Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems
Author: Bryon Moyer
Publsiher: Newnes
Total Pages: 648
Release: 2013-02-27
Genre: Computers
ISBN: 9780123914613

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This Expert Guide gives you the techniques and technologies in embedded multicore to optimally design and implement your embedded system. Written by experts with a solutions focus, this encyclopedic reference gives you an indispensable aid to tackling the day-to-day problems when building and managing multicore embedded systems. Following an embedded system design path from start to finish, our team of experts takes you from architecture, through hardware implementation to software programming and debug. With this book you will learn: • What motivates multicore • The architectural options and tradeoffs; when to use what • How to deal with the unique hardware challenges that multicore presents • How to manage the software infrastructure in a multicore environment • How to write effective multicore programs • How to port legacy code into a multicore system and partition legacy software • How to optimize both the system and software • The particular challenges of debugging multicore hardware and software Examples demonstrating timeless implementation details Proven and practical techniques reflecting the authors’ expertise built from years of experience and key advice on tackling critical issues

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems
Author: Bryon Moyer
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 648
Release: 2013-02-27
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780128073353

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Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems
Author: Gitu Jain
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 648
Release: 2013-02-27
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780128073384

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Unlike general-purpose computing systems, multicore embedded systems are designed with a specific application in mind. The memory access patterns for the application can be used to customize the memory architecture of the device. This chapter presents a synopsis of memory types and architecture commonly used in multicore embedded systems. It examines the many trade-offs that can be considered when designing the memory architecture. It considers factors such as whether the memory should be shared or distributed among the multiple cores; will the cores benefit from memory cache and what should the cache configuration be; is there a cache coherency protocol used; should there be other memory types on the device such as scratch pad SRAMs and eDRAMs; does the device use a DMA for memory transfers, and other factors. It provides guidance to the embedded system designers to tailor the memory architecture to their needs.

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems
Author: Neal Stollon
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 648
Release: 2013-02-27
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780128073506

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As in any complex architecture, debug and instrumentation resources are critical for multicore design. Debug instrumentation provides information for post-silicon debug analysis, software optimization, and performance monitoring. In this chapter, we introduce debug concepts useful for multicore; we deconstruct and discuss different debug instrumentation blocks and interfaces, including typical operations and system integration; and we discuss differences, considerations, and approaches more appropriate to multicore debug. This is followed by multicore debug examples, some of which are based on open standards and some on commercially-available blocks from processor IP providers.

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems
Author: David Kleidermacher
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 648
Release: 2013-02-27
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780128073414

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This chapter discusses the potential of and role of system virtualization in meeting the flexibility, scalability, portability, and robustness demands of next-generation multicore embedded systems. Common architectural approaches to hypervisors are compared, including a strong focus on effective sharing and management of I/O peripherals across virtual machines. The chapter also describes and contrasts the virtualization hardware assistance features available in common multicore processors. Finally, emerging applications and use cases enabled by system virtualization are provided.

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems
Author: Frank Schirrmeister
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 648
Release: 2013-02-27
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780128073377

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This chapter will introduce the concepts of multicore related issues, while the subsequent chapters will go into further details. We will start with a general analysis of how electronic design trends lead to multicore hardware-software architectures as the only viable solution addressing consumer requirements on cost, performance and power. We will then categorize multicore architecture concepts by processing and communication requirements and show how different processing techniques combine to form multicore architectures that address the specific needs of different application domains. Special attention will be given to the programmability of the different hardware architectures and the impact that hardware has on software. We will close the chapter with a brief review of existing hardware architectures available on the market, as well as a brief discussion about programming models capable of expressing parallel functionality, which can then be mapped into multiple processor cores.

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems
Author: Jim Holt
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 648
Release: 2013-02-27
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780128073483

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Synchronization hardware is a fundamental requirement for concurrent software. Ultimately, software depends upon strong guarantees for atomicity, which can only be provided by hardware. Fortunately, hardware can provide a simple but powerful programming interface to higher-level software using only a few synchronization primitives. These few primitives can support a surprisingly broad range of capabilities in software. Yet, even with hardware support to ensure functional correctness, there is an unavoidable performance overhead to pay for synchronization. In recent years, hardware designed to replace precise locking with speculative lock avoidance (e.g., lock-free programming) has begun to emerge. This chapter provides an in-depth look at the lowest level hardware/software interface for synchronization, along with explanations of how the underlying hardware ensures atomicity, and considerations related to weakly consistent memory models. This is complemented with a discussion of various lock avoidance techniques.

