Protein Trafficking in Neurons

Protein Trafficking in Neurons
Author: Andrew J. Bean
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 464
Release: 2006-10-27
Genre: Science
ISBN: 0080465897

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The efficient delivery of cellular constituents to their proper location is of fundamental importance for all cells and is of particular interest to neuroscientists, because of the unique functions and complex architecture of neurons. Protein Trafficking in Neurons examines mechanisms of protein trafficking and the role of trafficking in neuronal functioning from development to plasticity to disease. The book is divided into seven sections that review mechanisms of protein transport, the role of protein trafficking in synapse formation, exo- and endocytosis, transport of receptors, trafficking of ion channels and transporters, comparison of trafficking mechanisms in neuronal vs. non-neuronal cell types, and the relationship between trafficking and neuronal diseases such as Alzheimer's, Huntington's and Prion Diseases. Provides a comprehensive examination of membrane/protein movement in neuronal function Sections on synapse development, synaptic transmission, and the role of trafficking in neurological disease Includes a focus on Molecular Mechanisms Illustrated with color summary pictures The only book examining protein trafficking and its functional implications, written by leaders in the field

Involvement of Myosin V and Associated Proteins in Protein Trafficking and Neuronal Morphogenesis

Involvement of Myosin V and Associated Proteins in Protein Trafficking and Neuronal Morphogenesis
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2009
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: OCLC:680293108

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Proper neuronal development and function requires precise sorting and delivery of various elements from the soma to the synapse. Important mediators of intracellular transport events are the actin-based class V myosin motors, which are involved in organelle transport in various cell types. Two myosin V family members, myosin Va and Vb, are present in the brain, however, the identity of cargoes transported by these motors is unknown. The objective of this thesis was to conduct molecular and cell biological studies to identify and characterize novel myosin V cargoes in neurons. The first approach I used was to characterize the distribution of candidate protein cargoes after blocking the function of endogenous myosin Va and Vb with dominant-negative (DN) versions. I found that in developing neurons, expression of DN myosin Vb, but not DN myosin Va, resulted in the accumulation in the soma of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit, GluR1, and a reduction of its surface expression. I also found that myosin Vb-mediated trafficking of GluR1 required an interaction with the GTPase Rab11. These results reveal a novel mechanism for the transport of a specific glutamate receptor subunit mediated by myosin Vb and Rab11. As an alternative approach to identify myosin Va binding partners in the brain, we conducted a yeast-two hybrid screen of a rat brain cDNA library using the cargo binding domain of myosin Va. Among the proteins identified in our screen, I selected a protein of unknown function previously identified as Rab-lysosomal-interacting protein like 2 (RILPL2) and further assessed its function. I found that RILPL2 expression in non-neuronal cells resulted in morphological changes and activation of the Rho GTPase Rac1. In developing neurons, gain or loss of RILPL2 function altered the density of dendritic spine protrusions and increased phosphorylation of the Rac1 effector Pak. These findings uncover a novel role for the myosin Va-interacting protein, RILPL2, in regulati.

Molecular Biology of the Neuron

Molecular Biology of the Neuron
Author: R. W. Davies,Brian J. Morris
Publsiher: OUP Oxford
Total Pages: 500
Release: 2004-04-08
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780191585838

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Nerve cells - neurons - are arguably the most complex of all cells. From the action of these cells comes movement, thought and consciousness. It is a challenging task to understand what molecules direct the various diverse aspects of their function. This has produced an ever-increasing amount of molecular information about neurons, and only in Molecular Biology of the Neuron can a large part of this information be found in one source. In this book, a non-specialist can learn about the molecules that control information flow in the brain or the progress of brain disease in an approachable format, while the expert has access to a wealth of detailed information from a wide range of topics impacting on his or her field of endeavour. The text is designed to achieve a balance of accessibility and broad coverage with up-to-date molecular detail. In the six years since the first edition of Molecular Biology of the Neuron there has been an explosion in the molecular information about neurons that has been discovered, and this information is incorporated into this second edition. Entirely new chapters have been introduced where recent advances have made a new aspect of neuronal function more comprehensible at the molecular level. Written by leading researchers in the field, the book provides an essential overview of the molecular structure and function of neurons, and will be an invaluable tool to students and researchers alike.

