Multiple Imputation of Missing Data Using SAS

Multiple Imputation of Missing Data Using SAS
Author: Patricia Berglund,Steven G. Heeringa
Publsiher: SAS Institute
Total Pages: 164
Release: 2014-07-01
Genre: Computers
ISBN: 9781629592039

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Find guidance on using SAS for multiple imputation and solving common missing data issues. Multiple Imputation of Missing Data Using SAS provides both theoretical background and constructive solutions for those working with incomplete data sets in an engaging example-driven format. It offers practical instruction on the use of SAS for multiple imputation and provides numerous examples that use a variety of public release data sets with applications to survey data. Written for users with an intermediate background in SAS programming and statistics, this book is an excellent resource for anyone seeking guidance on multiple imputation. The authors cover the MI and MIANALYZE procedures in detail, along with other procedures used for analysis of complete data sets. They guide analysts through the multiple imputation process, including evaluation of missing data patterns, choice of an imputation method, execution of the process, and interpretation of results. Topics discussed include how to deal with missing data problems in a statistically appropriate manner, how to intelligently select an imputation method, how to incorporate the uncertainty introduced by the imputation process, and how to incorporate the complex sample design (if appropriate) through use of the SAS SURVEY procedures. Discover the theoretical background and see extensive applications of the multiple imputation process in action. This book is part of the SAS Press program.

Multiple Imputation of Missing Data Using SAS

Multiple Imputation of Missing Data Using SAS
Author: Patricia Berglund,Steven G. Heeringa
Publsiher: SAS Institute
Total Pages: 164
Release: 2014-07-01
Genre: Computers
ISBN: 9781629592053

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Written for users with an intermediate background in SAS programming and statistics, this book is an excellent resource for anyone seeking guidance on multiple imputation. It provides both theoretical background and practical solutions for those working with incomplete data sets in an engaging example-driven format.

Analysis of Incomplete Multivariate Data

Analysis of Incomplete Multivariate Data
Author: J.L. Schafer
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 448
Release: 1997-08-01
Genre: Mathematics
ISBN: 1439821860

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The last two decades have seen enormous developments in statistical methods for incomplete data. The EM algorithm and its extensions, multiple imputation, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo provide a set of flexible and reliable tools from inference in large classes of missing-data problems. Yet, in practical terms, those developments have had surprisingly little impact on the way most data analysts handle missing values on a routine basis. Analysis of Incomplete Multivariate Data helps bridge the gap between theory and practice, making these missing-data tools accessible to a broad audience. It presents a unified, Bayesian approach to the analysis of incomplete multivariate data, covering datasets in which the variables are continuous, categorical, or both. The focus is applied, where necessary, to help readers thoroughly understand the statistical properties of those methods, and the behavior of the accompanying algorithms. All techniques are illustrated with real data examples, with extended discussion and practical advice. All of the algorithms described in this book have been implemented by the author for general use in the statistical languages S and S Plus. The software is available free of charge on the Internet.

Multiple Imputation of Missing Data in Practice

Multiple Imputation of Missing Data in Practice
Author: Yulei He,Guangyu Zhang,Chiu-Hsieh Hsu
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 506
Release: 2021-11-20
Genre: Mathematics
ISBN: 9780429530975

