Studies on Selected Topics in Radio Frequency Digital to Analog Converters

Studies on Selected Topics in Radio Frequency Digital to Analog Converters
Author: Mohammad Reza Sadeghifar
Publsiher: Linköping University Electronic Press
Total Pages: 112
Release: 2019-10-14
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: 9789176850305

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The network latency in fifth generation mobile technology (5G) will be around one millisecond which is much lower than in 4G technology. This significantly faster response time together with higher information capacity and ultra-reliable communication in 5G technology will pave the way for future innovations in a smart and connected society. This new 5G network should be built on a reasonable wireless infrastructure and 5G radio base-stations that can be vastly deployed. That is, while the electrical specification of a radio base-station in 5G should be met in order to have the network functioning, the size, weight and power consumption of the radio system should be optimized to be able to commercially deploy these radios in a huge network. As the number of antenna elements increases in massive multiple-input multiple-output based radios such as in 5G, designing true multi-band base-station radios, with efficient physical size, power consumption and cost in emerging cellular bands especially in mid-bands (frequencies up to 10~GHz), is becoming a challenge. This demands a hard integration of radio components; particularly the radio's digital application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC) with high-performance energy-efficient multi-band data converters. In this dissertation radio frequency digital-to-analog converter (RF DAC) and semi-digital finite-impulse response (FIR) filter digital-to-analog converter has been studied. Different techniques are used in these structures to improve the transmitter's overall performance. In the RF DAC part, a radio frequency digital-to-analog converter solution is presented, which is capable of monolithic integration into today's digital ASIC due to its digital-in-nature architecture, while fulfills the stringent requirements of cellular network radio base station linearity and bandwidth. A voltage-mode conversion method is used as output stage, and configurable mixing logic is employed in the data path to create a higher frequency lobe and utilize the output signal in the first or the second Nyquist zone and hence achieving output frequencies up to the sample rate. In the semi-digital FIR part, optimization problem formulation for semi-digital FIR digital-to-analog converter is investigated. Magnitude and energy metrics with variable coefficient precision are defined for cascaded digital Sigma-Delta modulators, semi-digital FIR filter, and Sinc roll-off frequency response of the DAC. A set of analog metrics as hardware cost is also defined to be included in semi-digital FIR DAC optimization problem formulation. It is shown that hardware cost of the semi-digital FIR DAC, can be reduced by introducing flexible coefficient precision in filter optimization while the semi-digital FIR DAC is not over-designed either. Different use cases are selected to demonstrate the optimization problem formulations. A combination of magnitude metric, energy metric, coefficient precision and analog metric are used in different use cases of the optimization problem formulation and solved to find out the optimum set of analog FIR taps. Moreover, a direct digital-to-RF converter (DRFC) is presented in this thesis where a semi-digital FIR topology utilizes voltage-mode RF DAC cells to synthesize spectrally clean signals at RF frequencies. Due to its digital-in-nature design, the DRFC benefits from technology scaling and can be monolithically integrated into advance digital VLSI systems. A fourth-order single-bit quantizer bandpass digital Sigma-Delta modulator is used preceding the DRFC, resulting in a high in-band signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The out-of-band spectrally-shaped quantization noise is attenuated by an embedded semi-digital FIR filter. The RF output frequencies are synthesized by a configurable voltage-mode RF DAC solution with a high linearity performance. A compensation technique to cancel the code-dependent supply current variation in voltage-mode RF DAC for radio frequency direct digital frequency synthesizer is also presented in this dissertation and is studied analytically. The voltage-mode RF DAC and the compensation technique are mathematically modeled and system-level simulation is performed to support the analytical discussion.

Radio Frequency Digital to Analog Converters

Radio Frequency Digital to Analog Converters
Author: Morteza S Alavi,Jaimin Mehta,Robert Bogdan Staszewski
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 302
Release: 2016-11-18
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780128025031

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With the proliferation of wireless networks, there is a need for more compact, low-cost, power efficient transmitters that are capable of supporting the various communication standards, including Bluetooth, WLAN, GSM/EDGE, WCDMA and 4G of 3GPP cellular. This book describes a novel idea of RF digital-to-analog converters (RFDAC) and demonstrates how they can realize all-digital, fully-integrated RF transmitters that support all the current multi-mode and multi-band communication standards. With this book the reader will: Understand the challenges of realizing a universal CMOS RF transmitter Recognize the design issues and the advantages and disadvantages related to analog and digital transmitter architectures Master designing an RF transmitter from system level modeling techniques down to circuit designs and their related layout know-hows Grasp digital polar and I/Q calibration techniques as well as the digital predistortion approaches Learn how to generate appropriate digital I/Q baseband signals in order to apply them to the test chip and measure the RF-DAC performance. Highlights the benefits and implementation challenges of software-defined transmitters using CMOS technology Includes various types of analog and digital RF transmitter architectures for wireless applications Presents an all-digital polar RFDAC transmitter architecture and describes in detail its implementation Presents a new all-digital I/Q RFDAC transmitter architecture and its implementation Provides comprehensive design techniques from system level to circuit level Introduces several digital predistortion techniques which can be used in RF transmitters Describes the entire flow of system modeling, circuit simulation, layout techniques and the measurement process

