Strategy and Statistics in Clinical Trials

Strategy and Statistics in Clinical Trials
Author: Joseph Tal
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 267
Release: 2011
Genre: Mathematics
ISBN: 9780123869098

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Strategy and Statistics in Clinical Trials is for all individuals engaged in clinical research, including professors, physicians, researchers in corporate and government laboratories, nurses, members of the allied health professions, and post-doctoral and graduate students who are potentially less exposed to understanding the pivotal role of statistics. . Enables nonstatisticians to better understand research processes and statistics' role in these processes . Offers real-life case studies and provides a practical, "how to" guide to biomedical R&D . Delineates the statistical building blocks and concepts of clinical trials . Promotes effective cooperation between statisticians and important other parties.

Innovative Strategies Statistical Solutions and Simulations for Modern Clinical Trials

Innovative Strategies  Statistical Solutions and Simulations for Modern Clinical Trials
Author: Mark Chang,John Balser,Jim Roach,Robin Bliss
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 362
Release: 2019-03-29
Genre: Mathematics
ISBN: 9781351214520

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"This is truly an outstanding book. [It] brings together all of the latest research in clinical trials methodology and how it can be applied to drug development.... Chang et al provide applications to industry-supported trials. This will allow statisticians in the industry community to take these methods seriously." Jay Herson, Johns Hopkins University The pharmaceutical industry's approach to drug discovery and development has rapidly transformed in the last decade from the more traditional Research and Development (R & D) approach to a more innovative approach in which strategies are employed to compress and optimize the clinical development plan and associated timelines. However, these strategies are generally being considered on an individual trial basis and not as part of a fully integrated overall development program. Such optimization at the trial level is somewhat near-sighted and does not ensure cost, time, or development efficiency of the overall program. This book seeks to address this imbalance by establishing a statistical framework for overall/global clinical development optimization and providing tactics and techniques to support such optimization, including clinical trial simulations. Provides a statistical framework for achieve global optimization in each phase of the drug development process. Describes specific techniques to support optimization including adaptive designs, precision medicine, survival-endpoints, dose finding and multiple testing. Gives practical approaches to handling missing data in clinical trials using SAS. Looks at key controversial issues from both a clinical and statistical perspective. Presents a generous number of case studies from multiple therapeutic areas that help motivate and illustrate the statistical methods introduced in the book. Puts great emphasis on software implementation of the statistical methods with multiple examples of software code (both SAS and R). It is important for statisticians to possess a deep knowledge of the drug development process beyond statistical considerations. For these reasons, this book incorporates both statistical and "clinical/medical" perspectives.

The Prevention and Treatment of Missing Data in Clinical Trials

The Prevention and Treatment of Missing Data in Clinical Trials
Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on National Statistics,Panel on Handling Missing Data in Clinical Trials
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 162
Release: 2011-01-21
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780309158145

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Randomized clinical trials are the primary tool for evaluating new medical interventions. Randomization provides for a fair comparison between treatment and control groups, balancing out, on average, distributions of known and unknown factors among the participants. Unfortunately, these studies often lack a substantial percentage of data. This missing data reduces the benefit provided by the randomization and introduces potential biases in the comparison of the treatment groups. Missing data can arise for a variety of reasons, including the inability or unwillingness of participants to meet appointments for evaluation. And in some studies, some or all of data collection ceases when participants discontinue study treatment. Existing guidelines for the design and conduct of clinical trials, and the analysis of the resulting data, provide only limited advice on how to handle missing data. Thus, approaches to the analysis of data with an appreciable amount of missing values tend to be ad hoc and variable. The Prevention and Treatment of Missing Data in Clinical Trials concludes that a more principled approach to design and analysis in the presence of missing data is both needed and possible. Such an approach needs to focus on two critical elements: (1) careful design and conduct to limit the amount and impact of missing data and (2) analysis that makes full use of information on all randomized participants and is based on careful attention to the assumptions about the nature of the missing data underlying estimates of treatment effects. In addition to the highest priority recommendations, the book offers more detailed recommendations on the conduct of clinical trials and techniques for analysis of trial data.

