between nanoscale processes that govern film stress generation and evolution; and (iii) develop methodologies for manipulating and controlling nanoscale film morphology between 2D and 3D. Investigations focus on magnetron sputter-deposited Ag and Cu films on SiO2 and amorphous carbon (a-C) substrates. Research is conducted by strategically combining of in situ and real-time film growth monitoring, ex situ chemical and (micro)-structural analysis, optical modelling, and deterministic growth simulations. In the first part, the scaling behavior of characteristic morphological transition thicknesses (i.e., percolation and continuous film formation thickness) during growth of Ag and Cu films on a-C are established as function of deposition rate and temperature. These data are interpreted using a theoretical framework based on the droplet growth theory and the kinetic freezing model for island coalescence, from which the diffusion rates of film forming species during Ag and Cu growth are estimated. By combining experimental data with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, diffusion of multiatomic clusters, rather than monomers, is identified as the rate-limiting structure-forming process. In the second part, the effect of minority metallic or gaseous species (Cu, N2, O2) on Ag film morphological evolution on SiO2 is studied. By employing in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, it is found that addition of minority species at the film growth front promotes 2D morphology, but also yields an increased continuous-layer resistivity. Ex situ analyses show that 2D morphology is favored because minority species hinder the rate of coalescence completion. Hence, a novel growth manipulation strategy is compiled in which minority species are deployed with high temporal precision to selectively target specific film growth stages and achieve 2D morphology, while retaining opto-electronic properties of pure Ag films. In the third part, the evolution of stress during Ag and Cu film growth on a-C and its dependence on growth kinetics (as determined by deposition rate, substrate temperature) is systematically investigated. A general trend toward smaller compressive stress magnitudes with increasing temperature/deposition rate is found, related to increasing grain size/decreasing adatom diffusion length. Exception to this trend is found for Cu films, in which oxygen incorporation from the residual growth atmosphere at low deposition rates inhibits adatom diffusivity and decreases the magnitude of compressive stress. The effect of N2 on stress type and magnitude in Ag films is also studied. While Ag grown in N2-free atmosphere exhibits a typical compressive-tensile-compressive stress evolution as function of thickness, addition of a few percent of N2 yields to a stress turnaround from compressive to tensile stress after film continuity which is attributed to giant grain growth and film roughening. The overall results of the thesis provide the foundation to: (i) determine diffusion rates over a wide range of WIS film/substrates systems; (ii) design non-invasive strategies for multifunctional contacts in optoelectronic devices; (iii) complete important missing pieces in the fundamental understanding of stress, which can be used to expand theoretical descriptions for predicting and tuning stress magnitude. La morphologie de films minces métalliques polycristallins élaborés par condensation d’une phase vapeur sur des substrats à faible interaction (SFI) possède un caractère 3D intrinsèque. De plus, la nature hors équilibre de la croissance du film depuis une phase vapeur conduit souvent à la génération de contraintes mécaniques, ce qui peut compromettre davantage la fiabilité et la