Polyphenols in Plants

Polyphenols in Plants
Author: Ronald Ross Watson
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 360
Release: 2014-01-17
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780123984913

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Polyphenols in Plants assists plant scientists and dietary supplement producers in assessing polyphenol content and factors affecting their composition. It also aids in selecting sources and regulating environmental conditions affecting yield for more consistent and function dietary supplements. Polyphenols play key roles in the growth, regulation and structure of plants and vary widely within different plants. Stress, growth conditions and plant species modify polyphenol structure and content. This book describes techniques to identify, isolate and characterize polyphenols, taking mammalian toxicology into account as well. Defines conditions of growth affecting the polyphenol levels Describes assay and instrumentation techniques critical to identifying and defining polyphenols, critical to researchers and business development Documents how some polyphenols are dangerous to consume, important to dietary supplement industry, government regulators and lay public users

Antioxidants in Human Health and Disease

Antioxidants in Human Health and Disease
Author: Tapan Kumar Basu,Norman J. Temple,Manohar L. Garg
Publsiher: Cabi
Total Pages: 450
Release: 1999
Genre: Medical
ISBN: UOM:39015047552933

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Antioxidants and their mechanisms of action; Food factors as antioxidants; Coronary heart disease; Malignant disease; Other diseases; Indicators of oxidative stress; Consumer issues.

Plant Polyphenols

Plant Polyphenols
Author: Richard W. Hemingway,Peter E. Laks
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 1053
Release: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9781461534761

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This book was developed from the proceedings of the 2nd North American Tan nin Conference held in Houghton, Michigan, June, 1991. The objective of this con ference was to bring together people with a common interest in plant polyphenols and to promote interdisciplinary interactions that will lead to a bet ter understand ing of the importance of these substances. Another objective of this conference was to extend the 'tannin family' by making special efforts to encourage participation by scientists outside the United States, obtain more coverage of the hydrolyzable tannins, and further broaden the scope of coverage from the initial concentration on forestry and forest products. Com parison of the contents of this book with 'Chemistry and Significance of Condensed Tannins' that resulted from the proceedings of the 1st North American Tannin Conference shows the degree that these objectives were met. In developing the second conference, care was taken to assure that this book extends rather than duplicates the coverage of the first conference. Therefore, the two books should be taken together to obtain an up to date coverage of the broad area of chemistry and significance of plant polyphenols. Our thanks go to the authors who so kindly contributed chapters and so pa tiently responded to our requests. We thank the Conference Assistance Staff of Michigan Technological University for their help in planning and conducting the conference.

Recent Advances in Polyphenol Research

Recent Advances in Polyphenol Research
Author: Jess Reed,Victor de Freitas,Stéphane Quideau
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 320
Release: 2021-04-13
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9781119545910

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RECENT ADVANCES IN POLYPHENOL RESEARCH Plant polyphenols are secondary metabolites that constitute one of the most common and widespread groups of natural products. They are essential plant components for adaptation to the environment and possess a large and diverse range of biological functions that provide many benefits to both plants and humans. Polyphenols, from their structurally simplest forms to their oligo/polymeric versions (i.e. tannin and lignin), are phytoestrogens, plant pigments, antioxidants, and structural components of the plant cell wall. The interaction between tannins and proteins is involved in plant defense against predation, cause astringency in foods and beverages, and affect the nutritional and health properties of human and animal food plants. This seventh volume of the highly regarded Recent Advances in Polyphenol Research series is edited by Jess Dreher Reed, Victor Armando Pereira de Freitas, and Stéphane Quideau, and brings together chapters written by some of the leading experts working in the polyphenol sciences today. Topics covered include: Chemistry and physicochemistry Biosynthesis, genetics and metabolic engineering Roles in plants and ecosystems Food, nutrition and health Applied polyphenols Distilling the most recent and illuminating data available, this new volume is an invaluable resource for chemists, biochemists, plant scientists, pharmacognosists and pharmacologists, biologists, ecologists, food scientists and nutritionists.

