Power Recovery from Low Grade Heat by Means of Screw Expanders

Power Recovery from Low Grade Heat by Means of Screw Expanders
Author: Ian K Smith,Nikola Stosic,Ahmed Kovacevic
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 272
Release: 2014-05-06
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781782421900

Download Power Recovery from Low Grade Heat by Means of Screw Expanders Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle

Current concerns with climate change have resulted in greatly increased interest in power recovery from low grade heat sources. This includes both hot fluid streams which can be expanded directly to produce mechanical power and those which act as a source of heat to closed cycle power generation systems. Power recovery from low grate heat by means of screw expanders with a generalised overview of how best to recover power from such sources, based on thermodynamic considerations, which differs to the approach used in classical thermodynamics textbooks and which includes an introductory description of the types of working fluid that are used in systems used to recover power from such sources and the criteria that must be taken into account in their selection. This is followed by a description of the mathematical modelling of twin screw machine geometry. The modelling of the thermodynamics and fluid flow through such machines is then given, together with how this is used to predict their performance. Finally a detailed description is given of systems currently used or projected both for direct expansion of the source fluid and by recovery of heat from it, which includes those which are particularly suited to the use of screw expanders in place of turbines. A novel generalised approach to the thermodynamics of power recovery from low grade heat systems Gives criteria for working fluid selection Provides details of, and how to model, screw expander geometry Details how to estimate screw expander performance Surveys types of system used for power recovery from low grade heat and where this can be improved by the use of screw expanders.

Geothermal Power Generation

Geothermal Power Generation
Author: Ron DiPippo
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 854
Release: 2016-05-25
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780081003442

Download Geothermal Power Generation Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle

Geothermal Power Generation: Developments and Innovation provides an update to the advanced energy technologies that are urgently required to meet the challenges of economic development, climate change mitigation, and energy security. As geothermal resources are considered renewable and can be used to generate baseload electricity while producing very low levels of greenhouse gas emissions, they can play a key role in future energy needs. This book, edited by a highly respected expert, provides a comprehensive overview of the major aspects of geothermal power production. The chapters, contributed by specialists in their respective areas, cover resource discovery, resource characterization, energy conversion systems, and design and economic considerations. The final section provides a range of fascinating case studies from across the world, ranging from Larderello to Indonesia. Users will find this to be an essential text for research and development professionals and engineers in the geothermal energy industry, as well as postgraduate researchers in academia who are working on geothermal energy. Provides readers with a comprehensive and systematic overview of geothermal power generation Presents an update to the advanced energy technologies that are urgently required to meet the challenges of economic development, climate change mitigation, and energy security Edited by a world authority in the field, with chapters contributed by experts in their particular areas Includes comprehensive case studies from across the world, ranging from Larderello to Indonesia

Positive Displacement Machines

Positive Displacement Machines
Author: Ibrahim A. Sultan,Truong H. Phung
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 468
Release: 2019-08-01
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780128169995

Download Positive Displacement Machines Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle

Positive Displacement Machines: Modern Design Innovations and Tools explains the design and workings of a wide range of positive displacement pumps, compressors and gas expanders. Written at a mathematical and technical level, the book explores the most influential research in this field over the past decade, along with industry best practices. Sections highlight the importance of using the latest computation techniques and discuss how to follow the proper design procedures to achieve a desired outcome. Explains how these machines work on a fundamental level, helping the reader build a holistic understanding which aids complex problem- solving Describes how to mathematically model the performance of pumps, compressors and gas expanders Provides advice on how to design and optimize positive displacement machines to match a given application

Working Fluid Selection for Organic Rankine Cycle and Other Related Cycles

Working Fluid Selection for Organic Rankine Cycle and Other Related Cycles
Author: Attila R. Imre
Publsiher: MDPI
Total Pages: 148
Release: 2020-06-16
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9783039360741

Download Working Fluid Selection for Organic Rankine Cycle and Other Related Cycles Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle

