Oceanic Methane Hydrates

Oceanic Methane Hydrates
Author: Lin Chen,Sukru Merey
Publsiher: Gulf Professional Publishing
Total Pages: 468
Release: 2021-01-10
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780128185667

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Methane hydrates are still a complicated target for today’s oil and gas offshore engineers, particularly the lack of reliable real field test data or obtaining the most recent technology available on the feasibility and challenges surrounding the extraction of methane hydrates. Oceanic Methane Hydrates delivers the solid foundation as well as today’s advances and challenges that remain. Starting with the fundamental knowledge on gas hydrates, the authors define the origin, estimations, and known exploration and production methods. Historical and current oil and gas fields and roadmaps containing methane hydrates around the world are also covered to help lay the foundation for the early career engineer. Lab experiments and advancements in numerical reservoir simulations transition the engineer from research to practice with real field-core sampling techniques covered, points on how to choose producible methane hydrate reservoirs, and the importance of emerging technologies. Actual comparable onshore tests from around the world are included to help the engineer gain clarity on field expectations. Rounding out the reference are emerging technologies in all facets of the business including well completion and monitoring, economics aspects to consider, and environmental challenges, particularly methods to reduce the costs of methane hydrate exploration and production techniques. Rounding out a look at future trends, Oceanic Methane Hydrates covers both the basics and advances needed for today’s engineers to gain the required knowledge needed to tackle this challenging and exciting future energy source. Understand real data and practice examples covering the newest developments of methane hydrate, from chemical, reservoir modelling and production testing Gain worldwide coverage and analysis of the most recent extraction production tests Cover the full range of emerging technologies and environmental sustainability including current regulations and policy outlook

Natural Gas Hydrates in Flow Assurance

Natural Gas Hydrates in Flow Assurance
Author: Carolyn Ann Koh,Amadeu Sum
Publsiher: Gulf Professional Publishing
Total Pages: 224
Release: 2010-10-12
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 185617946X

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With millions of kilometres of onshore and offshore oil and gas pipelines in service around the world, pipelines are the life’s blood of the world. Notorious for disrupting natural gas production or transmission, the formation of natural gas hydrates can cost a company hundreds of millions and lead to catastrophic equipment breakdowns and safety and health hazards. Written by an international group of experts, Natural Gas Hydrates in Flow Assurance provide an expert overview of the practice and theory in natural gas hydrates, with applications primarily in flow assurance. Compact and easy to use, the book provides readers with a wealth of materials which include the key lessons learned in the industry over the last 20 years. Packed with field case studies, the book is designed to provide hands-on training and practice in calculating hydrate phase equilibria and plug dissociation. In addition readers receive executable programs to calculate hydrate thermodynamics. Case studies of hydrates in flow assurance The key concepts underlying the practical applications An overview of the state of the art flow assurance industrial developments

Energy from Gas Hydrates Assessing the Opportunities and Challenges for Canada

Energy from Gas Hydrates  Assessing the Opportunities and Challenges for Canada
Author: Council of Canadian Academies
Publsiher: Council of CanadianAcademies
Total Pages: 18
Release: 2008
Genre: Energy development
ISBN: 9781926558028

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Offshore Gas Hydrates

Offshore Gas Hydrates
Author: Rudy Rogers
Publsiher: Gulf Professional Publishing
Total Pages: 398
Release: 2015-08-24
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780128025567

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Gas hydrates collect and store both thermogenic and biogenic methane generated in deep ocean sediments that, over geologic time, forms vast methane repositories. Offshore Gas Hydrates: Origins, Development, and Production presents gas hydrates as an emerging, clean energy source possibly more abundant than all other fossil fuels and especially important for countries geographically and economically restricted from conventional fossil fuel resources. The book explores feasible methods to produce offshore hydrate gas, the means to store and transport the remotely produced gas, new hydrate inhibitors for conventional and hydrate production in ultra-deep waters, instability manifestations of seafloor hydrates, and hydrate roles in complex ecological scenarios. Complementing production and drilling method presentations are computer simulation studies, hydrate field tests, and seismic and logging developments. Offshore Gas Hydrates delivers a well-developed framework for both the oil and gas researcher and corporate engineer to better exploit this future unconventional resource, empowering the oil and gas professional with the latest data and information on sophisticated challenges that offshore hydrates present. Addresses the technical, economic, and environmental problems of producing hydrate gas. Introduces the overlooked and unchartered role of microbes in catalyzing offshore hydrate formations with attendant effects on stability/dissociation. Reviews the latest world-wide field tests, research, and case studies involving seafloor hydrates, inclusive of most known hydrate provinces. Displays two videos within the e-book only: (1) hydrates, carbonates, chemosynthetic communities, and natural hydrocarbon leakages on the seafloor at the Mississippi Canyon hydrate observatory site; (2) hydrate nucleation, migration and self-packing in a laboratory test cell under the influence of anionic surfactants. Extends deep-water hydrate knowledge regarding the hydrate formation and protective cover for microbes within the extreme environment of Mars.

