Pattern Formations and Oscillatory Phenomena

Pattern Formations and Oscillatory Phenomena
Author: Shuichi Kinoshita
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 280
Release: 2013-05-09
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780128061565

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We present examples of familiar phenomena found in nonequilibrium systems, including oscillatory phenomena, order-formation processes, and pattern formation. In particular, we introduce commonly used mathematical methods to analyze their characteristics. First, we present oscillations described by the Lotka–Volterra and van der Pol equations, the Brusselator, the Oregonator, and relaxation oscillations as examples of oscillatory phenomena. Second, we investigate the order-formation process in colloidal crystals and present an experimental observation of 2D array formation. Third, we demonstrate pattern formation in crystals on the basis of the Mullins–Sekerka instability, and in chemical and biological systems on the basis of the Turing instability. In particular, we describe the optical properties and development of sophisticated structural patterns that directly interact with light. Finally, we briefly describe a theoretical phase-transition analogy that might clarify the concept of order formation in nonequilibrium systems.

Pattern Formations and Oscillatory Phenomena

Pattern Formations and Oscillatory Phenomena
Author: Shuichi Kinoshita
Publsiher: Newnes
Total Pages: 280
Release: 2013-05-09
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780123972996

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Patterns and their formations appear throughout nature, and are studied to analyze different problems in science and make predictions across a wide range of disciplines including biology, physics, mathematics, chemistry, material science, and nanoscience. With the emergence of nanoscience and the ability for researchers and scientists to study living systems at the biological level, pattern formation research has become even more essential. This book is an accessible first of its kind guide for scientists, researchers, engineers, and students who require a general introduction to this research area, in order to gain a deeper analytical understanding of the most recent observations and experiments by top researchers in physics. Pattern Formations describes the most up-to-date status of this developing field and analyzes the physical phenomena behind a wide range of interesting topics commonly known in the scientific community. The study of pattern formations as a research field will continue to grow as scientists expand their understanding of naturally occurring patterns and mimic nature to help solve complex problems. This research area is becoming more highly recognized due to its contributions to signal processing, computer analysis, image processing, complex networks development, advancements in optics and photonics, crystallography, metallurgy, drug delivery (chemotherapy) and the further understanding of gene regulation. The only introductory reference book which places special emphasis on the theoretical analyses of experiments in this rapidly growing field of pattern formation A wide range of physical applications make this book highly interdisciplinary Explanations of observations and experiments deepen the readers understanding of this developing research field

Pattern Formations and Oscillatory Phenomena

Pattern Formations and Oscillatory Phenomena
Author: Jun Miyazaki
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 280
Release: 2013-05-09
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780128061572

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In this chapter, temporal and spatial patterns observed in the Belousov–Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction are described, which is a typical nonlinear chemical reaction system that exhibits oscillation and wave propagation. Some related phenomena in biological systems are presented. The underlying mechanism and modeling of oscillation based on chemical equations are then introduced. Reaction diffusion equations are derived and numerical simulations are performed based on the model to explain how the dynamical pattern appears. Finally, synchronous phenomena observed in the BZ reaction are described with an analytical method based on the phase model.

Pattern Formations and Oscillatory Phenomena

Pattern Formations and Oscillatory Phenomena
Author: Takeshi Kano
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 280
Release: 2013-05-09
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780128061596

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Systems exhibiting spontaneous regular rhythms abound in nature, and several that are characterized by more than two different time scales are known as relaxation oscillators. The density oscillator is an excellent model system for investigating the fundamental mechanisms of relaxation oscillators. It is a system consisting of an inner container, with a thin pipe in its bottom and filled with heavy fluid, inside an outer container filled with light fluid; the fluids alternately exhibit upflow and downflow through the pipe between the two containers. Although the density oscillator is a simple system, its oscillation mechanism is nontrivial and clarifying it is a challenging task. We have recently clarified the mechanism by constructing a simple model on the basis of detailed experiments. In this chapter, we review studies of this topic and introduce relevant work.