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Multiple Imputation of Missing Data in Practice: Basic Theory and Analysis Strategies provides a comprehensive introduction to the multiple imputation approach to missing data problems that are often encountered in data analysis. Over the past 40 years or so, multiple imputation has gone through rapid development in both theories and applications. It is nowadays the most versatile, popular, and effective missing-data strategy that is used by researchers and practitioners across different fields. There is a strong need to better understand and learn about multiple imputation in the research and practical community. Accessible to a broad audience, this book explains statistical concepts of missing data problems and the associated terminology. It focuses on how to address missing data problems using multiple imputation. It describes the basic theory behind multiple imputation and many commonly-used models and methods. These ideas are illustrated by examples from a wide variety of missing data problems. Real data from studies with different designs and features (e.g., cross-sectional data, longitudinal data, complex surveys, survival data, studies subject to measurement error, etc.) are used to demonstrate the methods. In order for readers not only to know how to use the methods, but understand why multiple imputation works and how to choose appropriate methods, simulation studies are used to assess the performance of the multiple imputation methods. Example datasets and sample programming code are either included in the book or available at a github site (https://github.com/he-zhang-hsu/multiple_imputation_book). Key Features Provides an overview of statistical concepts that are useful for better understanding missing data problems and multiple imputation analysis Provides a detailed discussion on multiple imputation models and methods targeted to different types of missing data problems (e.g., univariate and multivariate missing data problems, missing data in survival analysis, longitudinal data, complex surveys, etc.) Explores measurement error problems with multiple imputation Discusses analysis strategies for multiple imputation diagnostics Discusses data production issues when the goal of multiple imputation is to release datasets for public use, as done by organizations that process and manage large-scale surveys with nonresponse problems For some examples, illustrative datasets and sample programming code from popular statistical packages (e.g., SAS, R, WinBUGS) are included in the book. For others, they are available at a github site (https://github.com/he-zhang-hsu/multiple_imputation_book)

Flexible Imputation of Missing Data Second Edition

Flexible Imputation of Missing Data  Second Edition
Author: Stef van Buuren
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 444
Release: 2018-07-17
Genre: Mathematics
ISBN: 9780429960352

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Missing data pose challenges to real-life data analysis. Simple ad-hoc fixes, like deletion or mean imputation, only work under highly restrictive conditions, which are often not met in practice. Multiple imputation replaces each missing value by multiple plausible values. The variability between these replacements reflects our ignorance of the true (but missing) value. Each of the completed data set is then analyzed by standard methods, and the results are pooled to obtain unbiased estimates with correct confidence intervals. Multiple imputation is a general approach that also inspires novel solutions to old problems by reformulating the task at hand as a missing-data problem. This is the second edition of a popular book on multiple imputation, focused on explaining the application of methods through detailed worked examples using the MICE package as developed by the author. This new edition incorporates the recent developments in this fast-moving field. This class-tested book avoids mathematical and technical details as much as possible: formulas are accompanied by verbal statements that explain the formula in accessible terms. The book sharpens the reader’s intuition on how to think about missing data, and provides all the tools needed to execute a well-grounded quantitative analysis in the presence of missing data.

Multiple Imputation in Practice

Multiple Imputation in Practice
Author: Trivellore Raghunathan,Patricia A. Berglund,Peter W. Solenberger
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 250
Release: 2018-07-20
Genre: Mathematics
ISBN: 9781498770170

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Multiple Imputation in Practice: With Examples Using IVEware provides practical guidance on multiple imputation analysis, from simple to complex problems using real and simulated data sets. Data sets from cross-sectional, retrospective, prospective and longitudinal studies, randomized clinical trials, complex sample surveys are used to illustrate both simple, and complex analyses. Version 0.3 of IVEware, the software developed by the University of Michigan, is used to illustrate analyses. IVEware can multiply impute missing values, analyze multiply imputed data sets, incorporate complex sample design features, and be used for other statistical analyses framed as missing data problems. IVEware can be used under Windows, Linux, and Mac, and with software packages like SAS, SPSS, Stata, and R, or as a stand-alone tool. This book will be helpful to researchers looking for guidance on the use of multiple imputation to address missing data problems, along with examples of correct analysis techniques.

