Oil Spill Studies
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|Author||: Scott Stout,Zhendi Wang|
|Total Pages||: 860|
|Genre||: Technology & Engineering|
Download Oil Spill Environmental Forensics Case Studies Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
Oil Spill Environmental Forensics Case Studies includes 34 chapters that serve to present various aspects of environmental forensics in relation to “real-world oil spill case studies from around the globe. Authors representing academic, government, and private researcher groups from 14 countries bring a diverse and global perspective to this volume. Oil Spill Environmental Forensics Case Studies addresses releases of natural gas/methane, automotive gasoline and other petroleum fuels, lubricants, vegetable oils, paraffin waxes, bitumen, manufactured gas plant residues, urban runoff, and, of course, crude oil, the latter ranging from light Bakken shale oil to heavy Canadian oil sands oil. New challenges surrounding forensic investigations of stray gas in the shallow subsurface, volatiles in air, dissolved chemicals in water (including passive samplers), and biological tissues associated with oil spills are included, as are the effects and long-term oil weathering, long-term monitoring in urbanized and non-urbanized environments, fate and transport, forensic historical research, new analytical and chemical data processing and interpretation methods. Presents cases in each chapter on the application of specific oil spill environmental forensic techniques Features chapters written by international experts from both academia and industry Includes relevant concepts and theories elucidated for each theme
|Author||: Merv Fingas|
|Publsiher||: John Wiley & Sons|
|Total Pages||: 728|
Download Handbook of Oil Spill Science and Technology Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
Risk analysis and prevention. Oil properties oil physiscal properties. Oil composition and properties. Oil analysis. oil behavior. Modeling. oil spill on land. Effects of oil. Natural dispersion. Cold region spills. Case studies.
|Author||: Committee on Understanding Oil Spill Dispersants: Efficacy and Effects,Ocean Studies Board,National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies|
|Publsiher||: National Academy Press|
|Total Pages||: 377|
Download Oil Spill Dispersants Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
Approximately 3 million gallons of oil or refined petroleum products are spilled into U.S. waters every year. Oil dispersants (chemical agents such as surfactants, solvents, and other compounds) are used to reduce the effect of oil spills by changing the chemical and physical properties of the oil. By enhancing the amount of oil that physically mixes into the water, dispersants can reduce the potential that a surface slick will contaminate shoreline habitats. Although called for in the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 as a tool for minimizing the impact of oil spills, the use of chemical dispersants has long been controversial. This book reviews the adequacy of existing information and ongoing research regarding the effectiveness of dispersants as an oil spill response technique, as well as the effect of dispersed oil on marine and coastal ecosystems. Oil Spill Dispersants also includes recommended steps for policy makers faced with making hard choices regarding the use of dispersants as part of spill contingency planning efforts or during actual spills.
|Author||: National Research Council,Transportation Research Board,Marine Board,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Polar Research Board,Ocean Studies Board,Committee on Responding to Oil Spills in the U.S. Arctic Marine Environment|
|Publsiher||: National Academies Press|
|Total Pages||: 210|
Download Responding to Oil Spills in the U S Arctic Marine Environment Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
U.S. Arctic waters north of the Bering Strait and west of the Canadian border encompass a vast area that is usually ice covered for much of the year, but is increasingly experiencing longer periods and larger areas of open water due to climate change. Sparsely inhabited with a wide variety of ecosystems found nowhere else, this region is vulnerable to damage from human activities. As oil and gas, shipping, and tourism activities increase, the possibilities of an oil spill also increase. How can we best prepare to respond to such an event in this challenging environment? Responding to Oil Spills in the U.S. Arctic Marine Environment reviews the current state of the science regarding oil spill response and environmental assessment in the Arctic region north of the Bering Strait, with emphasis on the potential impacts in U.S. waters. This report describes the unique ecosystems and environment of the Arctic and makes recommendations to provide an effective response effort in these challenging conditions. According to Responding to Oil Spills in the U.S. Arctic Marine Environment, a full range of proven oil spill response technologies is needed in order to minimize the impacts on people and sensitive ecosystems. This report identifies key oil spill research priorities, critical data and monitoring needs, mitigation strategies, and important operational and logistical issues. The Arctic acts as an integrating, regulating, and mediating component of the physical, atmospheric and cryospheric systems that govern life on Earth. Not only does the Arctic serve as regulator of many of the Earth's large-scale systems and processes, but it is also an area where choices made have substantial impact on life and choices everywhere on planet Earth. This report's recommendations will assist environmentalists, industry, state and local policymakers, and anyone interested in the future of this special region to preserve and protect it from damaging oil spills.