Exploration of Gas Hydrates

Exploration of Gas Hydrates
Author: Naresh Kumar Thakur,Sanjeev Rajput
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 281
Release: 2010-10-08
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9783642142345

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Gas hydrates are ice-like crystalline substances that form a rigid cage of water molecules and entrap hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon gas by hydrogen bonding. Natural gas hydrate is primarily composed of water and methane. These are solid, crystalline, ice-like substances found in permafrost areas and deepwater basins around the world. They naturally occur in the pore space of marine sediments, where appropriate high pressure and low temperature conditions exist in an adequate supply of gas (mainly methane). Gas hydrates are considered as a potential non conventional energy resource. Methane hydrates are also recognized as, an influence on offshore platform stability, a major factor in climate change contributing to global warming and a significant contribution to the ocean carbon cycle. The proposed book treats various geophysical techniques in order to quantify the gas hydrate reserves and their impact on environment. The primary goal of this book is to provide the state of art for gas hydrate exploration. The target audiences for this book are non-specialist from different branches of science, graduate students and researchers.

Methane Gas Hydrate

Methane Gas Hydrate
Author: Ayhan Demirbas
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 186
Release: 2010-02-28
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781848828728

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Gas hydrates represent one of the world’s largest untapped reservoirs of energy and, according to some estimates, have the potential to meet global energy needs for the next thousand years. "Methane Gas Hydrate" examines this potential by focusing on methane gas hydrate, which is increasingly considered a significant source of energy. "Methane Gas Hydrate" gives a general overview of natural gas, before delving into the subject of gas hydrates in more detail and methane gas hydrate in particular. As well as discussing methods of gas production, it also discusses the safety and environmental concerns associated with the presence of natural gas hydrates, ranging from their possible impact on the safety of conventional drilling operations to their influence on Earth’s climate. "Methane Gas Hydrate" is a useful reference on an increasingly popular energy source. It contains valuable information for chemical engineers and researchers, as well as for postgraduate students.

Hydrates of Natural Gas

Hydrates of Natural Gas
Author: I͡Uriĭ Fedorovich Makogon
Publsiher: Pennwell Corporation
Total Pages: 237
Release: 1981
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: UOM:39015002937566

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Gas Hydrates

Gas Hydrates
Author: J.-P. Henriet,J. Mienert,Jürgen Mienert
Publsiher: Geological Society of London
Total Pages: 338
Release: 1998
Genre: Science
ISBN: 186239010X

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Natural gas hydrates occur in polar regions and in the sediment of out continental and insular margins. Three important aspects of gas hydrates are covered in this text: their fossil fuel potential; their role as a submarine geohazard; and their effects on global climate change. There is a general focus on slope stability and climatic issues.

Natural Gas Hydrate in Oceanic and Permafrost Environments

Natural Gas Hydrate in Oceanic and Permafrost Environments
Author: M.D. Max
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 415
Release: 2003-05-31
Genre: Science
ISBN: 1402013620

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This is the first book published on the emerging research field of naturally occurring gas hydrates (focusing on methane hydrate) that is not primarily a physical chemistry textbook. This book is designed as a broad introduction to the field of hydrate science, demonstrating the significance of the hydrate cycle to energy resource potential, seafloor stability, and global climate and climate change, along with other issues. The best known hydrate localities are described, as are research and laboratory methods and results. The book consists of chapters grouped in related themes that present up-to-date information on methane hydrate. Each of the contributing authors is expert in hydrate science and most have been carrying out research in hydrate for a considerable time. Audience: This book will be an important source of information for marine geologists, geophysicists, geochemists, and petroleum geologists and regulators. It is also intended as a graduate-level textbook.

