Oceanic Methane Hydrates

Oceanic Methane Hydrates
Author: Lin Chen,Sukru Merey
Publsiher: Gulf Professional Publishing
Total Pages: 468
Release: 2021-01-10
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780128185667

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Methane hydrates are still a complicated target for today’s oil and gas offshore engineers, particularly the lack of reliable real field test data or obtaining the most recent technology available on the feasibility and challenges surrounding the extraction of methane hydrates. Oceanic Methane Hydrates delivers the solid foundation as well as today’s advances and challenges that remain. Starting with the fundamental knowledge on gas hydrates, the authors define the origin, estimations, and known exploration and production methods. Historical and current oil and gas fields and roadmaps containing methane hydrates around the world are also covered to help lay the foundation for the early career engineer. Lab experiments and advancements in numerical reservoir simulations transition the engineer from research to practice with real field-core sampling techniques covered, points on how to choose producible methane hydrate reservoirs, and the importance of emerging technologies. Actual comparable onshore tests from around the world are included to help the engineer gain clarity on field expectations. Rounding out the reference are emerging technologies in all facets of the business including well completion and monitoring, economics aspects to consider, and environmental challenges, particularly methods to reduce the costs of methane hydrate exploration and production techniques. Rounding out a look at future trends, Oceanic Methane Hydrates covers both the basics and advances needed for today’s engineers to gain the required knowledge needed to tackle this challenging and exciting future energy source. Understand real data and practice examples covering the newest developments of methane hydrate, from chemical, reservoir modelling and production testing Gain worldwide coverage and analysis of the most recent extraction production tests Cover the full range of emerging technologies and environmental sustainability including current regulations and policy outlook

Natural Gas Hydrate in Oceanic and Permafrost Environments

Natural Gas Hydrate in Oceanic and Permafrost Environments
Author: M.D. Max
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 415
Release: 2003-05-31
Genre: Science
ISBN: 1402013620

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This is the first book published on the emerging research field of naturally occurring gas hydrates (focusing on methane hydrate) that is not primarily a physical chemistry textbook. This book is designed as a broad introduction to the field of hydrate science, demonstrating the significance of the hydrate cycle to energy resource potential, seafloor stability, and global climate and climate change, along with other issues. The best known hydrate localities are described, as are research and laboratory methods and results. The book consists of chapters grouped in related themes that present up-to-date information on methane hydrate. Each of the contributing authors is expert in hydrate science and most have been carrying out research in hydrate for a considerable time. Audience: This book will be an important source of information for marine geologists, geophysicists, geochemists, and petroleum geologists and regulators. It is also intended as a graduate-level textbook.

Methane Gas Hydrate

Methane Gas Hydrate
Author: Ayhan Demirbas
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 186
Release: 2010-02-28
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781848828728

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Gas hydrates represent one of the world’s largest untapped reservoirs of energy and, according to some estimates, have the potential to meet global energy needs for the next thousand years. "Methane Gas Hydrate" examines this potential by focusing on methane gas hydrate, which is increasingly considered a significant source of energy. "Methane Gas Hydrate" gives a general overview of natural gas, before delving into the subject of gas hydrates in more detail and methane gas hydrate in particular. As well as discussing methods of gas production, it also discusses the safety and environmental concerns associated with the presence of natural gas hydrates, ranging from their possible impact on the safety of conventional drilling operations to their influence on Earth’s climate. "Methane Gas Hydrate" is a useful reference on an increasingly popular energy source. It contains valuable information for chemical engineers and researchers, as well as for postgraduate students.