Small Clinical Trials

Small Clinical Trials
Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Committee on Strategies for Small-Number-Participant Clinical Research Trials
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 222
Release: 2001-01-01
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 0309171148

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Clinical trials are used to elucidate the most appropriate preventive, diagnostic, or treatment options for individuals with a given medical condition. Perhaps the most essential feature of a clinical trial is that it aims to use results based on a limited sample of research participants to see if the intervention is safe and effective or if it is comparable to a comparison treatment. Sample size is a crucial component of any clinical trial. A trial with a small number of research participants is more prone to variability and carries a considerable risk of failing to demonstrate the effectiveness of a given intervention when one really is present. This may occur in phase I (safety and pharmacologic profiles), II (pilot efficacy evaluation), and III (extensive assessment of safety and efficacy) trials. Although phase I and II studies may have smaller sample sizes, they usually have adequate statistical power, which is the committee's definition of a "large" trial. Sometimes a trial with eight participants may have adequate statistical power, statistical power being the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when the hypothesis is false. Small Clinical Trials assesses the current methodologies and the appropriate situations for the conduct of clinical trials with small sample sizes. This report assesses the published literature on various strategies such as (1) meta-analysis to combine disparate information from several studies including Bayesian techniques as in the confidence profile method and (2) other alternatives such as assessing therapeutic results in a single treated population (e.g., astronauts) by sequentially measuring whether the intervention is falling above or below a preestablished probability outcome range and meeting predesigned specifications as opposed to incremental improvement.

Strategy and Statistics in Clinical Trials

Strategy and Statistics in Clinical Trials
Author: Joseph Tal
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 278
Release: 2011-06-26
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780123869920

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Strategy and Statistics in Clinical Trials deals with the research processes and the role of statistics in these processes. The book offers real-life case studies and provides a practical, how to guide to biomedical R&D. It describes the statistical building blocks and concepts of clinical trials and promotes effective cooperation between statisticians and important other parties. The discussion is organized around 15 chapters. After providing an overview of clinical development and statistics, the book explores questions when planning clinical trials, along with the attributes of medical products. It then explains how to set research objectives and goes on to consider statistical thinking, estimation, testing procedures, and statistical significance, explanation and prediction. The rest of the book focuses on exploratory and confirmatory clinical trials; hypothesis testing and multiplicity; elements of clinical trial design; choosing trial endpoints; and determination of sample size. This book is for all individuals engaged in clinical research who are interested in a better understanding of statistics, including professional clinical researchers, professors, physicians, and researchers in laboratory. It will also be of interest to corporate and government laboratories, clinical research nurses, members of the allied health professions, and post-doctoral and graduate students. Enables non-statisticians to better understand research processes and statistics' role in these processes Offers real-life case studies and provides a practical, "how to" guide to biomedical R&D Delineates the statistical building blocks and concepts of clinical trials Promotes effective cooperation between statisticians and important other parties

Strategy and Statistics in Clinical Trials

Strategy and Statistics in Clinical Trials
Author: Joseph Tal
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 278
Release: 2011
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: OCLC:1151008614

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Strategy and Statistics in Clinical Trials is for all individuals engaged in clinical research, including professors, physicians, researchers in corporate and government laboratories, nurses, members of the allied health professions, and post-doctoral and graduate students who are potentially less exposed to understanding the pivotal role of statistics. • Enables nonstatisticians to better understand research processes and statistics' role in these processes • Offers real-life case studies and provides a practical, "how to" guide to biomedical R&D • Delineates the statistical building blocks and concepts of clinical trials • Promotes effective cooperation between statisticians and important other parties.

Sharing Clinical Trial Data

Sharing Clinical Trial Data
Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Committee on Strategies for Responsible Sharing of Clinical Trial Data
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 304
Release: 2015-04-20
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780309316323

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Data sharing can accelerate new discoveries by avoiding duplicative trials, stimulating new ideas for research, and enabling the maximal scientific knowledge and benefits to be gained from the efforts of clinical trial participants and investigators. At the same time, sharing clinical trial data presents risks, burdens, and challenges. These include the need to protect the privacy and honor the consent of clinical trial participants; safeguard the legitimate economic interests of sponsors; and guard against invalid secondary analyses, which could undermine trust in clinical trials or otherwise harm public health. Sharing Clinical Trial Data presents activities and strategies for the responsible sharing of clinical trial data. With the goal of increasing scientific knowledge to lead to better therapies for patients, this book identifies guiding principles and makes recommendations to maximize the benefits and minimize risks. This report offers guidance on the types of clinical trial data available at different points in the process, the points in the process at which each type of data should be shared, methods for sharing data, what groups should have access to data, and future knowledge and infrastructure needs. Responsible sharing of clinical trial data will allow other investigators to replicate published findings and carry out additional analyses, strengthen the evidence base for regulatory and clinical decisions, and increase the scientific knowledge gained from investments by the funders of clinical trials. The recommendations of Sharing Clinical Trial Data will be useful both now and well into the future as improved sharing of data leads to a stronger evidence base for treatment. This book will be of interest to stakeholders across the spectrum of research--from funders, to researchers, to journals, to physicians, and ultimately, to patients.

