TDP 43 and Neurodegeneration

TDP 43 and Neurodegeneration
Author: Vijay Kumar,Manoj Kumar Jaiswal
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 270
Release: 2021-10-23
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780128204405

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Aggregates of the TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43), are hallmark features of the neurodegenerative diseases Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), with overlapping clinical, genetic and pathological features. TDP-43 and Neurodegeneration: From Bench to Bedside summarizes new findings in TDP-43 pathobiology and proteinopathies. The book summarizes TDP-43’s structure, function, biology, misfolding, aggregation, pathogenesis and therapeutics. It includes autophagy-mediated therapy, role of stress granule, novel genetic, cell culture-based models, systems biology for precision medicine, development of stem cells and mechanism-based therapies that can target ALS and other related neurodegenerative diseases. This book is written for neuroscientists, neurologists, clinicians, advanced graduate students, drug discovery researchers, as well as cellular and molecular biologists involved in ALS, motor neuron disease (MND) and other neurodegenerative disorders. Reviews TDP-43 structure, folding, function, and pathology Identifies TDP-43 role in ALS, FTP, and other neurodegenerative diseases Presents a systems and precision biology perspective of TDP-43 Discusses therapeutics of TDP-43 proteinopathies Translates bench research to application bedside

Advanced Understanding of Neurodegenerative Diseases

Advanced Understanding of Neurodegenerative Diseases
Author: Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 456
Release: 2011-12-16
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9789533075297

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Advanced Understanding of Neurodegenerative Diseases focuses on different types of diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, different tauopathies, Parkinson's disease, prion disease, motor neuron diseases such as multiple sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy. This book provides a clear explanation of different neurodegenerative diseases with new concepts of understand the etiology, pathological mechanisms, drug screening methodology and new therapeutic interventions. Other chapters discuss how hormones and health food supplements affect disease progression of neurodegenerative diseases. From a more technical point of view, some chapters deal with the aggregation of prion proteins in prion diseases. An additional chapter to discuss application of stem cells. This book is suitable for different readers: college students can use it as a textbook; researchers in academic institutions and pharmaceutical companies can take it as updated research information; health care professionals can take it as a reference book, even patients' families, relatives and friends can take it as a good basis to understand neurodegenerative diseases.

Stem Cell Therapy for Organ Failure

Stem Cell Therapy for Organ Failure
Author: Indumathi Somasundaram
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 278
Release: 2015-01-02
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9788132221104

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The book “STEM CELL THERAPY FOR ORGAN FAILURES” edited by Dr. S. Indumathi demonstrates the In Vitro and In vivo therapeutic strategies and applications of pre- and post-natal stem cells for treating the failures of various organ systems of our body in a wide perspective. It explores the past, present and the futuristic approach of the exciting field of stem cells and its intriguing properties involved in tissue repair and regeneration. The prime focus of this volume is to unravel the basic, advanced, therapeutic and translational approaches put-forth so far in the field of stem cells and regenerative medicine at research, pre-clinical and clinical levels. Stem cells has ushered in widespread interest and exciting possibilities for cell based therapies, albeit failures do prevail and small uncontrolled phase I/II studies are only signals generating, rather than definite proof of concept thereby limiting its applicability in curative therapeutics. Despite certain initiatives and meticulous untiring efforts, bringing this basic bench side research into advanced transitional bedside remained a challenge. Thus, this book embarked upon the expanding researches in these areas that seem decisive in improvising regenerative medical therapeutics, thereby leading to further path-breaking studies that cure all health challenges facing mankind. Overall, this book reveals the imperativeness of various stem cell sources and its utility in curative therapeutics.

Geriatric Neurology

Geriatric Neurology
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 616
Release: 2019-12-18
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780128051412

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Geriatric Neurology, Volume 167, serves as an update on the basic biological and behavioral mechanisms underlying the aging process, with an emphasis on neurological aging and state-of-the-art reviews on our understanding of vascular, cognitive, neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases in the elderly. Developed with an eye to providing both the basic underpinnings of age-related changes and the clinical information necessary to aid in diagnostics and treatment, the book serves as a useful volume for students, basic and translational scientists, and practicing clinicians on how to understand and treat common neurological disorders in the elderly. Reviews the foundations of geriatric neurology, including the fundamentals of age associated changes in molecular biology, altered pharmacokinetics and psychopharmacology that make drug therapy in the elderly different from younger patients Contains major advances in our understanding of neurodegenerative diseases Features contributions from world leaders in geriatric neurology–the broadest, most expert coverage available

Pathobiology of Human Disease

Pathobiology of Human Disease
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 5000
Release: 2014-08-01
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780123864574