World Atlas of Submarine Gas Hydrates in Continental Margins

World Atlas of Submarine Gas Hydrates in Continental Margins
Author: Jürgen Mienert,Christian Berndt,Anne M. Tréhu,Angelo Camerlenghi,Char-Shine Liu
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 515
Release: 2021-12-17
Genre: Science
ISBN: 3030811859

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This world atlas presents a comprehensive overview of the gas-hydrate systems of our planet with contributions from esteemed international researchers from academia, governmental institutions and hydrocarbon industries. The book illustrates, describes and discusses gas hydrate systems, their geophysical evidence and their future prospects for climate change and continental margin geohazards from passive to active margins. This includes passive volcanic to non-volcanic margins including glaciated and non-glaciated margins from high to low latitudes. Shallow submarine gas hydrates allow a glimpse into the past from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to modern environmental conditions to predict potential changes in future stability conditions while deep submarine gas hydrates remained more stable. This demonstrates their potential for rapid reactions for some gas hydrate provinces to a warming world, as well as helping to identify future prospects for environmental research. Three-dimensional and high-resolution seismic imaging technologies provide new insights into fluid flow systems in continental margins, enabling the identification of gas and gas escape routes to the seabed within gas hydrate environments, where seabed habitats may flourish. The volume contains a method section detailing the seismic imaging and logging while drilling techniques used to characterize gas hydrates and related dynamic processes in the sub seabed. This book is unique, as it goes well beyond the geophysical monograph series of natural gas hydrates and textbooks on marine geophysics. It also emphasizes the potential for gas hydrate research across a variety of disciplines. Observations of bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) in 2D and 3D seismic reflection data combined with velocity analysis, electromagnetic investigations and gas-hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) modelling, provide the necessary insights for academic interests and hydrocarbon industries to understand the potential extent and volume of gas hydrates in a wide range of tectonic settings of continental margins. Gas hydrates control the largest and most dynamic reservoir of global carbon. Especially 4D, 3D seismic but also 2D seismic data provide compelling sub-seabed images of their dynamical behavior. Sub-seabed imaging techniques increase our understanding of the controlling mechanisms for the distribution and migration of gas before it enters the gas-hydrate stability zone. As methane hydrate stability depends mainly on pressure, temperature, gas composition and pore water chemistry, gas hydrates are usually found in ocean margin settings where water depth is more than 300 m and gas migrates upward from deeper geological formations. This highly dynamic environment may precondition the stability of continental slopes as evidenced by geohazards and gas expelled from the sea floor. This book provides new insights into variations in the character and existence of gas hydrates and BSRs in various geological environments, as well as their dynamics. The potentially dynamic behavior of this natural carbon system in a warming world, its current and future impacts on a variety of Earth environments can now be adequately evaluated by using the information provided in the world atlas. This book is relevant for students, researchers, governmental agencies and oil and gas professionals. Some familiarity with seismic data and some basic understanding of geology and tectonics are recommended.

Monoethylene Glycol as Hydrate Inhibitor in Offshore Natural Gas Processing

Monoethylene Glycol as Hydrate Inhibitor in Offshore Natural Gas Processing
Author: Alexandre Mendonça Teixeira,Lara de Oliveira Arinelli,José Luiz de Medeiros,Ofélia de Queiroz Fernandes Araújo
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 114
Release: 2017-09-15
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9783319660745

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This book addresses several issues related to hydrate inhibition and monoethylene glycol (MEG) recovery units (MRUs) in offshore natural gas fields, from fundamentals to engineering aspects and from energy consumption assessment to advanced topics such as exergy analysis. The assessment of energy degradation in MRUs is critical in offshore rigs, and the topic of exergy theory has by no means been completely explored; it is still being developed. The book presents a comprehensive, yet concise, formulation for exergy flow and examines different approaches for the reference state of MEG and definition of the reference environment so as to obtain an effective exergy analysis with consistent results. It also provides new and useful information that has a great potential in the field of exergy analysis application by assessing energy degradation for three well-known MRU technologies on offshore rigs: the Traditional Atmospheric Distillation Process; the Full-Stream Process; and the Slip-Stream Process. The book then elucidates how the main design parameters impact the efficiency of MEG recovery units and offers insights into thermodynamic efficiency based on case studies of general distillation-based processes with sharp or not too sharp cut, providing ranges for expected values of efficiencies and enhancing a global comprehension of this subject. Since MEG recovery is an energy consuming process that invariably has to be conducted in a limited space and with limited power supply, the book is a valuable resource for those involved in design, engineering, economic evaluation and environmental evaluation of topside processing on offshore platforms for natural gas production.