Multiple Imputation for Nonresponse in Surveys

Multiple Imputation for Nonresponse in Surveys
Author: Donald B. Rubin
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 258
Release: 2009-09-25
Genre: Mathematics
ISBN: 9780470317365

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Demonstrates how nonresponse in sample surveys and censuses can be handled by replacing each missing value with two or more multiple imputations. Clearly illustrates the advantages of modern computing to such handle surveys, and demonstrates the benefit of this statistical technique for researchers who must analyze them. Also presents the background for Bayesian and frequentist theory. After establishing that only standard complete-data methods are needed to analyze a multiply-imputed set, the text evaluates procedures in general circumstances, outlining specific procedures for creating imputations in both the ignorable and nonignorable cases. Examples and exercises reinforce ideas, and the interplay of Bayesian and frequentist ideas presents a unified picture of modern statistics.

Statistical Analysis with Missing Data

Statistical Analysis with Missing Data
Author: Roderick J. A. Little,Donald B. Rubin
Publsiher: Wiley
Total Pages: 448
Release: 2019-04-30
Genre: Mathematics
ISBN: 9780470526798

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An up-to-date, comprehensive treatment of a classic text on missing data in statistics The topic of missing data has gained considerable attention in recent decades. This new edition by two acknowledged experts on the subject offers an up-to-date account of practical methodology for handling missing data problems. Blending theory and application, authors Roderick Little and Donald Rubin review historical approaches to the subject and describe simple methods for multivariate analysis with missing values. They then provide a coherent theory for analysis of problems based on likelihoods derived from statistical models for the data and the missing data mechanism, and then they apply the theory to a wide range of important missing data problems. Statistical Analysis with Missing Data, Third Edition starts by introducing readers to the subject and approaches toward solving it. It looks at the patterns and mechanisms that create the missing data, as well as a taxonomy of missing data. It then goes on to examine missing data in experiments, before discussing complete-case and available-case analysis, including weighting methods. The new edition expands its coverage to include recent work on topics such as nonresponse in sample surveys, causal inference, diagnostic methods, and sensitivity analysis, among a host of other topics. An updated “classic” written by renowned authorities on the subject Features over 150 exercises (including many new ones) Covers recent work on important methods like multiple imputation, robust alternatives to weighting, and Bayesian methods Revises previous topics based on past student feedback and class experience Contains an updated and expanded bibliography Statistical Analysis with Missing Data, Third Edition is an ideal textbook for upper undergraduate and/or beginning graduate level students of the subject. It is also an excellent source of information for applied statisticians and practitioners in government and industry.

Multiple Imputation and its Application

Multiple Imputation and its Application
Author: James Carpenter,Michael Kenward
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 368
Release: 2012-12-21
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9781119942276

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A practical guide to analysing partially observeddata. Collecting, analysing and drawing inferences from data iscentral to research in the medical and social sciences.Unfortunately, it is rarely possible to collect all the intendeddata. The literature on inference from the resultingincomplete data is now huge, and continues to grow both asmethods are developed for large and complex data structures, and asincreasing computer power and suitable software enable researchersto apply these methods. This book focuses on a particular statistical method foranalysing and drawing inferences from incomplete data, calledMultiple Imputation (MI). MI is attractive because it is bothpractical and widely applicable. The authors aim is to clarify theissues raised by missing data, describing the rationale for MI, therelationship between the various imputation models and associatedalgorithms and its application to increasingly complex datastructures. Multiple Imputation and its Application: Discusses the issues raised by the analysis of partiallyobserved data, and the assumptions on which analyses rest. Presents a practical guide to the issues to consider whenanalysing incomplete data from both observational studies andrandomized trials. Provides a detailed discussion of the practical use of MI withreal-world examples drawn from medical and social statistics. Explores handling non-linear relationships and interactionswith multiple imputation, survival analysis, multilevel multipleimputation, sensitivity analysis via multiple imputation, usingnon-response weights with multiple imputation and doubly robustmultiple imputation. Multiple Imputation and its Application is aimed atquantitative researchers and students in the medical and socialsciences with the aim of clarifying the issues raised by theanalysis of incomplete data data, outlining the rationale for MIand describing how to consider and address the issues that arise inits application.

