Radioactive Waste Management and Contaminated Site Clean Up

Radioactive Waste Management and Contaminated Site Clean Up
Author: William E Lee,Michael I Ojovan,Carol M Jantzen
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 912
Release: 2013-10-31
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780857097446

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Radioactive waste management and contaminated site clean-up reviews radioactive waste management processes, technologies, and international experiences. Part one explores the fundamentals of radioactive waste including sources, characterisation, and processing strategies. International safety standards, risk assessment of radioactive wastes and remediation of contaminated sites and irradiated nuclear fuel management are also reviewed. Part two highlights the current international situation across Africa, Asia, Europe, and North America. The experience in Japan, with a specific chapter on Fukushima, is also covered. Finally, part three explores the clean-up of sites contaminated by weapons programmes including the USA and former USSR. Radioactive waste management and contaminated site clean-up is a comprehensive resource for professionals, researchers, scientists and academics in radioactive waste management, governmental and other regulatory bodies and the nuclear power industry. Explores the fundamentals of radioactive waste including sources, characterisation, and processing strategies Reviews international safety standards, risk assessment of radioactive wastes and remediation of contaminated sites and irradiated nuclear fuel management Highlights the current international situation across Africa, Asia, Europe, and North America specifically including a chapter on the experience in Fukushima, Japan

Nuclear Decommissioning Waste Management and Environmental Site Remediation

Nuclear Decommissioning  Waste Management  and Environmental Site Remediation
Author: Colin Bayliss,Kevin Langley
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 330
Release: 2003-10-10
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 0080537782

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Decommissioning nuclear facilities is a relatively new field, which has developed rapidly in the last ten years. It involves materials that may be highly radioactive and therefore require sophisticated methods of containment and remote handling. The wastes arising from decommissioning are hazardous and have to be stored or disposed of safely in order to protect the environment and future generations. Nuclear decommissioning work must be carried out to the highest possible standards to protect workers, the general public and the environment. This book describes the techniques used for dismantling redundant nuclear facilities, the safe storage of radioactive wastes and the restoration of nuclear licensed sites. * Describes the techniques used for dismantling nuclear facilities, safe storage of radioactive wastes, and the restoration of nuclear licensed facilities. * Provides the reader with decommissioning experience accumulated over 15 years by UKAEA. * Contains valuable information to personnel new to decommissioning and waste management.

Cleaning Up Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Materials

Cleaning Up Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Materials
Author: Russian Academy of Sciences,National Research Council,Policy and Global Affairs,Development, Security, and Cooperation,Office for Central Europe and Eurasia,Committee on Cleaning Up of Radioactive Contamination: Russian Challenges and U.S. Experience
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 234
Release: 2009-02-23
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780309127615

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This publication features papers presented at the Workshop on Cleaning Up Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Materials, held in Moscow in June 2007. This activity was organized by the National Academies in cooperation with the Russian Academy of Sciences and with funding provided by the Russell Family Foundation. The workshop was designed to promote exchanges of information on specific contaminated sites in Russia and elsewhere and to stimulate greater attention to the severity of the problems and the urgent need to clean up sites of concern to the local and international communities.

Nuclear Waste Cleanup Technologies and Opportunities

Nuclear Waste Cleanup Technologies and Opportunities
Author: Robert Noyes
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 471
Release: 2013-01-15
Genre: Political Science
ISBN: 9780080946191

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One of the largest, most complicated and expensive environmental problems in the United States is the cleanup of nuclear wastes. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has approximately 4,000 contaminated sites covering tens of thousands of acres and replete with contaminated hazardous or radioactive waste, soil, or structures. In addition to high-level waste, it has more than 250,000 cubic meters of transuranic waste and millions of cubic meters of low-level radio-active waste. In addition, DOE is responsible for thousands of facilities awaiting decontamination, decommissioning, and dismantling. DOE and its predecessors have been involved in the management of radioactive wastes since 1943, when such wastes were first generated in significant quantities as by-products of nuclear weapons production. Waste connected with DOE's nuclear weapons complex has been accumulating as a result of various operations spanning over five decades. The cost estimates for nuclear waste cleanup in the United States have been rapidly rising. It has recently been estimated to be in a range from $200 to $350 billion. Costs could vary considerably based on future philosophies as to whether to isolate certain sites (the ""iron fence"" philosophy), or clean them up to a pristine condition (the ""greenfields"" philosophy). Funding will also be based on Congressional action that may reduce environmental cleanup, based on budget considerations.