Modeling of Oceanic Gas Hydrate Instability and Methane Release in Response to Climate Change

Modeling of Oceanic Gas Hydrate Instability and Methane Release in Response to Climate Change
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2008
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: OCLC:727354973

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Paleooceanographic evidence has been used to postulate that methane from oceanic hydrates may have had a significant role in regulating global climate, implicating global oceanic deposits of methane gas hydrate as the main culprit in instances of rapid climate change that have occurred in the past. However, the behavior of contemporary oceanic methane hydrate deposits subjected to rapid temperature changes, like those predicted under future climate change scenarios, is poorly understood. To determine the fate of the carbon stored in these hydrates, we performed simulations of oceanic gas hydrate accumulations subjected to temperature changes at the seafloor and assessed the potential for methane release into the ocean. Our modeling analysis considered the properties of benthic sediments, the saturation and distribution of the hydrates, the ocean depth, the initial seafloor temperature, and for the first time, estimated the effect of benthic biogeochemical activity. The results show that shallow deposits--such as those found in arctic regions or in the Gulf of Mexico--can undergo rapid dissociation and produce significant methane fluxes of 2 to 13 mol/yr/m2 over a period of decades, and release up to 1,100 mol of methane per m2 of seafloor in a century. These fluxes may exceed the ability of the seafloor environment (via anaerobic oxidation of methane) to consume the released methane or sequester the carbon. These results will provide a source term to regional or global climate models in order to assess the coupling of gas hydrate deposits to changes in the global climate.

Contribution of Oceanic Gas Hydrate Dissociation to the Formation of Arctic Ocean Methane Plumes

Contribution of Oceanic Gas Hydrate Dissociation to the Formation of Arctic Ocean Methane Plumes
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2011
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: OCLC:953409499

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Vast quantities of methane are trapped in oceanic hydrate deposits, and there is concern that a rise in the ocean temperature will induce dissociation of these hydrate accumulations, potentially releasing large amounts of carbon into the atmosphere. Because methane is a powerful greenhouse gas, such a release could have dramatic climatic consequences. The recent discovery of active methane gas venting along the landward limit of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) on the shallow continental slope (150 m - 400 m) west of Svalbard suggests that this process may already have begun, but the source of the methane has not yet been determined. This study performs 2-D simulations of hydrate dissociation in conditions representative of the Arctic Ocean margin to assess whether such hydrates could contribute to the observed gas release. The results show that shallow, low-saturation hydrate deposits, if subjected to recently observed or future predicted temperature changes at the seafloor, can release quantities of methane at the magnitudes similar to what has been observed, and that the releases will be localized near the landward limit of the GHSZ. Both gradual and rapid warming is simulated, along with a parametric sensitivity analysis, and localized gas release is observed for most of the cases. These results resemble the recently published observations and strongly suggest that hydrate dissociation and methane release as a result of climate change may be a real phenomenon, that it could occur on decadal timescales, and that it already may be occurring.

Complete Guide to Methane Hydrate Energy

Complete Guide to Methane Hydrate Energy
Author: U. S. Department of Energy (DOE),National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL),U. S. Government
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 217
Release: 2017-09-02
Genre: Climatic changes
ISBN: 1549655086

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In March 2013, Japanese researchers announced a breakthrough in the extraction of natural gas from methane hydrates. This marked the latest important development in the quest for energy from methane hydrate, known as the ice that burns. This book presents a comprehensive collection of up-to-date publications about this vital new resource, covering all aspects of the field, including the possible effects of hydrate gas production on climate change. Contents include: Energy Resource Potential of Methane Hydrate; Methane Hydrate Program Report to Congress - October 2012; Interagency Coordination on Methane Hydrates R&D: Demonstrating the Power of Working Together; Report of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee on Methane Hydrate Issues and Opportunities including Assessment of Uncertainty of the Impact of Methane Hydrate on Global Climate Change; Report to Congress - An Assessment of the Methane Hydrate Research Program and An Assessment of the 5-Year Research Plan of the Department of Energy Prepared by the Federal Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee - June 2007; An Interagency Roadmap for Methane Hydrate Research and Development; Methane Hydrates R&D Program. Methane hydrate is a cage-like lattice of ice inside of which are trapped molecules of methane, the chief constituent of natural gas. If methane hydrate is either warmed or depressurized, it will revert back to water and natural gas. When brought to the earth's surface, one cubic meter of gas hydrate releases 164 cubic meters of natural gas. Hydrate deposits may be several hundred meters thick and generally occur in two types of settings: under Arctic permafrost, and beneath the ocean floor. Methane that forms hydrate can be both biogenic, created by biological activity in sediments, and thermogenic, created by geological processes deeper within the earth. While global estimates vary considerably, the energy content of methane occurring in hydrate form is immense, possibly exceeding the combined energy content of all other known fossil fuels. The U.S. Department of Energy methane hydrate program aims to develop the tools and technologies to allow environmentally safe methane production from arctic and domestic offshore hydrates. The program includes R&D in: Production Feasibility: Methane hydrates occur in large quantities beneath the permafrost and offshore, on and below the seafloor. DOE R&D is focused on determining the potential and environmental implications of production of natural gas from hydrates. Research and Modeling: DOE is studying innovative ways to predict the location and concentration of subsurface methane hydrate before drilling. DOE is also conducting studies to understand the physical properties of gas hydrate-bearing strata and to model this understanding at reservoir scale to predict future behavior and production. Climate Change: DOE is studying the role of methane hydrate formation and dissociation in the global carbon cycle. Another aspect of this research is incorporating GH science into climate models to understand the relationship between global warming and methane hydrates.