Radio Frequency Digital to Analog Converter

Radio Frequency Digital to Analog Converter
Author: Susan Luschas
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 126
Release: 2003
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: OCLC:53278026

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Dynamic performance of high speed, high resolution digital-to-analog converters (DACs) is limited by distortion at the data switching instants. Inter-symbol interference (ISI), imperfect timing synchronization and clock jitter are all culprits. A DAC output current controlled by an oscillating waveform is proposed to mitigate the effects of the switching distortion. The oscillating waveform should be a multiple (k*fs) of the sampling frequency (f), where k>l. The waveforms can be aligned so that the data switching occurs in the zero regions of the oscillating output. This makes the DAC insensitive to switch dynamics and jitter. The architecture has the additional benefit of mixing the DAC impulse response energy to a higher frequency. An image of a low IF input signal can therefore be output directly at a high IF or RF frequency for transmit communications applications. A narrow-band sigma-delta DAC with eight unit elements is chosen to demonstrate the radio frequency digital-to-analog converter (RF DAC) concept. A sigma-delta architecture allows the current source transistors to be smaller since mismatch shaping is employed. Smaller current source transistors have a lower drain capacitance, allowing large high frequency output impedance to be achieved without an extra cascode transistor. Elimination of the cascode reduces transistor headroom requirements and allows the DAC to be built with a 1.8V supply. The RF DAC prototype is targeted to GSM transmit specifications and implemented in 0.1 8ptm CMOS technology. Measured single-tone SFDR is -75dBc, SNR is 52dB, and IMD3 is -70.8dBc over a 17.5MHz bandwidth centered at 942.5MHz. Measured SNR has the predicted dependence on the phase alignment of the data clock and oscillating pulse.

A Poly phased Time interleaved Radio Frequency Digital to analog Converter Poly TI RF DAC

A Poly phased  Time interleaved Radio Frequency Digital to analog Converter  Poly TI RF DAC
Author: Vipul J. Patel
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 89
Release: 2017
Genre: Digital-to-analog converters
ISBN: OCLC:1102319082

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With increasing data rates and new communication standards owing to substantial advancements in digitizing and signal processing capabilities over the last century, the radio spectrum is increasingly becoming a finite and expensive resource. Furthermore, radar systems and 5G communication systems have revealed the need for gigahertz-frequency signal generation with flexible frequency planning and minimal spurious emissions. Advanced digital-to-analog converters (DACs), along with associated filtering, are critical enablers of these new systems and play a key role in meeting stringent system requirements. In conventional implementations, however, high quality filters are specific to one frequency band thereby limiting their operational agility. Therefore, a DAC architecture that removes undesired image replicas, mixer sidebands, and harmonic nonlinearities is an essential component for flexible frequency synthesis as it allows for reduced filtering requirements while enabling new software-defined transmitter techniques.This dissertation aims to provide a quantitative study and analysis of a poly-phased, time-interleaved Nyquist radio frequency digital-to-analog converter (Poly-TI-RF-DAC) for use in spectrum-agile and software-defined transmitters. Beginning with the fundamental understanding of high-speed DAC capabilities and limitations, the mathematical and behavioral analyses give insight into the signal, sideband, and image replica locations of the proposed architecture. Additionally, the use of a mixing DAC as the core structure is discussed along with how nonlinearities can be canceled with the appropriate choice of frequency planning.

Digital Pre distortion of Radio Frequency Digital to Analog Converters in a DOCSIS Application

Digital Pre distortion of Radio Frequency Digital to Analog Converters in a DOCSIS Application
Author: Kristofer Dechka
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2014
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: OCLC:1033226319

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Interleaving Concepts for Digital to Analog Converters

Interleaving Concepts for Digital to Analog Converters
Author: Christian Schmidt
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 245
Release: 2019-07-19
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9783658272647

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Modern complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) digital-to-analog converters (DACs) are limited in their bandwidth due to technological constraints. These limitations can be overcome by parallel DAC architectures, which are called interleaving concepts. Christian Schmidt analyzes the limitations and the potential of two innovative DAC interleaving concepts to provide the basis for a practical implementation: the analog multiplexing DAC (AMUX-DAC) and the frequency interleaving DAC (FI-DAC). He presents analytical and discrete-time models as a theoretical foundation and develops digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms to compensate the analog impairments. Further, he quantifies the impact of various limiting parameters with numerical simulations and verifies both concepts in laboratory experiments. About the Author: Christian Schmidt works at the Fraunhofer Heinrich-Hertz-Institute, Berlin, Germany, on innovative solutions for broadband signal generation in the field of optical communications. The studies for his dissertation were carried out at the Technische Universität Berlin and at the Fraunhofer Heinrich-Hertz-Institute, both Berlin, Germany.