Best Practices for Risk Informed Decision Making Regarding Contaminated Sites

Best Practices for Risk Informed Decision Making Regarding Contaminated Sites
Author: National Research Council,Policy and Global Affairs,Science and Technology for Sustainability Program,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board,Committee on Best Practices for Risk-Informed Remedy Selection, Closure and Post-Closure of Contaminated Sites
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 210
Release: 2014-07-21
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780309303088

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The Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management's (EM) mission is the safe cleanup of sites associated with the government-led development of nuclear weapons and nuclear energy. While many of these legacy sites have completed cleanup, the largest and most complex sites have not been fully remediated. The cleanup of these sites is proceeding under legally enforceable agreements with timelines for hundreds of milestones. EM is reviewing alternative approaches to increase effectiveness and improve cost efficiencies of its cleanup activities, especially for sites that will have residual contamination when active cleanup is complete. This report is the summary of two workshops convened in October 2013 and January 2014 on best practices for risk-informed remedy selection, closure, and post-closure control of radioactive and chemically contaminated sites that present significant difficulty for remediation to unrestricted release. The workshop series aimed to explore best practices that promote effective, risk-informed decision making and future opportunities to improve remediation approaches and practices.In the Workshop #1 section of Best Practices for Risk-Informed Decision Making Regarding Contaminated Sites, the report examines holistic approaches for remediating sites with multiple contaminant sources and post-closure uses, and approaches for incorporating a sustainability framework into decision making regarding site remediation, closure, and post-closure control. In Workshop #2, the report focuses on post-closure controls, assessment of long-term performance of site remedies, and best practices for risk-based remediation decisions.

Improving the Characterization and Treatment of Radioactive Wastes for the Department of Energy s Accelerated Site Cleanup Program

Improving the Characterization and Treatment of Radioactive Wastes for the Department of Energy s Accelerated Site Cleanup Program
Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Radioactive Waste Management,Committee on Opportunities for Accelerating Characterization and Treatment of Waste at DOE Nuclear Weapons Sites
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 84
Release: 2005-02-06
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780309092999

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The Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM) directs the massive cleanup of more than 100 sites that were involved in the production of nuclear weapons materials during the Manhattan Project and the Cold War. This report offers suggestions for more effectively characterizing and treating the orphan and special-case wastes that are part of EM's accelerated cleanup program. It identifies technical opportunities for EM to improve the program that will save time and money without compromising health and safety. The opportunities identified include: making more effective use of existing facilities and capabilities for waste characterization, treatment, or disposal; eliminating self-imposed requirements that have no clear technical or safety basis; and investing in new technologies to improve existing treatment and characterization capabilities. For example, the report suggests that EM work with DOE classification officers to declassify, to the extent possible, classified materials declared as wastes. The report also suggests a new approach for treating the wastes that EM will leave in place after cleanup.

Technologies for Environmental Cleanup Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management

Technologies for Environmental Cleanup  Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management
Author: A. Avogadro,R.C. Ragaini
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 258
Release: 2013-06-29
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9789401732130

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It is generally acknowledged today that the most effective strategy for toxic and hazardous waste management is: reduction, reuse and recycle. However, to date most of the activity has been in treatment technologies. This book focuses on recent technological issues commercially available or in various stages of implementation. Developments in the U.S. and Europe in the area of waste management policy and regulation are also examined since management and remediation have usually been conducted in response to regulatory requirements. This book serves as a state of the art resource on technologies and methodologies for the environmental protection manager involved in decisions concerning the management of toxic and hazardous waste.

Long Term Institutional Management of U S Department of Energy Legacy Waste Sites

Long Term Institutional Management of U S  Department of Energy Legacy Waste Sites
Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Board on Radioactive Waste Management,Committee on the Remediation of Buried and Tank Wastes
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 178
Release: 2000-11-09
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780309071864

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It is now becoming clear that relatively few U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites will be cleaned up to the point where they can be released for unrestricted use. "Long-term stewardship" (activities to protect human health and the environment from hazards that may remain at its sites after cessation of remediation) will be required for over 100 of the 144 waste sites under DOE control (U.S. Department of Energy, 1999). After stabilizing wastes that remain on site and containing them as well as is feasible, DOE intends to rely on stewardship for as long as hazards persist-in many cases, indefinitely. Physical containment barriers, the management systems upon which their long-term reliability depends, and institutional controls intended to prevent exposure of people and the environment to the remaining site hazards, will have to be maintained at some DOE sites for an indefinite period of time. The Committee on Remediation of Buried and Tank Wastes finds that much regarding DOE's intended reliance on long-term stewardship is at this point problematic. The details of long-term stewardship planning are yet to be specified, the adequacy of funding is not assured, and there is no convincing evidence that institutional controls and other stewardship measures are reliable over the long term. Scientific understanding of the factors that govern the long-term behavior of residual contaminants in the environment is not adequate. Yet, the likelihood that institutional management measures will fail at some point is relatively high, underscoring the need to assure that decisions made in the near term are based on the best available science. Improving institutional capabilities can be expected to be every bit as difficult as improving scientific and technical ones, but without improved understanding of why and how institutions succeed and fail, the follow-through necessary to assure that long-term stewardship remains effective cannot reliably be counted on to occur. Long-Term Institutional Management of U.S. Department of Energy Legacy Waste Sites examines the capabilities and limitations of the scientific, technical, and human and institutional systems that compose the measures that DOE expects to put into place at potentially hazardous, residually contaminated sites.