Multiple Imputation of Missing Data Using SAS Hardcover Edition

Multiple Imputation of Missing Data Using SAS  Hardcover Edition
Author: Patricia Berglund,Steven Heeringa
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 164
Release: 2014-07-16
Genre: Computers
ISBN: 1642955213

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Find guidance on using SAS for multiple imputation and solving common missing data issues. Multiple Imputation of Missing Data Using SAS provides both theoretical background and constructive solutions for those working with incomplete data sets in an engaging example-driven format. It offers practical instruction on the use of SAS for multiple imputation and provides numerous examples that use a variety of public release data sets with applications to survey data. Written for users with an intermediate background in SAS programming and statistics, this book is an excellent resource for anyone seeking guidance on multiple imputation. The authors cover the MI and MIANALYZE procedures in detail, along with other procedures used for analysis of complete data sets. They guide analysts through the multiple imputation process, including evaluation of missing data patterns, choice of an imputation method, execution of the process, and interpretation of results. Topics discussed include how to deal with missing data problems in a statistically appropriate manner, how to intelligently select an imputation method, how to incorporate the uncertainty introduced by the imputation process, and how to incorporate the complex sample design (if appropriate) through use of the SAS SURVEY procedures. Discover the theoretical background and see extensive applications of the multiple imputation process in action.

Clinical Trials with Missing Data

Clinical Trials with Missing Data
Author: Michael O'Kelly,Bohdana Ratitch
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 472
Release: 2014-02-14
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9781118762530

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This book provides practical guidance for statisticians, clinicians, and researchers involved in clinical trials in the biopharmaceutical industry, medical and public health organisations. Academics and students needing an introduction to handling missing data will also find this book invaluable. The authors describe how missing data can affect the outcome and credibility of a clinical trial, show by examples how a clinical team can work to prevent missing data, and present the reader with approaches to address missing data effectively. The book is illustrated throughout with realistic case studies and worked examples, and presents clear and concise guidelines to enable good planning for missing data. The authors show how to handle missing data in a way that is transparent and easy to understand for clinicians, regulators and patients. New developments are presented to improve the choice and implementation of primary and sensitivity analyses for missing data. Many SAS code examples are included – the reader is given a toolbox for implementing analyses under a variety of assumptions.

Best Practices in Data Cleaning

Best Practices in Data Cleaning
Author: Jason W. Osborne
Publsiher: SAGE
Total Pages: 275
Release: 2012-01-10
Genre: Reference
ISBN: 9781412988018

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Many researchers jump from data collection directly into testing hypothesis without realizing these tests can go profoundly wrong without clean data. This book provides a clear, accessible, step-by-step process of important best practices in preparing for data collection, testing assumptions, and examining and cleaning data in order to decrease error rates and increase both the power and replicability of results. Jason W. Osborne, author of the handbook Best Practices in Quantitative Methods (SAGE, 2008) provides easily-implemented suggestions that are evidence-based and will motivate change in practice by empirically demonstrating—for each topic—the benefits of following best practices and the potential consequences of not following these guidelines.

Applied Missing Data Analysis

Applied Missing Data Analysis
Author: Craig K. Enders
Publsiher: Guilford Press
Total Pages: 377
Release: 2010-04-23
Genre: Psychology
ISBN: 9781606236406

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Walking readers step by step through complex concepts, this book translates missing data techniques into something that applied researchers and graduate students can understand and utilize in their own research. Enders explains the rationale and procedural details for maximum likelihood estimation, Bayesian estimation, multiple imputation, and models for handling missing not at random (MNAR) data. Easy-to-follow examples and small simulated data sets illustrate the techniques and clarify the underlying principles. The companion website (www.appliedmissingdata.com) includes data files and syntax for the examples in the book as well as up-to-date information on software. The book is accessible to substantive researchers while providing a level of detail that will satisfy quantitative specialists.