Submarine Landslides and Tsunamis

Submarine Landslides and Tsunamis
Author: Ahmet C. Yalçiner,Efim N. Pelinovsky,Emile Okal,Costas E. Synolakis
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 328
Release: 2012-12-06
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9789401002059

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Tsunamis are water waves triggered by impulsive geologic events such as sea floor deformation, landslides, slumps, subsidence, volcanic eruptions and bolide impacts. Tsunamis can inflict significant damage and casualties both nearfield and after evolving over long propagation distances and impacting distant coastlines. Tsunamis can also effect geomorphologic changes along the coast. Understanding tsunami generation and evolution is of paramount importance for protecting coastal population at risk, coastal structures and the natural environment. Accurately and reliably predicting the initial waveform and the associated coastal effects of tsunamis remains one of the most vexing problems in geophysics, and -with few exceptions- has resisted routine numerical computation or data collection solutions. While ten years ago, it was believed that the generation problem was adequately understood for useful predictions, it is now clear that it is not, especially nearfield. By contrast, the runup problem earlier believed intractable is now well understood for all but the most extreme breaking wave events.

Methane Hydrates in Quaternary Climate Change

Methane Hydrates in Quaternary Climate Change
Author: James P. Kennett,Kevin G. Cannariato,Ingrid L. Hendy,Richard J. Behl
Publsiher: American Geophysical Union
Total Pages: 216
Release: 2003-01-10
Genre: Science
ISBN: UOM:39015057602636

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Recent discoveries from ice-core and marine sediments suggest that global climate systems can change from glacial to near-interglacial temperatures within decades. In order to explain this phenomenon, the authors (all affiliated with the Department of Geological Sciences, U. of California) advance a hypothesis that suggests that the massive energy needed for these changes came for the release of "frozen" methane hydrates (clathrates) stored in marine sediments on continental margins. They argue that the release of the methane caused feedback processes that would explain the surprisingly rapid changes. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR.

Realizing the Energy Potential of Methane Hydrate for the United States

Realizing the Energy Potential of Methane Hydrate for the United States
Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Committee on Earth Resources,Committee on Assessment of the Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate Research and Development Program: Evaluating Methane Hydrate as a Future Energy Resource
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 204
Release: 2009-06-30
Genre: Science
ISBN: 0309157633

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Natural gas, composed mostly of methane, is the cleanest of all the fossil fuels, emitting 25-50% less carbon dioxide than either oil or coal for each unit of energy produced. In recent years, natural gas supplied approximately 20-25% of all energy consumed in the United States. Methane hydrate is a potentially enormous and as yet untapped source of methane. The Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate Research and Development Program has been tasked since 2000 to implement and coordinate a national methane hydrate research effort to stimulate the development of knowledge and technology necessary for commercial production of methane from methane hydrate in a safe and environmentally responsible way. Realizing the Energy Potential of Methane Hydrate for the United States evaluates the program's research projects and management processes since its congressional re-authorization in 2005, and presents recommendations for its future research and development initiatives.