fonctionnalité des dispositifs optoélectroniques. Les objectifs de cette thèse sont liés à la croissance de films métalliques sur SFI et visent à: (i) contribuer à une meilleure compréhension des processus à l'échelle atomique qui contrôlent l'évolution morphologique des films; (ii) élucider les processus dynamiques qui régissent la génération et l'évolution des contraintes en cours de croissance; et (iii) développer des méthodologies pour manipuler et contrôler la morphologie des films à l'échelle nanométrique. L’originalité de l’approche mise en œuvre consiste à suivre la croissance des films in situ et en temps réel par couplage de plusieurs diagnostics, complété par des analyses microstructurales ex situ. Les grandeurs mesurées sont confrontées à des modèles optiques et des simulations atomistiques. La première partie est consacrée à une étude de comportement d’échelonnement des épaisseurs de transition morphologiques caractéristiques, à savoir la percolation et la continuité du film, lors de la croissance de films polycristallins d'Ag et de Cu sur carbone amorphe (a-C). Ces grandeurs sont examinées de façon systématique en fonction de la vitesse de dépôt et de la température du substrat, et interprétées dans le cadre de la théorie de la croissance de gouttelettes suivant un modèle cinétique décrivant la coalescence d’îlots, à partir duquel les coefficients de diffusion des espèces métalliques sont estimés. En confrontant les données expérimentales à des simulations par dynamique moléculaire ab initio, la diffusion de clusters multiatomiques est identifiée comme l’étape limitante le processus de croissance. Dans la seconde partie, l’incorporation, et l’impact sur la morphologie, d’espèces métalliques ou gazeuses minoritaires (Cu, N2, O2) lors de la croissance de film Ag sur SiO2 est étudié. A partir de mesures ellipsométriques in situ, on constate que l'addition d'espèces minoritaires favorise une morphologie 2D, entravant le taux d'achèvement de la coalescence, mais donne également une résistivité accrue de la couche continue. Par conséquent, une stratégie de manipulation de la croissance est proposée dans laquelle des espèces minoritaires sont déployées avec une grande précision temporelle pour cibler sélectivement des stades de croissance de film spécifiques et obtenir une morphologie 2D, tout en conservant les propriétés optoélectroniques des films d’Ag pur. Dans la troisième partie, l'évolution des contraintes résiduelles lors de la croissance des films d'Ag et de Cu sur a-C et leur dépendance à la cinétique de croissance est systématiquement étudiée. On observe une tendance générale vers des amplitudes de contrainte de compression plus faibles avec une augmentation de la température/vitesse de dépôt, liée à l'augmentation de la taille des grains/à la diminution de la longueur de diffusion des adatomes. Également, l’ajout dans le plasma de N2 sur le type et l'amplitude des contraintes dans les films d'Ag est étudié. L'ajout de quelques pourcents de N2 en phase gaz donne lieu à un renversement de la contrainte de compression et une évolution en tension au-delà de la continuité du film. Cet effet est attribué à une croissance anormale des grains géants et le développement de rugosité de surface. L’ensemble des résultats obtenus dans cette thèse fournissent les bases pour: (i) déterminer les coefficients de diffusion sur une large gamme de systèmes films/SFI; (ii) concevoir des stratégies non invasives pour les contacts multifonctionnels dans les dispositifs optoélectroniques; (iii) apporter des éléments de compréhension à l’origine du développement de contrainte, qui permettent de prédire et contrôler le niveau de contrainte intrinsèque à la croissance de films minces polycristallins.