|Author||: National Research Council,Transportation Research Board,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Marine Board,Ocean Studies Board,Committee on Oil in the Sea: Inputs, Fates, and Effects|
|Publsiher||: National Academies Press|
|Total Pages||: 277|
Download Oil in the Sea III Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
Since the early 1970s, experts have recognized that petroleum pollutants were being discharged in marine waters worldwide, from oil spills, vessel operations, and land-based sources. Public attention to oil spills has forced improvements. Still, a considerable amount of oil is discharged yearly into sensitive coastal environments. Oil in the Sea provides the best available estimate of oil pollutant discharge into marine waters, including an evaluation of the methods for assessing petroleum load and a discussion about the concerns these loads represent. Featuring close-up looks at the Exxon Valdez spill and other notable events, the book identifies important research questions and makes recommendations for better analysis ofâ€"and more effective measures againstâ€"pollutant discharge. The book discusses: Inputâ€"where the discharges come from, including the role of two-stroke engines used on recreational craft. Behavior or fateâ€"how oil is affected by processes such as evaporation as it moves through the marine environment. Effectsâ€"what we know about the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on marine organisms and ecosystems. Providing a needed update on a problem of international importance, this book will be of interest to energy policy makers, industry officials and managers, engineers and researchers, and advocates for the marine environment.
An Ecosystem Services Approach to Assessing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico
|Author||: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Ocean Studies Board,Committee on the Effects of the Deepwater Horizon Mississippi Canyon-252 Oil Spill on Ecosystem Services in the Gulf of Mexico|
|Publsiher||: National Academies Press|
|Total Pages||: 246|
Download An Ecosystem Services Approach to Assessing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
As the Gulf of Mexico recovers from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, natural resource managers face the challenge of understanding the impacts of the spill and setting priorities for restoration work. The full value of losses resulting from the spill cannot be captured, however, without consideration of changes in ecosystem services--the benefits delivered to society through natural processes. An Ecosystem Services Approach to Assessing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico discusses the benefits and challenges associated with using an ecosystem services approach to damage assessment, describing potential impacts of response technologies, exploring the role of resilience, and offering suggestions for areas of future research. This report illustrates how this approach might be applied to coastal wetlands, fisheries, marine mammals, and the deep sea -- each of which provide key ecosystem services in the Gulf -- and identifies substantial differences among these case studies. The report also discusses the suite of technologies used in the spill response, including burning, skimming, and chemical dispersants, and their possible long-term impacts on ecosystem services.