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Pathobiology of Human Disease bridges traditional morphologic and clinical pathology, molecular pathology, and the underlying basic science fields of cell biology, genetics, and molecular biology, which have opened up a new era of research in pathology and underlie the molecular basis of human disease. The work spans more than 48 different biological and medical fields, in five basic sections: Human Organ Systems Molecular Pathology/Basic Mechanisms of Diseases Animal Models/Other Model Systems Experimental Pathology Clinical Pathology Each article provides a comprehensive overview of the selected topic to inform a broad spectrum of readers from research professionals to advanced undergraduate students. Reviews quantitative advances in the imaging and molecular analysis of human tissue, new microarray technologies for analysis of genetic and chromosomal alterations in normal and diseased cells and tissues, and new transgenic models of human disease using conditional, tissue-specific gene targeting Articles link through to relevant virtual microscopy slides, illustrating side-by-side presentation of "Normal" and "Disease" anatomy and histology images Fully-annotated with many supplementary full color images, graphs, tables, and video files linked to data sets and to live references, enabling researchers to delve deeper and visualize solutions

RNA Metabolism in Neurodegenerative Diseases

RNA Metabolism in Neurodegenerative Diseases
Author: Rita Sattler,Christopher J. Donnelly
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 310
Release: 2018-06-18
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9783319896892

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It has become evident over the last years that abnormalities in RNA processing play a fundamental part in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Cellular viability depends on proper regulation of RNA metabolism and subsequent protein synthesis, which requires the interplay of many processes including transcription, pre--‐mRNA splicing, mRNA editing as well as mRNA stability, transport and translation. Dysfunction in any of these processes, often caused by mutations in the coding and non--‐ coding RNAs, can be very destructive to the cellular environment and consequently impair neural viability. The result of this RNA toxicity can lead to a toxic gain of function or a loss of function, depending on the nature of the mutation. For example, in repeat expansion disorders, such as the newly discovered hexanucleotide repeat expansion in theC9orf72 gene found in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a toxic gain of function leads to the formation of RNA foci and the sequestration of RNA binding proteins (RBPs). This in return leads to a loss of function of those RBPs, which is hypothesized to play a significant part in the disease progression of ALS and FTD. Other toxicities arising from repeat expansions are the formation of RNA foci, bi--‐directional transcription and production of repeat associated non--‐ATG (RAN) translation products. This book will touch upon most of these disease mechanisms triggered by aberrant RNA metabolism and will therefore provide a broad perspective of the role of RNA processing and its dysfunction in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders, including ALS, FTD, Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, spinal muscular atrophy, myotonic dystrophy and ataxias. The proposed authors are leading scientists in the field and are expected to not only discuss their own work, but to be inclusive of historic as well as late breaking discoveries. The compiled chapters will therefore provide a unique collection of novel studies and hypotheses aimed to describe the consequences of altered RNA processing events and its newest molecular players and pathways.

Neuroprotection in Alzheimer s Disease

Neuroprotection in Alzheimer s Disease
Author: Illana Gozes
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 342
Release: 2016-12-30
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780128037126

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Neuroprotection in Alzheimer’s Disease offers a translational point-of-view from both basic and clinical standpoints, putting it on the cusp for further clinical development with its emphasis on nerve cell protection, including the accumulation of knowledge from failed clinical trials and new advances in disease management. This book brings together the latest findings, both basic, and clinical, under the same cover, making it easy for the reader to obtain a complete overview of the state-of-the-field and beyond. Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia, accounting for 60 to 80 percent of dementia cases. It is a progressive brain disease that slowly destroys memory, thinking skills, and eventually, even the ability to carry out the simplest tasks. It is characterized by death of synapses coupled to death nerve cells and brain degeneration which is manifested by loss of cognitive abilities. Understanding neuroprotection in Alzheimer’s disease will pave the path to better disease management and novel therapeutics. Comprehensive reference detailing neuroprotection in Alzheimer’s Disease, with details on nerve cell protection and new advances in disease management Combines the knowledge and points-of-view of both medical doctors and basic scientists, putting the subject at the forefront for further clinical development Edited by one of the leading researchers in Alzheimer’s Disease

Spectrums of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Spectrums of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Author: Christopher A. Shaw,Jessia R. Morrice
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2021-05-04
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9781119745518