The world’s energy demand is still growing, partly due to the rising population, partly to increasing personal needs. This growing demand has to be met without increasing (or preferably, by decreasing) the environmental impact. One of the ways to do so is the use of existing low-temperature heat sources for producing electricity, such as using power plants based on the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) . In ORC power plants, instead of the traditional steam, the vapor of organic materials (with low boiling points) is used to turn heat to work and subsequently to electricity. These units are usually less efficient than steam-based plants; therefore, they should be optimized to be technically and economically feasible. The selection of working fluid for a given heat source is crucial; a particular working fluid might be suitable to harvest energy from a 90 ℃ geothermal well but would show disappointing performance for well with a 80 ℃ head temperature. The ORC working fluid for a given heat source is usually selected from a handful of existing fluids by trial-and-error methods; in this collection, we demonstrate a more systematic method based on physical and chemical criteria.

Refrigeration Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps

Refrigeration  Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps
Author: G F Hundy
Publsiher: Butterworth-Heinemann
Total Pages: 510
Release: 2016-03-07
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780081006665

Download Refrigeration Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle

Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps, Fifth Edition, provides a comprehensive introduction to the principles and practice of refrigeration. Clear and comprehensive, it is suitable for both trainee and professional HVAC engineers, with a straightforward approach that also helps inexperienced readers gain a comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of the technology. With its concise style and broad scope, the book covers most of the equipment and applications professionals will encounter. The simplicity of the descriptions helps users understand, specify, commission, use, and maintain these systems. It is a must-have text for anyone who needs thorough, foundational information on refrigeration and air conditioning, but without textbook pedagogy. It includes detailed technicalities or product-specific information. New material to this edition includes the latest developments in refrigerants and lubricants, together with updated information on compressors, heat exchangers, liquid chillers, electronic expansion valves, controls, and cold storage. In addition, efficiency, environmental impact, split systems, retail refrigeration (supermarket systems and cold rooms), industrial systems, fans, air infiltration, and noise are also included. Full theoretical and practical treatment of current issues and trends in refrigeration and air conditioning technology Meets the needs of industry practitioners and system designers who need a rigorous, but accessible reference to the latest developments in refrigeration and AC that is supported by coverage at a level not found in typical course textbooks New edition features updated content on refrigerants, microchannel technology, noise, condensers, data centers, and electronic control

Organic Rankine Cycle ORC Power Systems

Organic Rankine Cycle  ORC  Power Systems
Author: Ennio Macchi,Marco Astolfi
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 698
Release: 2016-08-24
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780081005118

Download Organic Rankine Cycle ORC Power Systems Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle

Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Power Systems: Technologies and Applications provides a systematic and detailed description of organic Rankine cycle technologies and the way they are increasingly of interest for cost-effective sustainable energy generation. Popular applications include cogeneration from biomass and electricity generation from geothermal reservoirs and concentrating solar power installations, as well as waste heat recovery from gas turbines, internal combustion engines and medium- and low-temperature industrial processes. With hundreds of ORC power systems already in operation and the market growing at a fast pace, this is an active and engaging area of scientific research and technical development. The book is structured in three main parts: (i) Introduction to ORC Power Systems, Design and Optimization, (ii) ORC Plant Components, and (iii) Fields of Application. Provides a thorough introduction to ORC power systems Contains detailed chapters on ORC plant components Includes a section focusing on ORC design and optimization Reviews key applications of ORC technologies, including cogeneration from biomass, electricity generation from geothermal reservoirs and concentrating solar power installations, waste heat recovery from gas turbines, internal combustion engines and medium- and low-temperature industrial processes Various chapters are authored by well-known specialists from Academia and ORC manufacturers

Organic Rankine Cycle Technology for Heat Recovery

Organic Rankine Cycle Technology for Heat Recovery
Author: Enhua Wang
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 200
Release: 2018-11-07
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9781789843477

Download Organic Rankine Cycle Technology for Heat Recovery Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle

This book on organic Rankine cycle technology presents nine chapters on research activities covering the wide range of current issues on the organic Rankine cycle. The first section deals with working fluid selection and component design. The second section is related to dynamic modeling, starting from internal combustion engines to industrial power plants. The third section discusses industrial applications of waste heat recovery, including internal combustion engines, LNG, and waste water. A comprehensive analysis of the technology and application of organic Rankine cycle systems is beyond the aim of the book. However, the content of this volume can be useful for scientists and students to broaden their knowledge of technologies and applications of organic Rankine cycle systems.