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems
Author: Sanjay R. Deshpande
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 648
Release: 2013-02-27
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780128073391

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Growth in the number of transistors per die of an integrated circuit has provided impetus to the development of system-on-chip microprocessors (SoCs). They are becoming ubiquitous and appear in home appliances, cell phones, tablet, laptop, and desk-top computers, and lately even as building blocks in high-end computer systems. As the semiconductor manufacturing technology progresses in concert with Moore’s law, SoCs clearly represent the trend of the future of microprocessor design. SoCs vary widely in composition, complexity and sophistication depending on the computing applications for which they are intended: some are simple single-processor systems, while others range from a few to a few tens of processor cores and contain other hardware functional blocks, storage elements, memory controllers and interfaces to external high-speed interconnections such as PCI Express, SRIO, and others. In any such SoC, the on-chip interconnections play a central role in its operation and contribute vitally to the performance of the applications running in it. This chapter explores the choices of interconnections that may be employed and discusses the criteria for their selection. The chapter illustrates the interconnection selection process by describing an example SoC and examining the interconnections it contains.

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems
Author: Sanjay Lal
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 648
Release: 2013-02-27
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780128073490

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Some embedded systems require so much performance that they cannot tolerate the overhead imposed by an operating system. Such systems can be built with little to no operating system services, and are often referred to as “bare-metal” systems. Because most programming techniques rely on system services, bare-metal programming requires a different way of implementing code on a multicore platform. This chapter describes where bare-metal systems are used, those aspects that differentiate them from more standard systems, and how they can be designed and programmed.

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems
Author: Tom Dickens
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 648
Release: 2013-02-27
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780128073469

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Synchronization is the key mechanism used within software applications to safely and efficiently leverage today’s multicore hardware architectures. This chapter aims to build your expertise and knowledge in software synchronization, from the needs behind synchronization to the possible solutions to implement synchronization. The target reader of this chapter is the embedded multicore software developer, along with the tester, project manager, and customer, in order to educate the entire software development team about the technology and the issues. Problems that occur when synchronization is not used, or when it is used badly, are considered. An in-depth look at how to achieve synchronization and also specific conditions that require synchronization are the primary focus of this chapter. Specific synchronization support for different languages, along with design patterns useful for architecting of a synchronized system, are discussed. The chapter wraps up looking at side-effects (good and bad) and problems encountered when writing synchronization code, as well as hardware and operating system effects on synchronization.

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems
Author: Kenn Luecke
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 648
Release: 2013-02-27
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780128073445

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Efficient software development requires adequate toolsets to assist the developer in analyzing and optimizing a software application’s performance. With the relatively recent advent of multicore embedded hardware platforms, toolsets for supporting multicore development have appeared, although, in some cases, capabilities may be missing or immature, leaving software developers to manually massage outputs from one tool into inputs for the next tool or struggling to investigate unexpected multicore behaviors. This section reviews those multicore tools currently available for software developers as well as those that are still needed for adequate support.

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems
Author: Max Domeika
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 648
Release: 2013-02-27
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780128073421

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This chapter discusses communication and synchronization libraries which can be used to implement parallelism in your embedded application. Details will be shared on several common libaries including Windows Threads, POSIX Threads, Threading Building Blocks, OpenMP, and MCAPI.

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems
Author: Bryon Moyer
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 648
Release: 2013-02-27
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780128073407

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An operating system (OS) is an important component of most computer systems. At a minimum, the OS is responsible for managing tasks and resources. This becomes more challenging in a multicore environment, where multiple tasks can execute concurrently and must vie for shared resources. So the OS configuration is a critical consideration when building a multicore system. This chapter describes the different ways one or more OSes can be instantiated in multicore systems, along with many of the more critical controls that architects and programmers have for customizing the behavior of the OS. Included is a discussion of some of the debugging tools that are often shipped with OSes.

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems
Author: Bryon Moyer
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 648
Release: 2013-02-27
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780128073360

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The promise and challenges of multicore arise out of the concept of concurrency. Without concurrency, multicore is no better than a single core. The implications of concurrency both for faster program execution and for mind-numbing debugging are at the same time profound and subtle. Because everything that’s important about multicore relates to concurrency, this chapter tackles the topic at a high level. It presents some of the obvious aspects of attempts to run multiple tasks at the same time, but also introduces the many complications and difficulties that accompany thel benefits.

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems
Author: Bryon Moyer,Paul Stravers
Publsiher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Total Pages: 648
Release: 2013-02-27
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9780128073452

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One of the hardest parts of the process of migrating from single-core to multicore is making programs that used to work well on single-core architectures work correctly, but more quickly, on a new multicore architecture. Careless partitioning of a sequential program can result in subtle, hard-to-detect bugs – some of which may not even be reliably repeatable. This chapter discusses first why it is that such problems occur, and then how to deal with it. The challenge is that solving this problem through manual techniques alone is enormously difficult. But tools have been developed that help with some of the more difficult aspects of program partitioning, so the chapter concludes with a discussion of those tools.