Nitrogen in the Environment

Nitrogen in the Environment
Author: J.L. Hatfield,R.F. Follett
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 720
Release: 2008-08-28
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 0080569897

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Nitrogen is one of the most critical elements for all life forms. In agricultural systems it is essential for the production of crops for feed, food, and fiber. The ever-increasing world population requires increasing use of nitrogen in agriculture to supply human needs for dietary protein. Worldwide demand for nitrogen will increase as a direct response to increasing population. Nitrogen in the Environment provides a wholistic perspective and comprehensive treatment of nitrogen. The scope of this book is diverse covering a range of topics and issues related to furthering our understanding of nitrogen in the environment at farm and national levels. Issues of nitrogen from its effects on crops and human nutrition to nitrogen in ground water, watersheds, streams, rivers, and coastal marine environments are discussed to provide a broad view of the problem and support scientists, researchers, and engineers in formulating comprehensive solutions. * The only source which presents an international, wholistic perspective of the effects of nitrogen in the environment with worldwide mitigation practices * Provides details on how to improve the quality of the environment by analyzing the development of emerging technologies * Develops strategies to be used by soil scientists, agronomists, hydrologists, and geophysicists for broad scale improvement of nitrogen efficiency

Nitrogen in the Environment Sources Problems and Management

Nitrogen in the Environment  Sources  Problems and Management
Author: R.F. Follett,J.L. Hatfield
Publsiher: Gulf Professional Publishing
Total Pages: 538
Release: 2001-12-03
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780080537566

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Nitrogen in the Environment: Sources, Problems, and Management is the first volume to provide a holistic perspective and comprehensive treatment of nitrogen from field, to ecosystem, to treatment of urban and rural drinking water supplies, while also including a historical overview, human health impacts and policy considerations. It provides a worldwide perspective on nitrogen and agriculture. Nitrogen is one of the most critical elements required in agricultural systems for the production of crops for feed, food and fiber. The ever-increasing world population requires increasing use of nitrogen in agriculture to supply human needs for dietary protein. Worldwide demand for nitrogen will increase as a direct response to increasing population. Strategies and perspectives are considered to improve nitrogen-use efficiency. Issues of nitrogen in crop and human nutrition, and transport and transformations along the continuum from farm field to ground water, watersheds, streams, rivers, and coastal marine environments are discussed. Described are aerial transport of nitrogen from livestock and agricultural systems and the potential for deposition and impacts. The current status of nitrogen in the environment in selected terrestrial and coastal environments and crop and forest ecosystems and development of emerging technologies to minimize nitrogen impacts on the environment are addressed. The nitrogen cycle provides a framework for assessing broad scale or even global strategies to improve nitrogen use efficiency. Growing human populations are the driving force that requires increased nitrogen inputs. These increasing inputs into the food-production system directly result in increased livestock and human-excretory nitrogen contribution into the environment. The scope of this book is diverse, covering a range of topics and issues from furthering our understanding of nitrogen in the environment to policy considerations at both farm and national scales.

Nitrogen in the Marine Environment

Nitrogen in the Marine Environment
Author: Edward J. Carpenter,Douglas G. Capone
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 900
Release: 2016-10-27
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9781483288291

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Nitrogen in the Marine Environment provides information pertinent to the many aspects of the nitrogen cycle. This book presents the advances in ocean productivity research, with emphasis on the role of microbes in nitrogen transformations with excursions to higher trophic levels. Organized into 24 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the abundance and distribution of the various forms of nitrogen in a number of estuaries. This text then provides a comparison of the nitrogen cycling of various ecosystems within the marine environment. Other chapters consider chemical distributions and methodology as an aid to those entering the field. This book discusses as well the enzymology of the initial steps of inorganic nitrogen assimilation. The final chapter deals with the philosophy and application of modeling as an investigative method in basic research on nitrogen dynamics in coastal and open-ocean marine environments. This book is a valuable resource for plant biochemists, microbiologists, aquatic ecologists, and bacteriologists.