Recent Advances in Polyphenol Research

Recent Advances in Polyphenol Research
Author: Heidi Halbwirth,Karl Stich,Véronique Cheynier,Stéphane Quideau
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 456
Release: 2019-01-04
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9781119427940

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Plant polyphenols are secondary metabolites that constitute one of the most common and widespread groups of natural products. They are crucial constituents of a large and diverse range of biological functions and processes, and provide many benefits to both plants and humans. Many polyphenols, from their structurally simplest representatives to their oligo/polymeric versions, are notably known as phytoestrogens, plant pigments, potent antioxidants, and protein interacting agents. This sixth volume of the highly regarded Recent Advances in Polyphenol Research series is edited by Heidi Halbwirth, Karl Stich, Véronique Cheynier and Stéphane Quideau, and is a continuance of the series’ tradition of compiling a cornucopia of cutting-edge chapters, written by some of the leading experts in their respective fields of polyphenol sciences. Highlighted herein are some of the most recent and pertinent developments in polyphenol research, covering such major areas as: Chemistry and physicochemistry Biosynthesis, genetics & metabolic engineering Roles in plants and ecosystems Food, nutrition & health Applied polyphenols This book is a distillation of the most current information, and as such, will surely prove an invaluable source for chemists, biochemists, plant scientists, pharmacognosists and pharmacologists, biologists, ecologists, food scientists and nutritionists.

Biotechnology of Bioactive Compounds

Biotechnology of Bioactive Compounds
Author: Vijai Kumar Gupta,Maria G. Tuohy,Anthonia O'Donovan,Mohtashim Lohani
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 736
Release: 2015-04-20
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781118733493

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Bioactive compounds play a central role in high-value product development in the chemical industry. Bioactive compounds have been identified from diverse sources and their therapeutic benefits, nutritional value and protective effects in human and animal healthcare have underpinned their application as pharmaceuticals and functional food ingredients. The orderly study of biologically active products and the exploration of potential biological activities of these secondary metabolites, including their clinical applications, standardization, quality control, mode of action and potential biomolecular interactions, has emerged as one of the most exciting developments in modern natural medicine. Biotechnology of Bioactive Compounds describes the current stage of knowledge on the production of bioactive compounds from microbial, algal and vegetable sources. In addition, the molecular approach for screening bioactive compounds is also discussed, as well as examples of applications of these compounds on human health. The first half of the book comprises information on diverse sources of bioactive compounds, ranging from microorganisms and algae to plants and dietary foods. The second half of the book reviews synthetic approaches, as well as selected bioactivities and biotechnological and biomedical potential. The bioactive compounds profiled include compounds such as C-phycocyanins, glycosides, phytosterols and natural steroids. An overview of the usage of bioactive compounds as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents, anti-allergic compounds and in stem cell research is also presented, along with an overview of the medicinal applications of plant-derived compounds. Biotechnology of Bioactive Compounds will be an informative text for undergraduate and graduate students of bio-medicinal chemistry who are keen to explore the potential of bioactive natural products. It also provides useful information for scientists working in various research fields where natural products have a primary role.

Polyphenol Oxidases PPOs in Plants

Polyphenol Oxidases  PPOs  in Plants
Author: Aravind Jukanti
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 131
Release: 2017-08-18
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9789811057472

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This book is first of its kind exclusively dedicated to plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), highlighting their importance in the food processing industry. By reviewing the scientific developments of the past several decades, it offers a comprehensive overview of various aspects of plant PPOs, including chemistry, structure, functions, regulation, genetics/genomics and molecular aspects. PPOs are copper-containing proteins found in several plant species that catalyze the hydroxylation of o-monophenols to o-diphenols and oxidation of the o-dihydroxyphenols to o-quinones. Further, the quonines undergo self-polymerization or react with amines/thiol groups to produce brown/dark coloration of products. All the PPOs contain two Cu-binding sites (CuA and CuB) as their central domain, these interact with phenolic substrates and molecular oxygen. Several of the plant PPOs contain an N-terminal transit peptide (~80-100 amino acids ) necessary for plastid import. The PPOs occur in latent form that are activated by various treatments including acid and base shock, exposure to detergents or proteolytic degradation. The pH optimum of PPOs varies widely depending upon different plant species but is usually ~4.0 – 8.0. Similarly, the optimum temperature also varies as per the source and substrate involved ranging from 30 to 45 °C. Multiple PPO isoforms have been reported in several plant species, and the chromosomal location of PPOs has also been studied in some species. The physiological role (s) of PPOs is not entirely understood, but they could be involved in defense-related functions in plants. From an applied perspective, PPOs are implicated in enzymatic browning/darkening of cereal products, vegetables and fruits. Interestingly, browning is preferred in some instances like the processing of black tea, cocoa, and coffee as it enhances their quality by forming flavorful products. There have b een initiatives to specifically breed and develop cultivars with reasonably low PPO levels in the mature grain or fruit. Further, several types of inhibitors that reduce the PPO activity have also been identified. Despite their commercial/economic importance and the availability of literature on different aspects of PPOs in different plant species, this is the first book to provide basic information regarding PPOs. It is a valuable resource for researchers involved in quality-related research specifically in crops, vegetables and fruits. Further, as PPOs are also implicated in defense- or stress-related functions, the book is also useful to breeders, pathologists, molecular biologists, physiologists and entomologists.