Missing Data in Longitudinal Studies

Missing Data in Longitudinal Studies
Author: Michael J. Daniels,Joseph W. Hogan
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 328
Release: 2008-03-11
Genre: Mathematics
ISBN: 1420011189

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Drawing from the authors’ own work and from the most recent developments in the field, Missing Data in Longitudinal Studies: Strategies for Bayesian Modeling and Sensitivity Analysis describes a comprehensive Bayesian approach for drawing inference from incomplete data in longitudinal studies. To illustrate these methods, the authors employ several data sets throughout that cover a range of study designs, variable types, and missing data issues. The book first reviews modern approaches to formulate and interpret regression models for longitudinal data. It then discusses key ideas in Bayesian inference, including specifying prior distributions, computing posterior distribution, and assessing model fit. The book carefully describes the assumptions needed to make inferences about a full-data distribution from incompletely observed data. For settings with ignorable dropout, it emphasizes the importance of covariance models for inference about the mean while for nonignorable dropout, the book studies a variety of models in detail. It concludes with three case studies that highlight important features of the Bayesian approach for handling nonignorable missingness. With suggestions for further reading at the end of most chapters as well as many applications to the health sciences, this resource offers a unified Bayesian approach to handle missing data in longitudinal studies.

Translational Medicine

Translational Medicine
Author: Dennis Cosmatos,Shein-Chung Chow
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 224
Release: 2008-12-17
Genre: Mathematics
ISBN: 1584888733

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Examines Critical Decisions for Transitioning Lab Science to a Clinical Setting The development of therapeutic pharmaceutical compounds is becoming more expensive, and the success rates for getting such treatments approved for marketing and to the patients is decreasing. As a result, translational medicine (TM) is becoming increasingly important in the healthcare industry – a means of maximizing the consideration and use of information collected as compounds transition from initial lab discovery, through pre-clinical testing, early clinical trials, and late confirmatory studies that lead to regulatory approval of drug release to patients. Translational Medicine: Strategies and Statistical Methods suggests a process for transitioning from the initial lab discovery to the patient’s bedside with minimal disconnect and offers a comprehensive review of statistical design and methodology commonly employed in this bench-to-bedside research. Documents Alternative Research Approaches for Faster and More Accurate Data Judgment Calls Elaborating on how to introduce TM into clinical studies, this authoritative work presents a keen approach to building, executing, and validating statistical models that consider data from various phases of development. It also delineates a truly translational example to help bolster understanding of discussed concepts. This comprehensive guide effectively demonstrates how to overcome obstacles related to successful TM practice. It contains invaluable information for pharmaceutical scientists, research executives, clinicians, and biostatisticians looking to expedite successful implementation of this important process.

Adaptive Treatment Strategies in Practice Planning Trials and Analyzing Data for Personalized Medicine

Adaptive Treatment Strategies in Practice  Planning Trials and Analyzing Data for Personalized Medicine
Author: Michael R. Kosorok,Erica E. M. Moodie
Publsiher: SIAM
Total Pages: 348
Release: 2015-12-08
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9781611974188

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Personalized medicine is a medical paradigm that emphasizes systematic use of individual patient information to optimize that patient's health care, particularly in managing chronic conditions and treating cancer. In the statistical literature, sequential decision making is known as an adaptive treatment strategy (ATS) or a dynamic treatment regime (DTR). The field of DTRs emerges at the interface of statistics, machine learning, and biomedical science to provide a data-driven framework for precision medicine. The authors provide a learning-by-seeing approach to the development of ATSs, aimed at a broad audience of health researchers. All estimation procedures used are described in sufficient heuristic and technical detail so that less quantitative readers can understand the broad principles underlying the approaches. At the same time, more quantitative readers can implement these practices. This book provides the most up-to-date summary of the current state of the statistical research in personalized medicine; contains chapters by leaders in the area from both the statistics and computer sciences fields; and also contains a range of practical advice, introductory and expository materials, and case studies.