Sustainability in the Mineral and Energy Sectors

Sustainability in the Mineral and Energy Sectors
Author: Sheila Devasahayam,Kim Dowling,Manoj K. Mahapatra
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 730
Release: 2016-09-15
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781315352824

Download Sustainability in the Mineral and Energy Sectors Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle

Sustainable practices within the mining and energy sectors are assuming greater significance due to uncertainty and change within the global economy and safety, security, and health concerns. This book examines sustainability issues facing the mining and energy sectors by addressing six major themes: Mining and Mineral Processing; Metallurgy and Recycling; Environment; Energy; Socioeconomic and Regulatory; and Sustainable Materials and Fleets. Emphasizing an integrated transdisciplinary approach, it deliberates on optimizing mining productivity and energy efficiency and discusses integrated waste management practices. It discusses risk management, cost cutting, and integration of sustainable practices for long-term business value. It gives a comprehensive outlook for sustainable mineral futures from academic and industry perspectives covering mine to mill optimization, waste, risk and water management, improved efficiencies in mining tools and equipment, and performance indicators for sustainable developments. It covers how innovation and research underpin management of natural resources including sustainable carbon management. •Focuses on mining and mineral processing, metallurgy and recycling, the environment, energy, socioeconomic and regulatory issues, and sustainable materials and fleets. •Describes metallurgy and recycling and uses economic, environmental and social parameter analyses to identify areas for improvement in iron, steel, aluminium, lead, zinc, copper, and gold production. •Discusses current research on mining, performance indicators for sustainable development, sustainability in mining equipment, risk and safety management, and renewable energy resources •Covers alternative and conventional energy sources for the mineral sector as well water treatment and remediation and energy sustainability in mining. •Provides an overview of sustainable carbon management. •Offers an interdisciplinary approach with international focus.

Energy Conversion

Energy Conversion
Author: Ibrahim H. Al-Bahadly
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 156
Release: 2019-01-16
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781789849042

Download Energy Conversion Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle

Energy conversion technology has always been a main focus for researchers in order to meet the increasing demand as well as securing a clean, consistent and reliable energy supply. The constantly rising fuel price is another good reason to develop alternative systems such as wind turbines, hydropower, photovoltaic systems and other renewable energy solutions. This book contains a collection of selected research works in the areas of electric energy generation, renewable energy sources, hybrid system, electromechanical energy conversion, electric machines, power electronic converters and inverters, energy storage, smart grid and traditional energy conversion systems. The book intends to provide academic and industry professionals working in the field of energy conversion and related applications with an update in energy conversion technology, particularly from the applied perspective.

Alternative Sources of Energy Modeling and Automation

Alternative Sources of Energy Modeling and Automation
Author: George S. Stavrakakis
Publsiher: MDPI
Total Pages: 182
Release: 2020-03-06
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9783039283743

Download Alternative Sources of Energy Modeling and Automation Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle

Micro-power domestic organic Rankine cycle (ORC) systems and the selection of the expander and the working fluid are presented, analyzed thoroughly, and numerically evaluated. A promising decentralized hybrid PV-SOFC system is investigated for providing useful energy supply to commercial buildings, capable of power and heat generation at a lower cost. A hybrid solar-combined cycle power plant integrated with a packed-bed thermal energy storage system with a novel recycling configuration enables robust control of collector temperature and net power during times of high solar activity. An automated hybrid (solar and biomass) power plant for thermal energy production for indoor space heating loads coverage is presented. A comprehensive and up-to-date literature review is presented of non-iterative methods for the extraction of the single diode model parameters of photovoltaic modules. A prototype custom built two-speed gearbox with a single stage transmission electric vehicle achieves significant reductions in the overall energy consumption. Two new fuzzy models are presented of high concentrator photovoltaics using the high-accuracy Takagi–Sugeno–Kang approach and the ease of interpreting the Mamdani linguistic rules. Finally, the impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the primary frequency regulation is studied and the effects of PHEVs in non-interconnected isolated power systems with significant renewable energy source (RES) penetration are demonstrated through simulations of the isolated power system of Cyprus Island.