Dietary Polyphenols

Dietary Polyphenols
Author: Francisco A . Tomás-Barberán,Antonio González-Sarrías,Rocío García-Villalba
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 560
Release: 2020-10-20
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781119563716

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Presents recent research on metabolism and the health effects of polyphenols Consumer interest in the health benefits of many phenolic compounds found in plant foods and derivatives has grown considerably in recent years, giving rise to an increased demand for functional foods. Although preclinical and observational studies have promoted the protective properties of polyphenols for a range of chronic diseases, evidence has shown that most dietary polyphenols have little bioavailability. Once ingested, most of them are metabolized by either the intestinal enzymes or by the gut microbiota and then undergo extensive phase-II metabolism reaching significant concentrations of conjugated metabolites. They remain in the systemic circulation and target systemic tissues where trigger biological effects. The polyphenol-derived metabolites produced in humans are dependent upon the composition of the gut microbiota and the subject genetics. Thus all the metabolites do not show the same biological activity in different individuals. To fully understand the health effects of polyphenols, further clinical investigations are required. Dietary Polyphenols describes the latest findings on the polyphenol metabolism and reviews the current evidence on their health effects and that of their bioavailable metabolites. Emphasizing the importance of interindividual variability and the critical role of gut microbiota, this authoritative volume features contributions from recognized experts in the field, exploring specific families of extractable and non-extractable phenolic compounds that exhibit potential health effects. Topics include structural diversity of polyphenols and distribution in foods, bioavailability and bioaccessibility of phenolics, metabolism, and gastrointestinal absorption of various metabolites and their health effects. This comprehensive volume: Discusses the bioavailability, bioaccessibility, pharmacokinetics studies, and microbial metabolism of different groups of phenolic compounds Examines the interaction between polyphenols and gut microbiota Describes analytical methods for identifying and quantifying polyphenols in foods and biological samples Reviews recent epidemiological and clinical intervention studies showing protective effects of polyphenols Dietary Polyphenols: Metabolism and Health Effects is an important resource for scientists working in the area of dietary polyphenols and health effects, microbiota, and their interaction with other nutritional compounds, and for health professionals, nutritionists, dieticians, and clinical researchers with interest in the role of polyphenols in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases

Polyphenols in Human Health and Disease

Polyphenols in Human Health and Disease
Author: Ronald Ross Watson,Victor R. Preedy,Sherma Zibadi
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 484
Release: 2018-08-06
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780128130094

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Polyphenols in Prevention and Treatment of Human Disease, Second Edition authoritatively covers evidence of the powerful health benefits of polyphenols, touching on cardiovascular disease, cancer, obesity, diabetes and osteoporosis. This collection represents the contributions of an international group of experts in polyphenol research who share their expertise in endocrinology, public health, cardiology, pharmacology, agriculture and veterinary science. Researchers from diverse backgrounds will gain insight into how clinical observations and practices can feed back into the research cycle, thus allowing them to develop more targeted insights into the mechanisms of disease. This reference fills a void in research where nutritionists and alternative therapies may be applicable. Describes polyphenol modulation of blood flow and oxygenation as a potential mechanism of protection against vascular atherosclerosis Describes how polyphenols and antioxidants frequently change immune defenses and actions Focuses on the most important areas of research and provides insights into their relationships and translational opportunities

Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts

Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts
Author: Dimitrios Stagos
Publsiher: MDPI
Total Pages: 388
Release: 2021-03-19
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9783036502885

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“Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts” is a collection of scientific articles regarding polyphenols, that is, substances occurring naturally in plants and exhibiting many beneficial effects on human health. Among polyphenols’ interesting biological properties, their antioxidant activity is considered the most important. This book brings together experts from different research fields on topics related to polyphenols, such as their isolation and purification, assessment of their antioxidant activity, prevention from oxidative stress-induced diseases and use as food additives. The polyphenols used in the present studies are derived from a great variety of plants, ranging from well-known species to rare ones that are only found in specific regions. Moreover, some of the studies provide evidence that polyphenols may be used for the prevention and treatment of common diseases such as diabetes mellitus, Alzheimers’ disease, cardiovascular and intestinal diseases. Importantly, in several of the studies “green extraction methods” for the isolation of polyphenols were developed using modern technologies, where few or no organic solvents were used, in order to minimize environmental and health impacts.