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SPECTRUMS OF AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS Discover state-of-the-art research findings on ALS from leading authors and editors in the field In Spectrums of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Heterogeneity, Pathogenesis & Therapeutic Directions, distinguished researchers and editors Dr. Christopher A. Shaw and Jessica R. Morrice deliver a practical and powerful perspective on Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) as a heterogeneous spectrum of disorders. This increasingly accepted point-of-view allows researchers and medical professionals to develop better targeted interventions and more precise therapies. In the book, readers will find chapters on a wide variety of critical issues facing ALS researchers and healthcare practitioners treating ALS sufferers, including animal models of ALS, neuronal support cells known to have a pivotal role in ALS, and current challenges in ALS clinical trials, among others. The authors describe pathologic features common to all cases of ALS and why animal models, though crucial, should be interpreted with caution. Finally, multiple genetic and environmental etiologies of the disease are discussed. Readers will also benefit from the inclusion of: A thorough introduction to ALS as a spectrum disease and the implications for models, therapeutic development and clinical trial design Explorations of the genetic basis of ALS, prospective sALS etiologies, and the involvement of microbiome in ALS Discussions of ALS-PDC and environmental risk factors, protein aggregation in ALS, defects in RNA metabolism in ALS, and the non-cell autonomous nature of ALS and the involvement of glial cells Examinations of animal models of ALS and perspectives on previously failed ALS therapeutics and current therapeutic strategies Perfect for clinical neurologists, healthcare providers and caretakers, clinicians, and researchers studying motor neuron disease, Spectrums of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Heterogeneity, Pathogenesis & Therapeutic Directions is also an indispensable resource for the neurodegenerative research community, neurology residents, and graduate-level neuroscience students.

Human and Animal Models for Translational Research on Neurodegeneration Challenges and Opportunities From South America

Human and Animal Models for Translational Research on Neurodegeneration  Challenges and Opportunities From South America
Author: Agustín Ibáñez,Lucas Sedeño,Adolfo M. García,Robert M.J. Deacon,Patricia Cogram
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2018-06-21
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: 9782889454945

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Neurodegenerative diseases are the most frequent cause of dementia, representing a burden for public health systems (especially in middle and middle-high income countries). Although most research on this issue is concentrated in first-world centers, growing efforts in South America are affording important breakthroughs. This emerging agenda poses new challenges for the region but also new opportunities for the field. This book aims to integrate the community of experts across the globe and the region, and to establish new challenges and developments for future investigation. We present research focused on neurodegenerative research in South America. We introduce studies assessing the interplay among genetic, neural, and behavioral dimensions of these diseases, as well as articles on vulnerability factors, comparisons of findings from various countries, and works promoting multicenter and collaborative networking. More generally, our book covers a broad scope of human-research approaches (behavioral assessment, neuroimaging, electromagnetic techniques, brain connectivity, peripheral measures), animal methodologies (genetics, epigenetics, proteomics, metabolomics, other molecular biology tools), species (all human and non-human animals, sporadic, and genetic versions), and article types (original research, review, and opinion papers). Through this wide-ranging proposal, we hope to introduce a fresh approach to the challenges and opportunities of research on neurodegeneration in South America.

Epitranscriptomics

Epitranscriptomics
Author: Stefan Jurga,Jan Barciszewski
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 632
Release: 2022-08-13
Genre: Science
ISBN: 3030716147

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This book reviews a novel and exciting field of cellular and molecular biology called epitranscriptomics, which focuses on changes in an organism’s cells resulting from the posttranscriptional modification of cellular RNA. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play a crucial role in these posttranscriptional modifications and also support several cellular processes necessary for maintaining RNA homeostasis. Exploring the mechanisms underlying RNA modifications and RBP function is an emerging area of biomedical research, taking the study of gene regulation a step beyond epigenetics. This book reveals that the RNA molecule is not just an information-carrying molecule with some secondary structures. Accordingly, how RNA is modified, regulated, packaged, and controlled is an important aspect. Leading experts address questions such as where the over 170 distinct posttranscriptional RNA modifications are located on the genome, what percentage of mRNAs and noncoding RNAs these modifications include, and how an RNA modification impacts a person’s biology. In closing, the book reviews the role of RNA modifications and RBPs in a variety of diseases and their pathogenesis. Addressing some of the most exciting challenges in epitranscriptomics, this book provides a valuable and engaging resource for researchers in academia and industry studying the phenomena of RNA modification.

Pathology Prevention and Therapeutics of Neurodegenerative Disease

Pathology  Prevention and Therapeutics of Neurodegenerative Disease
Author: Sarika Singh,Neeraj Joshi
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 301
Release: 2018-09-24
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9789811309441

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This book, written by a leading panel of experts in the field of neurosciences, provides a comprehensive overview of the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases as well as the preventive measures. Prevention is important due to the lack of early diagnostic markers and the limitations/ problems of treating neurodegenerative diseases

Tau oligomers

Tau oligomers
Author: Jesus Avila,Naruhiko Sahara
Publsiher: Frontiers E-books
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2014-08-18
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: 9782889192618