Pattern Formations and Oscillatory Phenomena

Pattern Formations and Oscillatory Phenomena
Author: Hiroyuki Kitahata,Natsuhiko Yoshinaga,Ken H. Nagai,Yutaka Sumino
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 280
Release: 2013-05-09
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780128061589

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In this chapter, we consider the motion of a droplet and the surrounding flow accompanied by the motion. Our specific attention is on the spontaneous and autonomous motion of a droplet. Such a system has no applied external force and no asymmetry imposed a priori. Nevertheless, the droplet moves by consuming energy and by breaking the symmetry of the system. The phenomenon reminds us of biological systems that can also move spontaneously. These systems, which are called self-propulsive systems, have recently been extensively studied after several model experiments were proposed using chemical reactions. The mechanism of such motion is less clear, though theoretical and computational studies have revealed several novel aspects of the motion in contrast with the motion under a given asymmetry. We discuss recently developed experimental systems. Then, we focus on a suspended droplet that swims, and explain how the result can be analyzed in terms of hydrodynamics by using the concept of surface tension. Finally, we apply the method to the analysis of a swimming suspended droplet induced propelled by a chemical pattern generated inside the droplet.

Pattern Formations and Oscillatory Phenomena

Pattern Formations and Oscillatory Phenomena
Author: Shinya Yoshioka
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 280
Release: 2013-05-09
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780128061619

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Some bird and insect species exhibit iridescent colors that originate from submicron microstructures. One example is a periodic stack of thin layers that selectively reflects light wavelengths with high efficiency through multilayer optical interference. However, the periodicity of the microstructure is not a unique factor in the coloration mechanism; other physical factors such as structural irregularities, large-scale structures, and pigmentation also contribute greatly to the coloration in natural examples. This chapter describes basic experimental and theoretical methods of studying structural color, mainly for those who are unfamiliar with this subject. The chapter discusses two insect species, the jewel beetle and Morpho butterfly, repeatedly rather than introducing many examples. It is emphasized in discussing these examples that additional factors are as important for the coloration as the periodicity in the microstructures.

From Pattern Formation to Material Computation

From Pattern Formation to Material Computation
Author: Jeff Jones
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 370
Release: 2015-05-15
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9783319168234

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This book addresses topics of mobile multi-agent systems, pattern formation, biological modelling, artificial life, unconventional computation, and robotics. The behaviour of a simple organism which is capable of remarkable biological and computational feats that seem to transcend its simple component parts is examined and modelled. In this book the following question is asked: How can something as simple as Physarum polycephalum - a giant amoeboid single-celled organism which does not possess any neural tissue, fixed skeleton or organised musculature - can approximate complex computational behaviour during its foraging, growth and adaptation of its amorphous body plan, and with such limited resources? To answer this question the same apparent limitations as faced by the organism are applied: using only simple components with local interactions. A synthesis approach is adopted and a mobile multi-agent system with very simple individual behaviours is employed. It is shown their interactions yield emergent behaviour showing complex self-organised pattern formation with material-like evolution. The presented model reproduces the biological behaviour of Physarum; the formation, growth and minimisation of transport networks. In its conclusion the book moves beyond Physarum and provides results of scoping experiments approximating other complex systems using the multi-agent approach. The results of this book demonstrate the power and range of harnessing emergent phenomena arising in simple multi-agent systems for biological modelling, computation and soft-robotics applications. It methodically describes the necessary components and their interactions, showing how deceptively simple components can create powerful mechanisms, aided by abundant illustrations, supplementary recordings and interactive models. It will be of interest to those in biological sciences, physics, computer science and robotics who wish to understand how simple components can result in complex and useful behaviours and who wish explore the potential of guided pattern formation themselves.

Oscillations and Pattern Formation in Electrochemistry

Oscillations and Pattern Formation in Electrochemistry
Author: I. Z. Kiss
Publsiher: The Electrochemical Society
Total Pages: 29
Release: 2011-03
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9781566778763

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The papers included in this issue of ECS Transactions were originally presented in the symposium ¿Oscillations and Pattern Formation in Electrochemistry¿, held during the 218th meeting of The Electrochemical Society, in Las Vegas, Nevada from October 10 to 15, 2010.