Sediment hosted Gas Hydrates

Sediment hosted Gas Hydrates
Author: D. Long
Publsiher: Geological Society of London
Total Pages: 192
Release: 2009
Genre: Science
ISBN: 186239279X

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There is much interest in gas hydrates in relation to their potential role as an important driver for climate change and as a major new energy source; however, many questions remain, not least the size of the global hydrate budget. Much of the current uncertainty centres on how hydrates are physically stored in sediments at a range of scales. This volume details advances in our understanding of sediment-hosted hydrates, and contains papers covering a range of studies of real and artificial sediments containing both methane hydrates and CO2 hydrates. The papers include an examination of the techniques used to locate, sample and characterize hydrates from natural, methane-rich systems, so as to understand them better. Other contributions consider the nature and stability of synthetic hydrates formed in the laboratory, which in turn improve our ability to make accurate predictive models.

Environmental Hazards from Offshore Methane Hydrate Operations

Environmental Hazards from Offshore Methane Hydrate Operations
Author: Roy Andrew Partain
Publsiher: Kluwer Law International B.V.
Total Pages: 418
Release: 2017-05-01
Genre: Law
ISBN: 9789041187314

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" Although methane hydrates are not recent discoveries, it is only now that their extraction and production are becoming commercially feasible as a major new energy source. They are present offshore in almost every coastal state, and their economic potential for endowing those states with abundant natural gas – in addition to their utility as freshwater resources and as carbon sinks for captured greenhouse gases – is vast. This book presents the first treatment of the legal issues facing the future of offshore methane hydrates, taking into account both proprietary interests and environmental hazards. Starting from law and economics theory as applied to environmental accidents, the book’s analytical framework addresses how best to provide for the opportunities and challenges presented by offshore methane hydrates. Issues and topics include the following: - introduction to the science and technology of offshore methane hydrates; - methane as a green energy source; - research programmes and agendas under way in Japan, South Korea, the United States, Canada, China, and India; - carbon capture and sequestration; - risks – methane emissions, large-scale combustion events, subsea landslides, tsunamis, earthquakes, deep ocean eruptions; - strategies of risk governance – during exploration, development, production and abandonment of the extraction process; - acts that enable seeping and venting of methane; - regulatory compliance as a defense from liability; - grounds for deference to rules of civil liability; - potential impact on anthropogenic climate change; and - private regulation and market-based incentives The analysis compares and contrasts recommended legal policies with existing legal frameworks in relevant international conventions, the European Union, and the United States. Rules of civil liability are reviewed to determine when strict liability or negligence might be efficiently employed in risk governance along with the implementation of public regulations. As a road map to amending and revising existing laws and conventions, this book will be of inestimable practical value to policymakers in supporting the optimal risk governance of the development of methane hydrates. For potential entrepreneurs and operators, this book greatly reduces the legal uncertainty underlying their decision-making and investment decisions. Furthermore, this book enables a broad cross-section of legal practitioners and scholars to engage in this fascinating late arrival to the natural resources law and policy arena. "

Gas Hydrates 2

Gas Hydrates 2
Author: Livio Ruffine,Daniel Broseta,Arnaud Desmedt
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 382
Release: 2018-04-16
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9781119522478

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Gas hydrates in their natural environment and for potential industrial applications (Volume 2).

Economic Geology of Natural Gas Hydrate

Economic Geology of Natural Gas Hydrate
Author: Michael D. Max,Arthur H. Johnson,William P. Dillon
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 343
Release: 2006-07-09
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9781402039720

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This book is a companion to “Natural Gas Hydrate in Oceanic and Permafrost Environments” (Max, 2000, 2003), which is the first book on gas hydrate in this series. Although other gases can naturally form clathrate hydrates (referred to after as ‘hydrate’), we are concerned here only with hydrocarbon gases that form hydrates. The most important of these natural gases is methane. Whereas the first book is a general introduction to the subject of natural gas hydrate, this book focuses on the geology and geochemical controls of gas hydrate development and on gas extraction from naturally occurring hydrocarbon hydrates. This is the first broad treatment of gas hydrate as a natural resource within an economic geological framework. This book is written mainly to stand alone for brevity and to minimize duplication. Information in Max (2000; 2003) should also be consulted for completeness. Hydrate is a type of clathrate (Sloan, 1998) that is formed from a cage structure of water molecules in which gas molecules occupying void sites within the cages stabilize the structure through van der Waals or hydrogen bonding.