A Study of Organic Rankine Cycle Systems with the Expansion Process Performed by Twin Screw Machines

A Study of Organic Rankine Cycle Systems with the Expansion Process Performed by Twin Screw Machines
Author: Angad Singh Panesar
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2012
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: OCLC:806197423

Download A Study of Organic Rankine Cycle Systems with the Expansion Process Performed by Twin Screw Machines Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle

The prediction of the performance of energy systems that recover power from low grade heat is one of the most important requirements for reducing their investment cost and optimising system efficiency. The aim of this work was to study, model and analyse an Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system using a twin screw expander to generate the power output, with HFC-245fa, as the working fluid. A software package (Power Plant Performance Prediction Program), simulating ORC system performance was therefore prepared for this purpose. Major components were represented by proper units and relations between the system's constituents defined. The preferred analytical procedure depends on both the system complexity and the requirements of the study. In this case, the whole cycle was simulated in order to obtain a good understanding of its behaviour with the aim of estimating its optimum operating conditions. The procedure adopted was to start from a basic case and then improve it, in a realistic way, in order to evaluate the system potential. Performance indicators, like thermal efficiency, specific net output, total UA and surface of the heat exchangers, as well as the relative cost of the system all need to be taken into account but it is impossible to optimise all of them simultaneously. The design value for these parameters is therefore a matter of choice, or compromise. Efficiencies of ORC systems were calculated based on the assumption that the working fluid entered the expander as wet vapour. For the heat source and sink conditions chosen for this study, the overall cycle efficiency was estimated as approximately 6% using R245fa. This and the power output are highly dependent on the ambient air temperature when using air-cooled condensers. Allowing for a small degree of subcooling at the condenser exit, it is shown that the heat recovery should be maximised.

Handbook of Clean Energy Systems 6 Volume Set

Handbook of Clean Energy Systems  6 Volume Set
Author: Jinyue Yan
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 4032
Release: 2015-06-22
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9781118388587

Download Handbook of Clean Energy Systems 6 Volume Set Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle

The Handbook of Clean Energy Systems brings together an international team of experts to present a comprehensive overview of the latest research, developments and practical applications throughout all areas of clean energy systems. Consolidating information which is currently scattered across a wide variety of literature sources, the handbook covers a broad range of topics in this interdisciplinary research field including both fossil and renewable energy systems. The development of intelligent energy systems for efficient energy processes and mitigation technologies for the reduction of environmental pollutants is explored in depth, and environmental, social and economic impacts are also addressed. Topics covered include: Volume 1 - Renewable Energy: Biomass resources and biofuel production; Bioenergy Utilization; Solar Energy; Wind Energy; Geothermal Energy; Tidal Energy. Volume 2 - Clean Energy Conversion Technologies: Steam/Vapor Power Generation; Gas Turbines Power Generation; Reciprocating Engines; Fuel Cells; Cogeneration and Polygeneration. Volume 3 - Mitigation Technologies: Carbon Capture; Negative Emissions System; Carbon Transportation; Carbon Storage; Emission Mitigation Technologies; Efficiency Improvements and Waste Management; Waste to Energy. Volume 4 - Intelligent Energy Systems: Future Electricity Markets; Diagnostic and Control of Energy Systems; New Electric Transmission Systems; Smart Grid and Modern Electrical Systems; Energy Efficiency of Municipal Energy Systems; Energy Efficiency of Industrial Energy Systems; Consumer Behaviors; Load Control and Management; Electric Car and Hybrid Car; Energy Efficiency Improvement. Volume 5 - Energy Storage: Thermal Energy Storage; Chemical Storage; Mechanical Storage; Electrochemical Storage; Integrated Storage Systems. Volume 6 - Sustainability of Energy Systems: Sustainability Indicators, Evaluation Criteria, and Reporting; Regulation and Policy; Finance and Investment; Emission Trading; Modeling and Analysis of Energy Systems; Energy vs. Development; Low Carbon Economy; Energy Efficiencies and Emission Reduction. Key features: Comprising over 3,500 pages in 6 volumes, HCES presents a comprehensive overview of the latest research, developments and practical applications throughout all areas of clean energy systems, consolidating a wealth of information which is currently scattered across a wide variety of literature sources. In addition to renewable energy systems, HCES also covers processes for the efficient and clean conversion of traditional fuels such as coal, oil and gas, energy storage systems, mitigation technologies for the reduction of environmental pollutants, and the development of intelligent energy systems. Environmental, social and economic impacts of energy systems are also addressed in depth. Published in full colour throughout. Fully indexed with cross referencing within and between all six volumes. Edited by leading researchers from academia and industry who are internationally renowned and active in their respective fields. Published in print and online. The online version is a single publication (i.e. no updates), available for one-time purchase or through annual subscription.