Reliability Characterisation of Electrical and Electronic Systems

Reliability Characterisation of Electrical and Electronic Systems
Author: Jonathan Swingler
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 274
Release: 2014-12-24
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781782422259

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This book takes a holistic approach to reliability engineering for electrical and electronic systems by looking at the failure mechanisms, testing methods, failure analysis, characterisation techniques and prediction models that can be used to increase reliability for a range of devices. The text describes the reliability behavior of electrical and electronic systems. It takes an empirical scientific approach to reliability engineering to facilitate a greater understanding of operating conditions, failure mechanisms and the need for testing for a more realistic characterisation. After introducing the fundamentals and background to reliability theory, the text moves on to describe the methods of reliability analysis and charactersation across a wide range of applications. Takes a holistic approach to reliability engineering Looks at the failure mechanisms, testing methods, failure analysis, characterisation techniques and prediction models that can be used to increase reliability Facilitates a greater understanding of operating conditions, failure mechanisms and the need for testing for a more realistic characterisation

Modeling Characterization and Production of Nanomaterials

Modeling  Characterization and Production of Nanomaterials
Author: V Tewary,Y Zhang
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 554
Release: 2015-03-17
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781782422358

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Nano-scale materials have unique electronic, optical, and chemical properties which make them attractive for a new generation of devices. Part one of Modeling, Characterization, and Production of Nanomaterials: Electronics, Photonics and Energy Applications covers modeling techniques incorporating quantum mechanical effects to simulate nanomaterials and devices, such as multiscale modeling and density functional theory. Part two describes the characterization of nanomaterials using diffraction techniques and Raman spectroscopy. Part three looks at the structure and properties of nanomaterials, including their optical properties and atomic behaviour. Part four explores nanofabrication and nanodevices, including the growth of graphene, GaN-based nanorod heterostructures and colloidal quantum dots for applications in nanophotonics and metallic nanoparticles for catalysis applications. Comprehensive coverage of the close connection between modeling and experimental methods for studying a wide range of nanomaterials and nanostructures Focus on practical applications and industry needs, supported by a solid outlining of theoretical background Draws on the expertise of leading researchers in the field of nanomaterials from around the world

Directed Self assembly of Block Co polymers for Nano manufacturing

Directed Self assembly of Block Co polymers for Nano manufacturing
Author: Roel Gronheid,Paul Nealey
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 328
Release: 2015-07-17
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780081002612

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The directed self-assembly (DSA) method of patterning for microelectronics uses polymer phase-separation to generate features of less than 20nm, with the positions of self-assembling materials externally guided into the desired pattern. Directed self-assembly of Block Co-polymers for Nano-manufacturing reviews the design, production, applications and future developments needed to facilitate the widescale adoption of this promising technology. Beginning with a solid overview of the physics and chemistry of block copolymer (BCP) materials, Part 1 covers the synthesis of new materials and new processing methods for DSA. Part 2 then goes on to outline the key modelling and characterization principles of DSA, reviewing templates and patterning using topographical and chemically modified surfaces, line edge roughness and dimensional control, x-ray scattering for characterization, and nanoscale driven assembly. Finally, Part 3 discusses application areas and related issues for DSA in nano-manufacturing, including for basic logic circuit design, the inverse DSA problem, design decomposition and the modelling and analysis of large scale, template self-assembly manufacturing techniques. Authoritative outlining of theoretical principles and modeling techniques to give a thorough introdution to the topic Discusses a broad range of practical applications for directed self-assembly in nano-manufacturing Highlights the importance of this technology to both the present and future of nano-manufacturing by exploring its potential use in a range of fields

Ecological Design of Smart Home Networks

Ecological Design of Smart Home Networks
Author: N. Saito,D Menga
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 130
Release: 2015-03-31
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781782421245

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This book provides an authoritative guide for postgraduate students and academic researchers in electronics, computer and network engineering, telecommunications, energy technology and home automation, as well as R&D managers in industrial sectors such as wireless technology, consumer electronics, telecommunications and networking, information technology, energy technology and home automation. Part One outlines the key principles and technologies needed for ecological smart home networks. Beginning with a thorough overview of the concept behind ecological smart home network design, the book reviews such important areas as power line communications, hybrid systems and middleware platforms. Part Two then goes on to discuss some important applications of this technology, with wireless smart sensor networks for home and telecare, and smart home networking for content and energy management (including the intelligent Zero Emission Urban System), all explored in detail. More systematic and comprehensive coverage: the book covers ecological design and technology requirements, performance and applications for smart home networks Better focus on industry needs: the book covers current and emerging smart home networking technologies. It explains how the technologies work, how they have developed, their capabilities and the markets that they target Better coverage of the best international research: the book is multi-contributor and brings together the leading researchers from around the world

Polymer Optical Fibres

Polymer Optical Fibres
Author: Christian-Alexander Bunge,Markus Beckers,Thomas Gries
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 436
Release: 2016-08-25
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780081000564