|Author||: Zhendi Wang,Scott Stout|
|Total Pages||: 620|
|Genre||: Technology & Engineering|
Download Oil Spill Environmental Forensics Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
Oil Spill Environmental Forensics provides a complete view of the various forensic techniques used to identify the source of an oil spill into the environment. The forensic procedures described within represent various methods from scientists throughout the world. The authors explore which analytical and interpretative techniques are best suited for a particular oil spill project. This handy reference also explores the use of these techniques in actual environmental oil spills. Famous incidents discussed include the Exxon Valdez incident in 1989 and the Guanabara Bay, Brazil 2000. The authors chronicle both the successes and failures of the techniques used for each of these events. Dr. Zhendi Wang is a senior research scientist and Head of Oil Spill Research of Environment Canada, working in the oil and toxic chemical spill research field. He has authored over 270 academic publications and won a number of national and international scientific honors and awards. Dr. Wang is a member of American Chemical Society (ACS), the Canadian Society for Chemistry (CSC), and the International Society of Environmental Forensics (ISEF). International experts show readers the forensic techniques used in oil spill investigations Provides the theoretical basis and practical applications for investigative techniques Contains numerous case studies demonstrating proven technique
|Author||: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Ocean Studies Board,Committee on the Evaluation of the Use of Chemical Dispersants in Oil Spill Response|
|Publsiher||: National Academies Press|
|Total Pages||: 340|
Download The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
Whether the result of an oil well blowout, vessel collision or grounding, leaking pipeline, or other incident at sea, each marine oil spill will present unique circumstances and challenges. The oil type and properties, location, time of year, duration of spill, water depth, environmental conditions, affected biomes, potential human community impact, and available resources may vary significantly. Also, each spill may be governed by policy guidelines, such as those set forth in the National Response Plan, Regional Response Plans, or Area Contingency Plans. To respond effectively to the specific conditions presented during an oil spill, spill responders have used a variety of response optionsâ€"including mechanical recovery of oil using skimmers and booms, in situ burning of oil, monitored natural attenuation of oil, and dispersion of oil by chemical dispersants. Because each response method has advantages and disadvantages, it is important to understand specific scenarios where a net benefit may be achieved by using a particular tool or combination of tools. This report builds on two previous National Research Council reports on dispersant use to provide a current understanding of the state of science and to inform future marine oil spill response operations. The response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill included an unprecedented use of dispersants via both surface application and subsea injection. The magnitude of the spill stimulated interest and funding for research on oil spill response, and dispersant use in particular. This study assesses the effects and efficacy of dispersants as an oil spill response tool and evaluates trade-offs associated with dispersant use.
|Author||: Oleg Makarynskyy|
|Total Pages||: 386|
Download Marine Hydrocarbon Spill Assessments Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
Marine Hydrocarbon Spill Assessments: From Risk of Spill through to Probabilities Estimates describes the methods used for estimating hydrocarbon spill risks and the potential consequences. Throughout the book, mathematical methodologies and algorithms are included to aid the reader in the solving of applied tasks presented. Marine Hydrocarbon Spill Assessments: From Risk of Spill through to Probabilities Estimates provides a fundamental understanding of the oil properties and processes which determine the persistence and impacts of oils in the marine environment. It informs the reader of the current research in hydrocarbon spill assessments, starting from an assessment of a risk of a spill, and moving on to modelling approaches to impact assessments, laboratory toxicity assessments, field impact assessments and response options, and prevention and contingency planning. Identifies efficient solutions to protect coastal regions from the marine pollution of hydrocarbon spills Includes case studies examining and analyzing spills, providing lessons to prevent these in the future Covers the science of oil spills from risk analysis to cleanup and the effects on the environment
|Author||: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems,Marine Board,Committee on Effectiveness of Oil Spill Dispersants|
|Publsiher||: National Academies Press|
|Total Pages||: 352|
Download Using Oil Spill Dispersants on the Sea Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
While major oil spills are rare, oil slicks can have disastrous environmental and economic consequences. This book summarizes research on the use of chemical dispersants: their effectiveness and limitations and the results of using them in different spill situations. Based on laboratory and field research as well as on actual case histories, this book contains a clear-cut set of recommendations for action, planning, and research. Of special interest is the chapter on the biological effects of oil itself and of oil treated with chemical dispersants.