Organic Rankine Cycle for Energy Recovery System

Organic Rankine Cycle for Energy Recovery System
Author: Andrea De Pascale
Publsiher: MDPI
Total Pages: 192
Release: 2020-06-18
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9783039363940

Download Organic Rankine Cycle for Energy Recovery System Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle

The rising trend in the global energy demand poses new challenges to humankind. The energy and mechanical engineering sectors are called to develop new and more environmentally friendly solutions to harvest residual energy from primary production processes. The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is an emerging energy system for power production and waste heat recovery. In the near future, this technology can play an increasing role within the energy generation sectors and can help achieve the carbon footprint reduction targets of many industrial processes and human activities. This Special Issue focuses on selected research and application cases of ORC-based waste heat recovery solutions. Topics included in this publication cover the following aspects: performance modeling and optimization of ORC systems based on pure and zeotropic mixture working fluids; applications of waste heat recovery via ORC to gas turbines and reciprocating engines; optimal sizing and operation of ORC under combined heat and power and district heating application; the potential of ORC on board ships and related issues; life cycle analysis for biomass application; ORC integration with supercritical CO2 cycle; and the proper design of the main ORC components, including fluid dynamics issues. The current state of the art is considered and some cutting-edge ORC technology research activities are examined in this book.

8th International Conference on Compressors and their Systems

8th International Conference on Compressors and their Systems
Author: City University London
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 784
Release: 2013-12-19
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781782421702

Download 8th International Conference on Compressors and their Systems Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle

This book contains the papers from the 2013 International Conference on Compressors and Their Systems, held from 9-10 September at City University London. The long-running conference series is the ultimate global forum for reviewing the latest developments and novel approaches in compressor research. High-quality technical papers are sourced from around the globe, covering technology development, operation, maintenance and reliability, safety and environmental impact, energy efficiency and carbon footprint, system integration and behaviour, upgrades and refurbishment, design and manufacture, education and professional development. All the papers are previously unpublished and constitute leading edge research. Presents leading edge developments in compressor technology Gives the latest prediction and modelling techniques Details the new technology and machinery

Efficiency of heat and work in a regional energy system

Efficiency of heat and work in a regional energy system
Author: Tommy Rosén
Publsiher: Linköping University Electronic Press
Total Pages: 61
Release: 2019-12-11
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: 9789179299347

Download Efficiency of heat and work in a regional energy system Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle

One of the largest flows of energy in Swedish municipalities is the fuel-energy flow through the regional combined heat and power (CHP) plant. The customer products from this flow are mainly electricity to the electricity grid and heat to the building sector. There are many ways to describe and examine this fuel-energy flow, and there are many perspectives. This thesis presents one perspective. It is a top-down, analytical and numerical perspective on the efficiency of heat and work in a regional energy system. The analysis focus on the present situation in Linköping municipality and aims at describing the energy efficiency improvement potential. Three subsystems are considered, the regional production of electricity, the regional production of heat, and the regional public transport by bus. These three systems are physically all heat engines i.e. engines that derive work and/or heat from fuel combustion processes. It is important to notice that the analysis in this thesis does not describe the theoretical improvement potential, that potential is considerably higher than the implementable potential, but of no practical use. Instead the analysis is as far as possible based on real world measured efficiencies and efficiency values of best practice (Best available technology). The analysis shows that hardware investments at the CHP plant can improve the electricity generation efficiency and thereby reduce CO2 emissions. The investments are in high pressure turbines, medium pressure turbines and preheaters. The size of the improvement is hard to quantify because it depends partly on unknown factors in the surrounding electricity market. In the studied system CO2 reduction could be as high as 40 - 60 %. The regionally produced biogas would be used more efficiently if it were used in the local combined cycle gas turbine instead of being used in internal combustion engines in buses. The buses would instead be electrically driven. This use of biogas would create a better integrated fuel-energy flow and reduce heat losses. Another improvement is to reduce the system temperatures in the district heating system. The study shows that the efficiency gains, because of lower system temperatures, would increase electricity production by about 1 – 3%, and that greenhouse gas emissions would be reduced by 4 – 20%. However, these improvements are dependent on demand side investments in the district heating system and are therefore slow to implement. Ett av de största energiflödena i svenska kommuner är bränsle/energi-flödet genom det regionala kraftvärmeverket. De konsumentprodukter som detta energiflöde producerar är främst uppvärmning av bostäder och elkraft. Det finns många sätt att beskriva och utvärdera detta bränsle/energi-flöde och det finns många olika perspektiv. Det här arbetet analyserar energiflödet med en analytisk ”top-down” metod. Analysen utgår ifrån den nuvarande situationen i Linköpings kommun och avser att belysa den förbättringspotential som finns med avseende på systemets verkningsgrad. Tre delsystem har studerats, det regionala systemet för värmeproduktion, det regionala systemet för elproduktion och det regionala kollektivtrafiksystemet för innerstadstrafik med buss. Dessa tre system är fysikaliskt värmemotorer d.v.s. de är system som nyttjar termisk energi från förbränningsprocesser för att utföra ett arbete och/eller generera värme. Det är viktigt att notera att analyserna i detta arbete inte avser att beskriva en teoretisk förbättringspotential. Analyserna avser istället att belysa den praktiska, implementerbara, förbättringspotentialen. Därför har arbetet så långt som möjligt utgått ifrån uppmätta data och numeriska värden på verkningsgrader ifrån redan existerande anläggningar eller tekniska komponenter. Analyserna visar att hårdvaruinvesteringar i det lokala kraftvärmeverket skulle öka elproduktionen och därigenom sänka koldioxidutsläppen. De investeringar som skulle behöva göras är investeringar i högtrycksturbiner, mellantrycksturbiner och förvärmare. De sänkta koldioxidutsläppen är svåra att kvantifiera eftersom de delvis beror på okända faktorer på den omgivande elmarknaden. Reduktionen av koldioxidutsläppen skulle kunna vara så stor som 40 - 60 %. Den lokalt producerade biogasen skulle användas mer effektivt om den användes i den lokala gaskombi-anläggningen istället för att användas som bussbränsle som är det nuvarande användningsområdet för detta bränsle. Bussarna skulle istället kunna ersättas med elbussar. En sådan förändring av biogas-användningen skulle innebära ett bättre integrerat energisystem med lägre värmeförluster. En annan möjlig förbättring av kraftvärmesystemet är att sänka returtemperaturerna i fjärrvärmesystemet. Analyserna visar att elverkningsgraden skulle förbättras 1 – 3 % och att koldioxidutsläppen skulle kunna minska med 4 – 20 %. Dessa förbättringar skulle däremot kräva investeringar på kraftvärmesystemets kundsida och bedöms därför vara långsamma att implementera.