Detection and Production of Methane Hydrate

Detection and Production of Methane Hydrate
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2011
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: OCLC:1066015926

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This project seeks to understand regional differences in gas hydrate systems from the perspective of as an energy resource, geohazard, and long-term climate influence. Specifically, the effort will: (1) collect data and conceptual models that targets causes of gas hydrate variance, (2) construct numerical models that explain and predict regional-scale gas hydrate differences in 2-dimensions with minimal 'free parameters', (3) simulate hydrocarbon production from various gas hydrate systems to establish promising resource characteristics, (4) perturb different gas hydrate systems to assess potential impacts of hot fluids on seafloor stability and well stability, and (5) develop geophysical approaches that enable remote quantification of gas hydrate heterogeneities so that they can be characterized with minimal costly drilling. Our integrated program takes advantage of the fact that we have a close working team comprised of experts in distinct disciplines. The expected outcomes of this project are improved exploration and production technology for production of natural gas from methane hydrates and improved safety through understanding of seafloor and well bore stability in the presence of hydrates. The scope of this project was to more fully characterize, understand, and appreciate fundamental differences in the amount and distribution of gas hydrate and how this would affect the production potential of a hydrate accumulation in the marine environment. The effort combines existing information from locations in the ocean that are dominated by low permeability sediments with small amounts of high permeability sediments, one permafrost location where extensive hydrates exist in reservoir quality rocks and other locations deemed by mutual agreement of DOE and Rice to be appropriate. The initial ocean locations were Blake Ridge, Hydrate Ridge, Peru Margin and GOM. The permafrost location was Mallik. Although the ultimate goal of the project was to understand processes that control production potential of hydrates in marine settings, Mallik was included because of the extensive data collected in a producible hydrate accumulation. To date, such a location had not been studied in the oceanic environment. The project worked closely with ongoing projects (e.g. GOM JIP and offshore India) that are actively investigating potentially economic hydrate accumulations in marine settings. The overall approach was fivefold: (1) collect key data concerning hydrocarbon fluxes which is currently missing at all locations to be included in the study, (2) use this and existing data to build numerical models that can explain gas hydrate variance at all four locations, (3) simulate how natural gas could be produced from each location with different production strategies, (4) collect new sediment property data at these locations that are required for constraining fluxes, production simulations and assessing sediment stability, and (5) develop a method for remotely quantifying heterogeneities in gas hydrate and free gas distributions. While we generally restricted our efforts to the locations where key parameters can be measured or constrained, our ultimate aim was to make our efforts universally applicable to any hydrate accumulation.

H R 1753 and S 330 Methane Hydrate Research and Development Act of 1999

H R  1753 and S  330  Methane Hydrate Research and Development Act of 1999
Author: United States,United States. Congress. House. Committee on Resources. Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral Resources
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 92
Release: 1999
Genre: Methane industry
ISBN: PSU:000043062997

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Energy from Gas Hydrates Assessing the Opportunities and Challenges for Canada

Energy from Gas Hydrates  Assessing the Opportunities and Challenges for Canada
Author: Council of Canadian Academies
Publsiher: Council of CanadianAcademies
Total Pages: 18
Release: 2008
Genre: Energy development
ISBN: 9781926558028

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Natural Capital and Exploitation of the Deep Ocean

Natural Capital and Exploitation of the Deep Ocean
Author: Maria Baker,Eva Ramirez-Llodra,Paul Tyler
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2020-08-28
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780192578778