Clinical Trial Optimization Using R

Clinical Trial Optimization Using R
Author: Alex Dmitrienko,Erik Pulkstenis
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 319
Release: 2019-03-22
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: 0367261251

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Clinical Trial Optimization Using R explores a unified and broadly applicable framework for optimizing decision making and strategy selection in clinical development, through a series of examples and case studies. It provides the clinical researcher with a powerful evaluation paradigm, as well as supportive R tools, to evaluate and select among simultaneous competing designs or analysis options. It is applicable broadly to statisticians and other quantitative clinical trialists, who have an interest in optimizing clinical trials, clinical trial programs, or associated analytics and decision making. This book presents in depth the Clinical Scenario Evaluation (CSE) framework, and discusses optimization strategies, including the quantitative assessment of tradeoffs. A variety of common development challenges are evaluated as case studies, and used to show how this framework both simplifies and optimizes strategy selection. Specific settings include optimizing adaptive designs, multiplicity and subgroup analysis strategies, and overall development decision-making criteria around Go/No-Go. After this book, the reader will be equipped to extend the CSE framework to their particular development challenges as well.

Controversial Statistical Issues in Clinical Trials

Controversial Statistical Issues in Clinical Trials
Author: Shein-Chung Chow
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 611
Release: 2011-06-15
Genre: Mathematics
ISBN: 9781439849613

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In clinical trial practice, controversial statistical issues inevitably occur regardless of the compliance with good statistical practice and good clinical practice. But by identifying the causes of the issues and correcting them, the study objectives of clinical trials can be better achieved. Controversial Statistical Issues in Clinical Trials covers commonly encountered controversial statistical issues in clinical trials and, whenever possible, makes recommendations to resolve these problems. The book focuses on issues occurring at various stages of clinical research and development, including early-phase clinical development (such as bioavailability/bioequivalence), bench-to-bedside translational research, and late-phase clinical development. Numerous examples illustrate the impact of these issues on the evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the test treatment under investigation. The author also offers recommendations regarding possible resolutions of the problems. Written by one of the preeminent experts in the field, this book provides a useful desk reference and state-of-the art examination of problematic issues in clinical trials for scientists in the pharmaceutical industry, medical/statistical reviewers in government regulatory agencies, and researchers and students in academia.

Regression Modeling Strategies

Regression Modeling Strategies
Author: Frank E. Harrell
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 572
Release: 2013-03-09
Genre: Mathematics
ISBN: 9781475734621

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Many texts are excellent sources of knowledge about individual statistical tools, but the art of data analysis is about choosing and using multiple tools. Instead of presenting isolated techniques, this text emphasizes problem solving strategies that address the many issues arising when developing multivariable models using real data and not standard textbook examples. It includes imputation methods for dealing with missing data effectively, methods for dealing with nonlinear relationships and for making the estimation of transformations a formal part of the modeling process, methods for dealing with "too many variables to analyze and not enough observations," and powerful model validation techniques based on the bootstrap. This text realistically deals with model uncertainty and its effects on inference to achieve "safe data mining".

Statistical Thinking in Clinical Trials

Statistical Thinking in Clinical Trials
Author: Michael A. Proschan
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 270
Release: 2021-11-24
Genre: Mathematics
ISBN: 9781351673105

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Statistical Thinking in Clinical Trials combines a relatively small number of key statistical principles and several instructive clinical trials to gently guide the reader through the statistical thinking needed in clinical trials. Randomization is the cornerstone of clinical trials and randomization-based inference is the cornerstone of this book. Read this book to learn the elegance and simplicity of re-randomization tests as the basis for statistical inference (the analyze as you randomize principle) and see how re-randomization tests can save a trial that required an unplanned, mid-course design change. Other principles enable the reader to quickly and confidently check calculations without relying on computer programs. The `EZ’ principle says that a single sample size formula can be applied to a multitude of statistical tests. The `O minus E except after V’ principle provides a simple estimator of the log odds ratio that is ideally suited for stratified analysis with a binary outcome. The same principle can be used to estimate the log hazard ratio and facilitate stratified analysis in a survival setting. Learn these and other simple techniques that will make you an invaluable clinical trial statistician.

Clinical Trials with Missing Data

Clinical Trials with Missing Data
Author: Michael O'Kelly,Bohdana Ratitch
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 472
Release: 2014-02-14
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9781118762530

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This book provides practical guidance for statisticians, clinicians, and researchers involved in clinical trials in the biopharmaceutical industry, medical and public health organisations. Academics and students needing an introduction to handling missing data will also find this book invaluable. The authors describe how missing data can affect the outcome and credibility of a clinical trial, show by examples how a clinical team can work to prevent missing data, and present the reader with approaches to address missing data effectively. The book is illustrated throughout with realistic case studies and worked examples, and presents clear and concise guidelines to enable good planning for missing data. The authors show how to handle missing data in a way that is transparent and easy to understand for clinicians, regulators and patients. New developments are presented to improve the choice and implementation of primary and sensitivity analyses for missing data. Many SAS code examples are included – the reader is given a toolbox for implementing analyses under a variety of assumptions.