Nitrogen and Climate Change

Nitrogen and Climate Change
Author: Dave Reay
Publsiher: Palgrave Macmillan
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2015-06-16
Genre: Political Science
ISBN: 1137286946

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It is the perfect storm. Limited food, water and energy unequally spread between an expanding population, and a warming climate as the bitter icing on the cake. In all these global challenges nitrogen has a leading role to play. In Nitrogen and Climate Change, Dave Reay looks at just how hard-wired into all of human civilisation nitrogen is, and whether the future will see it as our quiet savior or the toxic villain of the piece. Its story is of the peculiar and the mundane, of water turning red and people turning blue. It is one of climate friend and pollution foe, of meaty feasts and looming famine. If your main thought of nitrogen is as a boring corner of the periodic table, then it is time to look again.

Nitrogen Overload

Nitrogen Overload
Author: Brian G. Katz
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 272
Release: 2020-06-16
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9781119513964

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An integrated approach to understanding and mitigating the problem of excess nitrogen Human activities generate large amounts of excess nitrogen, which has dramatically altered the nitrogen cycle. Reactive forms of nitrogen, especially nitrate and ammonia, are particularly detrimental. Given the magnitude of the problem, there is an urgent need for information on reactive nitrogen and its effective management. Nitrogen Overload: Environmental Degradation, Ramifications, and Economic Costs presents an integrated, multidisciplinary review of alterations to the nitrogen cycle over the past century and the wide-ranging consequences of nitrogen-based pollution, especially to aquatic ecosystems and human health.

Soil Nitrogen Uses and Environmental Impacts

Soil Nitrogen Uses and Environmental Impacts
Author: Rattan Lal,B. A. Stewart
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 380
Release: 2018-03-15
Genre: Nature
ISBN: 9781351857406

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Nitrogen (N) is potentially one of the most complex elements on the Earth. It is necessary for all biological activity, but creates negative impacts on water and air quality. There is a balancing act between deficiency and surplus and the forms of N available further complicate our understanding of the dynamics. Biological fixation provides some plants with N supply while others are totally dependent upon N being available in the soil profile for the roots to extract. Nevertheless, the demand for N will increase because the human population with its increasing growth requires more protein and thus more N. Understanding the global N cycle is imperative to meeting current and future nitrogen demands while decreasing environmental impacts. This book discusses availability, production, and recycling of N in air, water, plants, and soils. It features information on N impacts to soil and water quality, management of N in agroecosystems, and techniques to maximize the use efficiency while minimizing the risks of leakage of reactive N into the environment. This volume in the Advances in Soil Science series is specifically devoted to availability, production, and recycling of N with impact on climate change and water quality, and management of N in agroecosystems in the context of maximizing the use efficiency and minimizing the risks of leakage of reactive N (NO-3, N¬2O) into the environment. ? ?

The Indian Nitrogen Assessment

The Indian Nitrogen Assessment
Author: YP Abrol,TK Adhya,Viney P. Aneja,N. Raghuram,Himanshu Pathak,Umesh Kulshrestha,Chhemendra Sharma,Bijay Singh
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 568
Release: 2017-08-14
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780128119044

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The Indian Nitrogen Assessment: Sources of Reactive Nitrogen, Environmental and Climate Effects, and Management Options and Policies provides a reference for anyone interested in Reactive N, from researchers and students, to environmental managers. Although the main processes that affect the N cycle are well known, this book is focused on the causes and effects of disruption in the N cycle, specifically in India. The book helps readers gain a precise understanding of the scale of nitrogen use, misuse, and release through various agricultural, industrial, vehicular, and other activities, also including discussions on its contribution to the pollution of water and air. Drawing upon the collective work of the Indian Nitrogen Group, this reference book helps solve the challenges associated with providing reliable estimates of nitrogen transfers within different ecosystems, also presenting the next steps that should be taken in the development of balanced, cost-effective, and feasible strategies to reduce the amount of reactive nitrogen. Identifies all significant sources of reactive nitrogen flows and their contribution to the nitrogen-cycle on a national, regional, and global level Covers nitrogen management across sectors, including the environment, food security, energy, and health Provides a single reference on reactive nitrogen in India to help in a number of activities, including the evaluation, analysis, synthesis, documentation, and communications on reactive nitrogen