|Author||: R E Hester,R M Harrison|
|Publsiher||: Royal Society of Chemistry|
|Total Pages||: 190|
Download Environmental Forensics Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
'Environmental forensics' is a combination of analytical and environmental chemistry, which is useful in the court room context. It therefore involves field analytical studies and both data interpretation and modelling connected with the attribution of pollution events to their causes. Recent decades have seen a burgeoning of legislation designed to protect the environment and, as the costs of environmental damage and clean-up are considerable, not only are there prosecutions by regulatory agencies, but the courts are also used as a means of adjudication of civil damage claims relating to environmental causes or environmental degradation. As a result is the increasing number of prosecutions of companies who have breached regulations for environmental protection and in civil claims relating to harm caused by excessive pollutant releases to the environment. Such cases can become extremely protracted as expert witnesses provide their sometimes conflicting interpretations of environmental measurement data and their meaning. It is in this context that environmental forensics is developing as a specialism, leading to greater formalisation of investigative methods which should lead to more definitive findings and less scope for experts to disagree. Now a significant subject in its own right, at least one journal devoted to the field and a number of degree courses have sprung up. As a result of the topicality and rapid growth of the subject area, is the publication of this book - the 26th volume in the highly acclaimed Issues in Environmental Science and Technology Series. This volume contains authoritative articles by a number of the leading practitioners across the globe in the environmental forensics field and aims to cover some of the main techniques and areas to which environmental forensics are being applied. The content is comprehensive and describes a number of the key areas within environmental forensics - topics covered by the authors include: - Source identification issues - Microbial techniques - Metal contamination and methods of assigning liability - The use of isotopes to determine sources and their applications - Molecular biological methods - Hydrocarbon fingerprinting techniques - Oil chemistry and key compound identification - The emerging role of environmental forensics in groundwater pollution Additionally, the volume considers specific pollutants and long-lived pollutants of groundwater such as halocarbons which have presented particular problems and which are described in some depth, as well as the way in which chemical degradation processes can lead to compositional changes which provide valuable information. The book provides a comprehensive overview of many of the key areas of environmental forensics written by some of the leading experts in the field. It will be both of specialist use to those seeking expert insights into the field and its capabilities as well as of more general interest to those involved in both environmental analytical science and environmental law.
|Author||: John A. Wiens|
|Publsiher||: Cambridge University Press|
|Total Pages||: 458|
|Genre||: Business & Economics|
Download Oil in the Environment Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
Scientists directly involved in studying the Exxon Valdez spill provide a comprehensive synthesis of scientific information on long-term spill effects.
Proceedings of a Workshop to Establish Canadian Marine Oil Spill Research and Development Priorities
|Author||: S. L. Ross,S. G. Potter|
|Publsiher||: Environmental Studies Research Funds|
|Total Pages||: 48|
|Genre||: Oil pollution of the sea|
Download Proceedings of a Workshop to Establish Canadian Marine Oil Spill Research and Development Priorities Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
2-day workshop focussed on research requirements for improving state-of-the-art for controlling major oil spills. Areas covered include - surveillance, tracking & modelling, containment & recovery equipment, dispersants, in-situ burning & disposal, and shoreline cleanup & restoration.
|Author||: M.R. Riazi|
|Publsiher||: CRC Press|
|Total Pages||: 316|
Download Oil Spill Occurrence Simulation and Behavior Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
Oil Spill Occurrence, Simulation, and Behavior provides practical insight into oil spills and their causes, impacts, response and cleanup methods, simple and advanced modeling of oil spill behavior, and oil spill simulation techniques. Discusses various sources of oil spills and major accidents Includes case studies on the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill, including environmental, economic, and political impacts, modeling and behavior as well as response and cleanup methods Introduces some commercial softwares on predicting oil movement and spreading on water Describes properties and characteristics of crude oil and its products needed for simulation and prediction of behavior of an oil slick Written as an applied book with minimal math and theory, making it accessible to a wide range of readers The book includes more than 100 unique and informative images in color This essential book is aimed at professionals, academics, and scientists in the fields of chemical engineering, petroleum engineering, environmental engineering, marine and ocean engineering working on the simulation and modeling, mitigation, and prevention of oil spills.