Plant Secondary Metabolites

Plant Secondary Metabolites
Author: Alan Crozier,Mike N. Clifford,Hiroshi Ashihara
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 384
Release: 2008-04-15
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780470994139

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Plant secondary metabolites have been a fertile area of chemical investigation for many years, driving the development of both analytical chemistry and of new synthetic reactions and methodologies. The subject is multi-disciplinary with chemists, biochemists and plant scientists all contributing to our current understanding. In recent years there has been an upsurge in interest from other disciplines, related to the realisation that secondary metabolites are dietary components that may have a considerable impact on human health, and to the development of gene technology that permits modulation of the contents of desirable and undesirable components. Plant Secondary Metabolites: Occurrence, Structure and Role in the Human Diet addresses this wider interest by covering the main groups of natural products from a chemical and biosynthetic perspective with illustrations of how genetic engineering can be applied to manipulate levels of secondary metabolites of economic value as well as those of potential importance in diet and health. These descriptive chapters are augmented by chapters showing where these products are found in the diet, how they are metabolised and reviewing the evidence for their beneficial bioactivity.

Chemistry and Biology of Ellagitannins

Chemistry and Biology of Ellagitannins
Author: St‚phane Quideau
Publsiher: World Scientific
Total Pages: 374
Release: 2009
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9789812797407

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This book is the first of its kind that focuses on the chemistry and biology of ellagitannins, a special class of naturally occurring polyphenols which have so far not received the attention they deserve. These polyphenolic substances are found in many plants, including numerous food sources. They not only exhibit unique structural features that fascinate most chemists who are aware of their existence, but also express remarkable biological activities that have yet to attract the interest of the pharmaceutical industry. This is surprising because ellagitannins have been identified as active principles in traditional Chinese medicines. The principal aim of this book is to set the record straight. Most, if not all, worldwide experts in each aspect of the chemistry and biology of this underestimated class of natural products have contributed to this book. It covers topics such as their structural determination and natural occurrence; the most up-to-date knowledge of their biosynthesis; the current state of the art of their total chemical synthesis; their main physicochemical properties and principal biological activities; their presence in food and beverages; and their related health effects. All together, nine chapters compose this book whose content is placed into historical perspective in a yet inspiring preface written by one of the pioneers in modern polyphenol research, Professor Edwin Haslam. This book will be useful not only to scientists involved in natural product research, but also to lecturers and their students as a source of key references and/or a textbook.

Recent Advances in Polyphenol Research

Recent Advances in Polyphenol Research
Author: Véronique Cheynier,Pascale Sarni-Manchado,Stéphane Quideau
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 384
Release: 2012-02-21
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9781118299746

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Plant polyphenols are secondary metabolites that constitute one of the most common and widespread groups of natural products. They express a large and diverse panel of biological activities including beneficial effects on both plants and humans. Many polyphenols, from their structurally simplest representatives to their oligo/polymeric versions (also referred to as vegetable tannins) are notably known as phytoestrogens, plant pigments, potent antioxidants, and protein interacting agents. Sponsored by Groupe Polyphénols, this publication, which is the third volume in this highly regarded Recent Advances in Polyphenol Research series, is edited by Véronique Cheynier, Pascale Sarni-Manchado, and Stéphane Quideau (the current President of Groupe Polyphénols). Like their predecessors, they have once again put together an impressive collection of cutting-edge chapters written by expert scientists internationally respected in their respective field of polyphenol sciences. This Volume 3 provides the latest information and opinion on the following major research topics about polyphenols: Organic chemistry and physical chemistry Biosynthesis, genetics and metabolic engineering The role of polyphenols in plants and ecosystems Health and nutrition Analysis and metabolomics Chemists, biochemists, plant scientists, pharmacognosists and pharmacologists, biologists, ecologists, food scientists and nutritionists will all find this book an invaluable resource. Libraries in all universities and research institutions where these disciplines are studied and taught should have copies on their bookshelves.

Plant Polyphenols 2

Plant Polyphenols 2
Author: Georg G. Gross,Richard W. Hemingway,Takashi Yoshida
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 926
Release: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9781461541394

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This volume summarizes current research on the influence of plant polyphenols on human health, promoting collaboration between chemists and biologists to improve our understanding of their biological significance, and expanding the possibilities for their use.

Phenolic Compounds

Phenolic Compounds
Author: Marcos Soto-Hernández,Mariana Palma Tenango,Rosario García-Mateos
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 456
Release: 2017-03-15
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9789535129578

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Phenolic compounds as a large class of metabolites found in plants have attracted attention since long time ago due to their properties and the hope that they will show beneficial health effects when taken as dietary supplements. This book presents the state of the art of some of the natural sources of phenolic compounds, for example, medicinal plants, grapes or blue maize, as well as the modern methods of extraction, quantification, and identification, and there is a special section discussing the treatment, removal, and degradation of phenols, an important issue in those phenols derived from the pharmaceutical or petrochemical industries.