The SAGE Handbook of Quantitative Methods in Psychology

The SAGE Handbook of Quantitative Methods in Psychology
Author: Roger E Millsap,Alberto Maydeu-Olivares
Publsiher: SAGE
Total Pages: 800
Release: 2009-07-23
Genre: Psychology
ISBN: 9781446206676

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`I often... wonder to myself whether the field needs another book, handbook, or encyclopedia on this topic. In this case I think that the answer is truly yes. The handbook is well focused on important issues in the field, and the chapters are written by recognized authorities in their fields. The book should appeal to anyone who wants an understanding of important topics that frequently go uncovered in graduate education in psychology' - David C Howell, Professor Emeritus, University of Vermont Quantitative psychology is arguably one of the oldest disciplines within the field of psychology and nearly all psychologists are exposed to quantitative psychology in some form. While textbooks in statistics, research methods and psychological measurement exist, none offer a unified treatment of quantitative psychology. The SAGE Handbook of Quantitative Methods in Psychology does just that. Each chapter covers a methodological topic with equal attention paid to established theory and the challenges facing methodologists as they address new research questions using that particular methodology. The reader will come away from each chapter with a greater understanding of the methodology being addressed as well as an understanding of the directions for future developments within that methodological area. Drawing on a global scholarship, the Handbook is divided into seven parts: Part One: Design and Inference: addresses issues in the inference of causal relations from experimental and non-experimental research, along with the design of true experiments and quasi-experiments, and the problem of missing data due to various influences such as attrition or non-compliance. Part Two: Measurement Theory: begins with a chapter on classical test theory, followed by the common factor analysis model as a model for psychological measurement. The models for continuous latent variables in item-response theory are covered next, followed by a chapter on discrete latent variable models as represented in latent class analysis. Part Three: Scaling Methods: covers metric and non-metric scaling methods as developed in multidimensional scaling, followed by consideration of the scaling of discrete measures as found in dual scaling and correspondence analysis. Models for preference data such as those found in random utility theory are covered next. Part Four: Data Analysis: includes chapters on regression models, categorical data analysis, multilevel or hierarchical models, resampling methods, robust data analysis, meta-analysis, Bayesian data analysis, and cluster analysis. Part Five: Structural Equation Models: addresses topics in general structural equation modeling, nonlinear structural equation models, mixture models, and multilevel structural equation models. Part Six: Longitudinal Models: covers the analysis of longitudinal data via mixed modeling, time series analysis and event history analysis. Part Seven: Specialized Models: covers specific topics including the analysis of neuro-imaging data and functional data-analysis.

The Prevention and Treatment of Missing Data in Clinical Trials

The Prevention and Treatment of Missing Data in Clinical Trials
Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on National Statistics,Panel on Handling Missing Data in Clinical Trials
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 162
Release: 2011-01-21
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780309158145

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Randomized clinical trials are the primary tool for evaluating new medical interventions. Randomization provides for a fair comparison between treatment and control groups, balancing out, on average, distributions of known and unknown factors among the participants. Unfortunately, these studies often lack a substantial percentage of data. This missing data reduces the benefit provided by the randomization and introduces potential biases in the comparison of the treatment groups. Missing data can arise for a variety of reasons, including the inability or unwillingness of participants to meet appointments for evaluation. And in some studies, some or all of data collection ceases when participants discontinue study treatment. Existing guidelines for the design and conduct of clinical trials, and the analysis of the resulting data, provide only limited advice on how to handle missing data. Thus, approaches to the analysis of data with an appreciable amount of missing values tend to be ad hoc and variable. The Prevention and Treatment of Missing Data in Clinical Trials concludes that a more principled approach to design and analysis in the presence of missing data is both needed and possible. Such an approach needs to focus on two critical elements: (1) careful design and conduct to limit the amount and impact of missing data and (2) analysis that makes full use of information on all randomized participants and is based on careful attention to the assumptions about the nature of the missing data underlying estimates of treatment effects. In addition to the highest priority recommendations, the book offers more detailed recommendations on the conduct of clinical trials and techniques for analysis of trial data.