Carbon and Nitrogen in the Terrestrial Environment

Carbon and Nitrogen in the Terrestrial Environment
Author: R. Nieder,D.K. Benbi
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 430
Release: 2008-05-30
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9781402084331

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Carbon and Nitrogen in the Terrestrial Environment is a comprehensive, interdisciplinary description of C and N fluxes between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere; issues related to C and N management in different ecosystems and their implications for the environment and global climate change; and the approaches to mitigate emission of greenhouse gases. Drawing upon the most up-to-date books, journals, bulletins, reports, symposia proceedings and internet sources documenting interrelationships between different aspects of C and N cycling in the terrestrial environment, Carbon and Nitrogen in the Terrestrial Environment fills the gap left by most of the currently available books on C and N cycling. They either deal with a single element of an ecosystem, or are related to one or a few selected aspects like soil organic matter (SOM) and agricultural or forest management, emission of greenhouse gases, global climate change or modeling of SOM dynamics.

The European Nitrogen Assessment

The European Nitrogen Assessment
Author: Mark A. Sutton,Clare M. Howard,Jan Willem Erisman,Gilles Billen,Albert Bleeker,Peringe Grennfelt,Hans van Grinsven,Bruna Grizzetti
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2011-04-14
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9781139501378

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Presenting the first continental-scale assessment of reactive nitrogen in the environment, this book sets the related environmental problems in context by providing a multidisciplinary introduction to the nitrogen cycle processes. Issues of upscaling from farm plot and city to national and continental scales are addressed in detail with emphasis on opportunities for better management at local to global levels. The five key societal threats posed by reactive nitrogen are assessed, providing a framework for joined-up management of the nitrogen cycle in Europe, including the first cost-benefit analysis for different reactive nitrogen forms and future scenarios. Incorporating comprehensive maps, a handy technical synopsis and a summary for policy makers, this landmark volume is an essential reference for academic researchers across a wide range of disciplines, as well as stakeholders and policy makers. It is also a valuable tool in communicating the key environmental issues and future challenges to the wider public.

Agriculture and the Nitrogen Cycle

Agriculture and the Nitrogen Cycle
Author: Arvin Mosier,J. Keith Syers,John R. Freney
Publsiher: Island Press
Total Pages: 344
Release: 2013-04-10
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9781597267434

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Nitrogen is an essential element for plant growth and development and a key agricultural input-but in excess it can lead to a host of problems for human and ecological health. Across the globe, distribution of fertilizer nitrogen is very uneven, with some areas subject to nitrogen pollution and others suffering from reduced soil fertility, diminished crop production, and other consequences of inadequate supply. Agriculture and the Nitrogen Cycle provides a global assessment of the role of nitrogen fertilizer in the nitrogen cycle. The focus of the book is regional, emphasizing the need to maintain food and fiber production while minimizing environmental impacts where fertilizer is abundant, and the need to enhance fertilizer utilization in systems where nitrogen is limited. The book is derived from a workshop held by the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) in Kampala, Uganda, that brought together the world's leading scientists to examine and discuss the nitrogen cycle and related problems. It contains an overview chapter that summarizes the group's findings, four chapters on cross-cutting issues, and thirteen background chapters. The book offers a unique synthesis and provides an up-to-date, broad perspective on the issues of nitrogen fertilizer in food production and the interaction of nitrogen and the environment.

WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality

WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality
Author: World Health Organization
Publsiher: World Health Organization
Total Pages: 454
Release: 2010
Genre: House & Home
ISBN: UCBK:C105261333

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This book presents WHO guidelines for the protection of public health from risks due to a number of chemicals commonly present in indoor air. The substances considered in this review, i.e. benzene, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, naphthalene, nitrogen dioxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (especially benzo[a]pyrene), radon, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene, have indoor sources, are known in respect of their hazardousness to health and are often found indoors in concentrations of health concern. The guidelines are targeted at public health professionals involved in preventing health risks of environmental exposures, as well as specialists and authorities involved in the design and use of buildings, indoor materials and products. They provide a scientific basis for legally enforceable standards.

Human Acceleration of the Nitrogen Cycle

Human Acceleration of the Nitrogen Cycle
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2018
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: 9264309225

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Nitrogen the Confer N s

Nitrogen  the Confer N s
Author: K. van der Hoek,J. Willem Erisman,S. Smeulders,John Robert Wisniewski
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 813
Release: 2012-12-02
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780080984681

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The First International Nitrogen Conference provided an opportunity for researchers and decision-makers to exchange information on environmental pollution by nitrogen compounds on three scales: global, continental/regional and local. The main topics were air, ground water and surface water pollution; emission sources, atmospheric chemistry, deposition processes and effects; disturbance of nitrogen cycles, critical loads and levels; assessments, policy development and evaluation; target groups and abatement techniques; and new approaches leading to an integrated abatement strategy. The peer-reviewed papers from the Conference presented in this volume will provide readers with a comprehensive review of the transport, deposition and impact on ecosystems of nitrogen.

Nitrogen Deposition Critical Loads and Biodiversity

Nitrogen Deposition  Critical Loads and Biodiversity
Author: Mark A. Sutton,Kate E. Mason,Lucy J. Sheppard,Harald Sverdrup,Richard Haeuber,W. Kevin Hicks
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 535
Release: 2014-04-10
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9789400779396

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This volume brings together extended reviews and papers of new scientific research on atmospheric nitrogen deposition impacts globally. While there is a wealth of evidence on the magnitude, components and effects of nitrogen disposition on floral biodiversity in Europe and North America, there is an obvious lack of information on impacts on above- and below-ground fauna, and all impacts in other parts of the world, with no clear overview of how the different strands of evidence fit together. This overall synthesis is targeted at the international conventions, but is equally readable for scientists, environmental managers, conservation agencies and policy makers. 'This timely book highlights the global nitrogen deposition problem. Major regions of the world are exceeding sustainability thresholds for adverse effects on ecosystem function and biodiversity. This highlights the importance of ongoing work, including under the Convention on Biological Diversity, in developing indicators and monitoring nitrogen deposition effects to enable appropriate measures. This book presents a milestone towards this global goal as the international community works toward meeting the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, especially Target 8: "By 2020, pollution, including from excess nutrients, has been brought to levels that are not detrimental to ecosystem function and biodiversity". Braulio Ferreira de Souza Dias, Executive Secretary, Convention on Biological Diversity “This key volume highlights the global challenge to reduce atmospheric nitrogen pollution resulting from energy production, transport and agricultural activities. It takes forward the agenda recently launched in the UNEP commissioned report ‘Our Nutrient World”. Dr. Anjan Datta, UNEP.

Nitrogen Cycle

Nitrogen Cycle
Author: Jesus Gonzalez-Lopez,Alejandro Gonzalez-Martinez
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 292
Release: 2021-07-23
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781000352313

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Anthropogenic activity has clearly altered the N cycle contributing (among other factors) to climate change. This book aims to provide new biotechnological approach representing innovative strategies to solve specific problems related to the imbalance originating in the N cycle. Aspects such as new conceptions in agriculture, wastewater treatment, and greenhouse gas emissions are discussed in this book with a multidisciplinary vision. A team of international authors with wide experience have contributed up-to-date reviews, highlighting scientific principles and their environmental importance and integrating different biotechnological processes in environmental technology.