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The deep ocean is by far the planet's largest biome and holds a wealth of potential natural assets. Human exploitation of the deep ocean is rapidly increasing whilst becoming more visible to many through the popular media, particularly film and television. The scientific literature of deep-sea exploitation and its effects has also rapidly expanded as a direct function of this increased national and global interest in exploitation of deep-sea resources, both biological (e.g. fisheries, genetic resources) and non-biological (e.g. minerals, oil, gas, methane hydrate). At the same time there is a growing interest in deep-sea contamination (including plastics), with many such studies featured in high profile scientific journals and covered by global media outlets. However, there is currently no comprehensive integration of this information in any form and these topics are only superficially covered in classic textbooks on deep-sea biology. This concise and accessible work provides an understanding of the relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, both at the seafloor and in the water column, and how these might be affected as a result of human interaction, exploitation and, ultimately, environmental change. It follows a logical progression from geological and physical processes, ecology, biology, and biogeography, to exploitation, management, and conservation. Natural Capital and Exploitation of the Deep Ocean is aimed at marine biologists and ecologists, oceanographers, fisheries scientists and managers, fish biologists, environmental scientists, and conservation biologists. It will also be of relevance and use to a multi-disciplinary audience of fish and wildlife agencies, NGOs, and government departments involved in deep-sea conservation and management.

Charting the Future of Methane Hydrate Research in the United States

Charting the Future of Methane Hydrate Research in the United States
Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Ocean Studies Board,Committee to Review the Activities Authorized Under the Methane Hydrate Research and Development Act of 2000
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 212
Release: 2004-11-14
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780309092920

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Methane hydrate is a natural form of clathrate - a chemical substance in which one molecule forms a lattice around a "guest" molecule with chemical bonding. In this clathrate, the guest molecule is methane and the lattice is formed by water to form an ice-like solid. Methane hydrate has become the focus of international attention because of the vast potential for human use worldwide. If methane can be produced from hydrate, a reasonable assumption given that there are no obvious technical or engineering roadblocks to commercial production, the nation's natural gas energy supply could be extended for many years to come. This report reviews the Department of Energy's (DOE) Methane Hydrate Research and Development Program, the project selection process, and projects funded to date. It makes recommendations on how the DOE program could be improved. Key recommendations include focusing DOE program emphasis and research in 7 priority areas; incorporating greater scientific oversight in the selection, initiation, monitoring, and assessment of major projects funded by the DOE; strengthening DOE's contribution to education and training through funding of fellowships, and providing project applicants with a set of instructions and guidelines outlining requirements for timely and full disclosure of project results and consequences of noncompliance.

Basin Scale Assessment of Gas Hydrate Dissociation in Response to Climate Change

Basin Scale Assessment of Gas Hydrate Dissociation in Response to Climate Change
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2011
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: OCLC:953409347

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Paleooceanographic evidence has been used to postulate that methane from oceanic hydrates may have had a significant role in regulating climate. However, the behavior of contemporary oceanic methane hydrate deposits subjected to rapid temperature changes, like those now occurring in the arctic and those predicted under future climate change scenarios, has only recently been investigated. Field investigations have discovered substantial methane gas plumes exiting the seafloor along the Arctic Ocean margin, and the plumes appear at depths corresponding to the upper limit of a receding gas hydrate stability zone. It has been suggested that these plumes may be the first visible signs of the dissociation of shallow hydrate deposits due to ongoing climate change in the arctic. We simulate the release of methane from oceanic deposits, including the effects of fully-coupled heat transfer, fluid flow, hydrate dissociation, and other thermodynamic processes, for systems representative of segments of the Arctic Ocean margins. The modeling encompasses a range of shallow hydrate deposits from the landward limit of the hydrate stability zone down to water depths beyond the expected range of century-scale temperature changes. We impose temperature changes corresponding to predicted rates of climate change-related ocean warming and examine the possibility of hydrate dissociation and the release of methane. The assessment is performed at local-, regional-, and basin-scales. The simulation results are consistent with the hypothesis that dissociating shallow hydrates alone can result in significant methane fluxes at the seafloor. However, the methane release is likely to be confined to a narrow region of high dissociation susceptibility, defined by depth and temperature, and that any release will be continuous and controlled, rather than explosive. This modeling also establishes the first realistic bounds for methane release along the arctic continental shelf for potential hydrate dissociation scenarios, and ongoing work may help confirm whether climate change is already impacting the stability of the vast oceanic hydrate reservoir.