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Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) composed of intracellular aggregates of tau protein are a key neuropathological feature of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases, collectively termed tauopathies. The abundance of NFTs has been reported to correlate positively with the severity of cognitive impairment in AD. However, accumulating evidences derived from studies of experimental models have identified that NFTs themselves may not be neurotoxic. Now, many of tau researchers are seeking a “toxic” form of tau protein. Moreover, it was suggested that a “toxic” tau was capable to seed aggregation of native tau protein and to propagate in a prion-like manner. However, the exact neurotoxic tau species remain unclear. Because mature tangles seem to be non-toxic component, “tau oligomers” as the candidate of “toxic” tau have been investigated for more than one decade. In this topic, we will discuss our consensus of “tau oligomers” because the term of “tau oligomers” [e.g. dimer (disulfide bond-dependent or independent), multimer (more than dimer), granular (definition by EM or AFM) and maybe small filamentous aggregates] has been used by each researchers definition. From a biochemical point of view, tau protein has several unique characteristics such as natively unfolded conformation, thermo-stability, acid-stability, and capability of post-translational modifications. Although tau protein research has been continued for a long time, we are still missing the mechanisms of NFT formation. It is unclear how the conversion is occurred from natively unfolded protein to abnormally mis-folded protein. It remains unknown how tau protein can be formed filaments [e.g. paired helical filament (PHF), straight filament and twisted filament] in cells albeit in vitro studies confirmed tau self-assembly by several inducing factors. Researchers are still debating whether tau oligomerization is primary event rather than tau phosphorylation in the tau pathogenesis. Inhibition of either tau phosphorylation or aggregation has been investigated for the prevention of tauopathies, however, it will make an irrelevant result if we don’t know an exact target of neurotoxicity. It is a time to have a consensus of definition, terminology and methodology for the identification of “tau oligomers”.

The End of Alzheimer s

The End of Alzheimer s
Author: Dale Bredesen
Publsiher: Penguin
Total Pages: 320
Release: 2017-08-22
Genre: Health & Fitness
ISBN: 9780735216228

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The instant New York Times and Wall Street Journal bestseller A groundbreaking plan to prevent and reverse Alzheimer’s Disease that fundamentally changes how we understand cognitive decline. Everyone knows someone who has survived cancer, but until now no one knows anyone who has survived Alzheimer's Disease. In this paradigm shifting book, Dale Bredesen, MD, offers real hope to anyone looking to prevent and even reverse Alzheimer's Disease and cognitive decline. Revealing that AD is not one condition, as it is currently treated, but three, The End of Alzheimer’s outlines 36 metabolic factors (micronutrients, hormone levels, sleep) that can trigger "downsizing" in the brain. The protocol shows us how to rebalance these factors using lifestyle modifications like taking B12, eliminating gluten, or improving oral hygiene. The results are impressive. Of the first ten patients on the protocol, nine displayed significant improvement with 3-6 months; since then the protocol has yielded similar results with hundreds more. Now, The End of Alzheimer’s brings new hope to a broad audience of patients, caregivers, physicians, and treatment centers with a fascinating look inside the science and a complete step-by-step plan that fundamentally changes how we treat and even think about AD.

Mechanisms of Secondary Brain Damage

Mechanisms of Secondary Brain Damage
Author: Alexander Baethmann,Oliver Kempski,Ludwig Schürer
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 165
Release: 2012-12-06
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9783709192665

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Great progress has been made in the understanding and prevention of secondary brain damage from acute cerebral disorders, such as trauma and ischemia. Advances may be concerned in particular with better organization and logistics of preclinical emergency care, including rapid arrival of well-trained medical staff on the scene of an accident and of transportation to a competent hospital. Nevertheless, it is a safe assumption that development of secondary brain damage from both intra- and extracranial causes still represents a major factor for the final outcome in severe head injury. Thus, exchanges of experiences and information between various disciplines involved with this important clinical problem - trauma still assumes the number one position as a cause of morbidity and mortality up to an age of 45 years - may provide a basis for in-depth analysis of remaining problems as well as of methods of their solution. This exactly is the purpose of the present publication on concepts and findings pertinent for the general subject of secondary brain damage from various experimental as well as clinical viewpoints. An internationally high-ranking group of experts has been contributing to this collection of reviews on cerebral trauma and ischemia and its adverse sequelae, including cerebral exploration by most modern technologies, such as NMR spectroscopy or PET scanning, among others.

Computational Peptidology

Computational Peptidology
Author: Peng Zhou,Jian Huang
Publsiher: Humana Press
Total Pages: 338
Release: 2015-01-03
Genre: Science
ISBN: 149392284X

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In this volume expert researchers detail in silico methods widely used to study peptides. These include methods and techniques covering the database, molecular docking, dynamics simulation, data mining, de novo design and structure modeling of peptides and protein fragments. Chapters focus on integration and application of technologies to analyze, model, identify, predict, and design a wide variety of bioactive peptides, peptide analogues and peptide drugs, as well as peptide-based biomaterials. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and key tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Computational Peptidology seeks to aid scientists in the further study into this newly rising subfield.