Advanced Data Converters

Advanced Data Converters
Author: Gabriele Manganaro
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2011-11-17
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781139504744

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Need to get up to speed quickly on the latest advances in high performance data converters? Want help choosing the best architecture for your application? With everything you need to know about the key new converter architectures, this guide is for you. It presents basic principles, circuit and system design techniques and associated trade-offs, doing away with lengthy mathematical proofs and providing intuitive descriptions upfront. Everything from time-to-digital converters to comparator-based/zero-crossing ADCs is covered and each topic is introduced with a short summary of the essential basics. Practical examples describing actual chips, along with extensive comparison between architectural or circuit options, ease architecture selection and help you cut design time and engineering risk. Trade-offs, advantages and disadvantages of each option are put into perspective with a discussion of future trends, showing where this field is heading, what is driving it and what the most important unanswered questions are.

Design Modeling and Testing of Data Converters

Design  Modeling and Testing of Data Converters
Author: Paolo Carbone,Sayfe Kiaei,Fang Xu
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 430
Release: 2013-10-05
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9783642396557

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This book presents the a scientific discussion of the state-of-the-art techniques and designs for modeling, testing and for the performance analysis of data converters. The focus is put on sustainable data conversion. Sustainability has become a public issue that industries and users can not ignore. Devising environmentally friendly solutions for data conversion designing, modeling and testing is nowadays a requirement that researchers and practitioners must consider in their activities. This book presents the outcome of the IWADC workshop 2011, held in Orvieto, Italy.

Smart and Flexible Digital to Analog Converters

Smart and Flexible Digital to Analog Converters
Author: Georgi Radulov,Patrick Quinn,Hans Hegt,Arthur H.M. van Roermund
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 310
Release: 2011-01-07
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9789400703476

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Smart and Flexible Digital-to-Analog Converters proposes new concepts and implementations for flexibility and self-correction of current-steering digital-to-analog converters (DACs) which allow the attainment of a wide range of functional and performance specifications, with a much reduced dependence on the fabrication process. DAC linearity is analysed with respect to the accuracy of the DAC unit elements. A classification is proposed of the many different current-steering DAC correction methods. The classification reveals methods that do not yet exist in the open literature. Further, this book systematically analyses self-calibration correction methods for the various DAC mismatch errors. For instance, efficient calibration of DAC binary currents is identified as an important missing method. This book goes on to propose a new methodology for correcting mismatch errors of both nominally identical unary as well as scaled binary DAC currents. A new concept for DAC flexibility is presented. The associated architecture is based on a modular design approach that uses parallel sub-DAC units to realize flexible design, functionality and performance. Two main concepts, self-calibration and flexibility, are demonstrated in practice using three DAC testchips in 250nm, 180nm and 40nm standard CMOS. Smart and Flexible Digital-to-Analog Converters will be useful to both advanced professionals and newcomers in the field. Advanced professionals will find new methods that are fully elaborated from analysis at conceptual level to measurement results at test-chip level. New comers in the field will find structured knowledge of fully referenced state-of-the art methods with many fully explained novelties.“/p> DAC linearity is analysed with respect to the accuracy of the DAC unit elements. A classification is proposed of the many different current-steering DAC correction methods. The classification reveals methods that do not yet exist in the open literature. Further, this book systematically analyses self-calibration correction methods for the various DAC mismatch errors. For instance, efficient calibration of DAC binary currents is identified as an important missing method. This book goes on to propose a new methodology for correcting mismatch errors of both nominally identical unary as well as scaled binary DAC currents. A new concept for DAC flexibility is presented. The associated architecture is based on a modular design approach that uses parallel sub-DAC units to realize flexible design, functionality and performance. Two main concepts, self-calibration and flexibility, are demonstrated in practice using three DAC testchips in 250nm, 180nm and 40nm standard CMOS. Smart and Flexible Digital-to-Analog Converters will be useful to both advanced professionals and newcomers in the field. Advanced professionals will find new methods that are fully elaborated from analysis at conceptual level to measurement results at test-chip level. New comers in the field will find structured knowledge of fully referenced state-of-the art methods with many fully explained novelties. This book goes on to propose a new methodology for correcting mismatch errors of both nominally identical unary as well as scaled binary DAC currents. A new concept for DAC flexibility is presented. The associated architecture is based on a modular design approach that uses parallel sub-DAC units to realize flexible design, functionality and performance. Two main concepts, self-calibration and flexibility, are demonstrated in practice using three DAC testchips in 250nm, 180nm and 40nm standard CMOS. Smart and Flexible Digital-to-Analog Converters will be useful to both advanced professionals and newcomers in the field. Advanced professionals will find new methods that are fully elaborated from analysis at conceptual level to measurement results at test-chip level. New comers in the field will find structured knowledge of fully referenced state-of-the art methods with many fully explained novelties. Two main concepts, self-calibration and flexibility, are demonstrated in practice using three DAC testchips in 250nm, 180nm and 40nm standard CMOS. Smart and Flexible Digital-to-Analog Converters will be useful to both advanced professionals and newcomers in the field. Advanced professionals will find new methods that are fully elaborated from analysis at conceptual level to measurement results at test-chip level. New comers in the field will find structured knowledge of fully referenced state-of-the art methods with many fully explained novelties.