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Polymer Optical Fibres: Fibre Types, Materials, Fabrication, Characterization, and Applications explores polymer optical fibers, specifically their materials, fabrication, characterization, measurement techniques, and applications. Optical effects, including light propagation, degrading effects of attenuation, scattering, and dispersion, are explained. Other important parameters like mechanical strength, operating temperatures, and processability are also described. Polymer optical fibers (POF) have a number of advantages over glass fibers, such as low cost, flexibility, low weight, electromagnetic immunity, good bandwidth, simple installation, and mechanical stability. Provides systematic and comprehensive coverage of materials, fabrication, properties, measurement techniques, and applications of POF Focuses on industry needs in communication, illumination and sensors, the automotive industry, and medical and biotechnology Features input from leading experts in POF technology, with experience spanning optoelectronics, polymer, and textiles Explains optical effects, including light propagation, degrading effects of attenuation, scattering, and dispersion

Advances in Delay tolerant Networks DTNs

Advances in Delay tolerant Networks  DTNs
Author: J Rodrigues
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 298
Release: 2014-11-20
Genre: Computers
ISBN: 9780857098467

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Part one looks at delay-tolerant network architectures and platforms including DTN for satellite communications and deep-space communications, underwater networks, networks in developing countries, vehicular networks and emergency communications. Part two covers delay-tolerant network routing, including issues such as congestion control, naming, addressing and interoperability. Part three explores services and applications in delay-tolerant networks, such as web browsing, social networking and data streaming. Part four discusses enhancing the performance, reliability, privacy and security of delay-tolerant networks. Chapters cover resource sharing, simulation and modeling and testbeds. Reviews the different types of DTN and shows how they can be applied in satellite and deep-space communications, vehicular and underwater communications, and during large-scale disasters Considers the potential for rapid selection and dissemination of urgent messages is considered Reviews the breadth of areas in which DTN is already providing solutions and the prospects for its wider adoption

Optofluidics Sensors and Actuators in Microstructured Optical Fibers

Optofluidics  Sensors and Actuators in Microstructured Optical Fibers
Author: Stavros Pissadakis,Stefano Selleri
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 312
Release: 2015-05-19
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781782423478

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Combining the positive characteristics of microfluidics and optics, microstructured optical fibres (MOFs) have revolutionized the field of optoelectronics. Tailored guiding, diffractive structures and photonic band-gap effects are used to produce fibres with highly specialised, complex structures, facilitating the development of novel kinds of optical fibre sensors and actuators. Part One outlines the key materials and fabrication techniques used for microstructured optical fibres. Microfluidics and heat flows, MOF-based metamaterials, novel and liquid crystal infiltrated photonic crystal fibre (PCF) designs, MOFs filled with carbon nanotubes and melting of functional inorganic glasses inside PCFs are all reviewed. Part Two then goes on to investigate sensing and optofluidic applications, with the use of MOFs in structural sensing, sensing units and mechanical sensing explored in detail. PCF’s for switching applications are then discussed before the book concludes by reviewing MOFs for specific nucleic acid detection and resonant bio- and chemical sensing. Provides users with the necessary knowledge to successfully design and implement microstructured optical fibres for a broad range of uses Outlines techniques for developing both traditional and novel types of optical fibre Highlights the adaptability of microstructured optical fibres achieved via the use of optofluidics, sensors and actuators, by presenting a diverse selection of applications

Laser Surface Engineering

Laser Surface Engineering
Author: Jonathan R. Lawrence,D Waugh
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 718
Release: 2014-10-02
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781782420798

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Lasers can alter the surface composition and properties of materials in a highly controllable way, which makes them efficient and cost-effective tools for surface engineering. This book provides an overview of the different techniques, the laser-material interactions and the advantages and disadvantages for different applications. Part one looks at laser heat treatment, part two covers laser additive manufacturing such as laser-enhanced electroplating, and part three discusses laser micromachining, structuring and surface modification. Chemical and biological applications of laser surface engineering are explored in part four, including ways to improve the surface corrosion properties of metals. Provides an overview of thermal surface treatments using lasers, including the treatment of steels, light metal alloys, polycrystalline silicon and technical ceramics Addresses the development of new metallic materials, innovations in laser cladding and direct metal deposition, and the fabrication of tuneable micro- and nano-scale surface structures Chapters also cover laser structuring, surface modification, and the chemical and biological applications of laser surface engineering