The Neuronal Cytoskeleton Motor Proteins and Organelle Trafficking in the Axon

The Neuronal Cytoskeleton  Motor Proteins  and Organelle Trafficking in the Axon
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 534
Release: 2016-01-12
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780128033548

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The Neuronal Cytoskeleton, Motor Proteins, and Organelle Trafficking in the Axon, a new volume in the Methods in Cell Biology series continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. This volume covers research methods in neuronal cells, and includes sections on such topics as actin transport in axons and neurofilament transport. Covers an increasingly appreciated field in cell biology Includes both established and new technologies Contributed by experts in the field

Local Biosynthetic Trafficking of Synaptic Proteins in Neuronal Dendrites

Local Biosynthetic Trafficking of Synaptic Proteins in Neuronal Dendrites
Author: Aaron Benjamin Bowen
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 193
Release: 2017
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: OCLC:1267639002

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Neurons face the challenge of regulating the abundance, distribution and repertoire of integral membrane proteins on the surface of their immense, architecturally complex dendritic arbors. While the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) supports local translation of secretory cargo in all dendrites, most dendrites lack the Golgi apparatus (GA), an essential organelle for conventional secretory trafficking. Thus, whether secretory cargo is locally trafficked in dendrites through a non-canonical pathway remains a fundamental question. We have defined the trafficking itinerary for key synaptic molecules in dendrites. Following ER exit, the AMPA-type glutamate receptor GluA1 and neuroligin 1 undergo spatially restricted entry into the dendritic secretory pathway and accumulate in recycling endosomes (REs) located in dendrites and spines prior to reaching the plasma membrane. Surprisingly, surface delivery of GluA1 occurred even when GA function was disrupted. Thus, in addition to their canonical role in protein recycling, REs are critical mediators of forward secretory trafficking in neuronal dendrites and spines through a specialized GA-independent trafficking network. While the SNARE machinery that supports biosynthetic trafficking from the GA to the plasma membrane in neurons is not known, the SNAREs that mediate RE exocytosis have been partially defined. Surprisingly, we found that constitutive trafficking of GluA1 through REs does not depend on VAMP2, an R-SNARE with a well-defined role in RE exocytosis. Instead, the clostridial-neurotoxin insensitive SNARE VAMP7 defined a pool of GluA1-containing transport vesicles and was required for their delivery to the plasma membrane. Synaptic stimulation accelerated the delivery of GluA1 from this pool. Interestingly, while this activity-regulated delivery required VAMP2, inhibition of VAMP7 had no effect on activity-induced exocytosis. Thus, VAMP2 and VAMP7 play complementary roles in activity-induced and constitutive delivery of new synaptic proteins. Overall we have identified a novel biosynthetic pathway that involves GA-independent transfer of cargoes to the dendritic RE compartment. Subsequent exocytosis of biosynthetic REs is constitutively maintained by VAMP7, but can be promoted by synaptic activity in a VAMP2-dependent manner. These results provide crucial insight into membrane trafficking processes that could support experience-dependent learning by rapidly delivering locally synthesized proteins to synaptic locations. Ongoing efforts are focused on the development of novel optical approaches to control secretory trafficking that will ultimately expand our capability to dissect the spatial trafficking of cargoes within the dendrite.

Protein Degradation Aggregation Membrane Trafficking and Exosomes in Neuronal Health and Disease

Protein Degradation  Aggregation  Membrane Trafficking and Exosomes in Neuronal Health and Disease
Author: Beatriz Alvarez,Miguel Diaz-Hernandez,Douglas Campbell,Irena Vlatkovic
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 155
Release: 2022-08-02
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9782889766758

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Trafficking Inside Cells

Trafficking Inside Cells
Author: Nava Segev
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 445
Release: 2010-05-30
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780387938776

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This book covers the past, present and future of the intra-cellular trafficking field, which has made a quantum leap in the last few decades. It details how the field has developed and evolved as well as examines future directions.

Neurotransmitter Release

Neurotransmitter Release
Author: Hugo J. Bellen
Publsiher: Oxford University Press, USA
Total Pages: 466
Release: 1999
Genre: Science
ISBN: UOM:39015048547338

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Begins by providing a comprehensive introduction to the features and properties of synapses. It then describes key techniques used to study neurotransmitter release, from calcium entry to exocytosis. This is followed by chapters covering the identification and function of proteins involved in neurotransmitter release, the role of phospholipids in neurosecretion, and neurotransmitter transporter proteins. Subsequent chapters concentrate on approaches to unravel the function of specific proteins in vivo using toxins that affect neurotransmitter release, giant squit axons, C. elegans, Drosophila, and mice.