Radio Frequency Electronics

Radio Frequency Electronics
Author: Jon B. Hagen
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 358
Release: 1996-11-13
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 0521553563

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A comprehensive introduction to the basic concepts and key circuits of radio frequency systems.

Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office

Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office
Author: United States. Patent and Trademark Office
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2002
Genre: Patents
ISBN: PSU:000066183143

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Multi Mode Multi Band RF Transceivers for Wireless Communications

Multi Mode   Multi Band RF Transceivers for Wireless Communications
Author: Gernot Hueber,Robert Bogdan Staszewski
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 608
Release: 2011-04-04
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 1118102207

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Summarizes cutting-edge physical layer technologies for multi-mode wireless RF transceivers. Includes original contributions from distinguished researchers and professionals. Covers cutting-edge physical layer technologies for multi-mode wireless RF transceivers. Contributors are all leading researchers and professionals in this field.

Engineering Embedded Systems

Engineering Embedded Systems
Author: Peter Hintenaus
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 345
Release: 2014-10-30
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9783319106809

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This is a textbook for graduate and final-year-undergraduate computer-science and electrical-engineering students interested in the hardware and software aspects of embedded and cyberphysical systems design. It is comprehensive and self-contained, covering everything from the basics to case-study implementation. Emphasis is placed on the physical nature of the problem domain and of the devices used. The reader is assumed to be familiar on a theoretical level with mathematical tools like ordinary differential equation and Fourier transforms. In this book these tools will be put to practical use. Engineering Embedded Systems begins by addressing basic material on signals and systems, before introducing to electronics. Treatment of digital electronics accentuating synchronous circuits and including high-speed effects proceeds to micro-controllers, digital signal processors and programmable logic. Peripheral units and decentralized networks are given due weight. The properties of analog circuits and devices like filters and data converters are covered to the extent desirable by a systems architect. The handling of individual elements concludes with power supplies including regulators and converters. The final section of the text is composed of four case studies: • electric-drive control, permanent magnet synchronous motors in particular; • lock-in amplification with measurement circuits for weight and torque, and moisture; • design of a simple continuous wave radar that can be operated to measure speed and distance; and • design of a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for process applications. End-of-chapter exercises will assist the student to assimilate the tutorial material and these are supplemented by a downloadable solutions manual for instructors. The “pen-and-paper” problems are further augmented with laboratory activities. In addition to its student market, Engineering Embedded Systems will assist industrial practitioners working in systems architecture and the design of electronic measurement systems to keep up to date with developments in embedded systems through self study.

Finite Impulse Response Current Steering Radio Frequency Digital to Analog Converter for Digital IF Transmitter Architecture

Finite Impulse Response Current Steering Radio Frequency Digital to Analog Converter for Digital IF Transmitter Architecture
Author: Shahin Mehdizad Taleie
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 200
Release: 2008
Genre: Digital-to-analog converters
ISBN: OCLC:367590286

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Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit Design for Cognitive Radio Systems

Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit Design for Cognitive Radio Systems
Author: Amr Fahim
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 189
Release: 2015-03-03
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9783319110110

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This book fills an information gap on cognitive radios, since the discussion focuses on the implementation issues that are unique to cognitive radios and how to solve them at both the architecture and circuit levels. This is the first book to describe in detail cognitive radio systems, as well as the circuit implementation and architectures required to implement such systems. Throughout the book, requirements and constraints imposed by cognitive radio systems are emphasized when discussing the circuit implementation details. This is a valuable reference for anybody with background in analog and radio frequency (RF) integrated circuit design, needing to learn more about integrated circuits requirements and implementation for cognitive radio systems.