The Art of Cryogenics

The Art of Cryogenics
Author: Guglielmo Ventura,Lara Risegari
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 378
Release: 2010-07-07
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780080554365

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Cryogenics is the study of low temperature interactions - temperatures well below those existing in the natural universe. The book covers a large spectrum of experimental cases, including basic vacuum techniques, indispensable in cryogenics. Guidance in solving experimental problems and numerous numerical examples are given, as are examples of the applications of cryogenics in such areas as underground detectors and space applications. Updated tables of low-temperature data on materials are also presented, and the book is supplemented with a rich bibliography. Researchers (graduate and above) in the fields of physics, engineering and chemistry with an interest in the technology and applications of low-temperature measurements, will find this book invaluable. Experiments described in technical detail Description of newest cryogenic apparatus Applications in multidisciplinary areas Data on cryogenic properties of new materials Current reference review

Survey Report on the State of the art of Cryogenic Thermometry and Signal Conditioners and Their Potential for Standardized Space Hardware

Survey Report on the State of the art of Cryogenic Thermometry and Signal Conditioners and Their Potential for Standardized Space Hardware
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 86
Release: 1978
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: NASA:31769000735145

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Cryogenic Safety

Cryogenic Safety
Author: Thomas J. Peterson,J. G. Weisend II
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 213
Release: 2019-04-26
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9783030165086

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This book describes the current state of the art in cryogenic safety best practice, helping the reader to work with cryogenic systems and materials safely. It brings together information from previous texts, industrial and laboratory safety polices, and recent research papers. Case studies, example problems, and an extensive list of references are included to add to the utility of the text. It describes the unique safety hazards posed by cryogenics in all its guises, including issues associated with the extreme cold of cryogenics, the flammability of some cryogenic fluids, the displacement of oxygen by inert gases boiling off from cryogenic fluids, and the high pressures that can be formed during the volume expansion that occurs when a cryogenic fluid becomes a room temperature gas. A further chapter considers the challenges arising from the behavior of materials at cryogenic temperatures. Many materials are inappropriate for use in cryogenics and can fail, resulting in hazardous conditions. Despite these hazards, work at cryogenic temperatures can be performed safely. The book also discusses broader safety issues such as hazard analysis, establishment of a safe work culture and lessons learned from cryogenic safety in accelerator labs. This book is designed to be useful to everyone affected by cryogenic hazards regardless of their expertise in cryogenics.

Cryogenic Engineering and Technologies

Cryogenic Engineering and Technologies
Author: Dr. Zuyu Zhao,Dr. Chao Wang,Brian Pollard
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 385
Release: 2019-10-16
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780429532047

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Cryogen-free cryogenics is leading a revolution in research and industry by its significant advantages over traditional liquid helium systems. This is the first overview for the field, covering the key technologies, conceptual design, fabrication, operation, performance, and applications of these systems. The contents cover important topics such as the operating principles of 4K cryocoolers, enabling technologies (including vibration reduction) for cryogen free systems, the cryogen- free superconducting magnet, and cryogen-free systems that reach mK. It highlights the wide range of applications in materials science, quantum physics, astronomy and space science, medical sciences and etc. Key features: Introduce technologies and practical know-how employed for cryogen-free systems of using 4 K cryocoolers to replace liquid helium; Address state of the arts of cryogen-free superconducting magnets, sub-kelvin refrigeration systems of He-3 sorption cooler, adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) and dilution refrigerators (DR). Discuss applications of cryogen-free systems in modern instruments and equipment.

Matter and Methods at Low Temperatures

Matter and Methods at Low Temperatures
Author: Frank Pobell
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 319
Release: 2013-04-17
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9783662085783

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The aim of this book is to provide information about performing experi ments at low temperatures, as well as basic facts concerning the low tem perature properties of liquid and solid matter. To orient the reader, I begin with chapters on these low temperature properties. The major part of the book is then devoted to refrigeration techniques and to the physics on which they are based. Of equal importance, of course, are the definition and measurement of temperature; hence low temperature thermometry is extensively discussed in subsequent chapters. Finally, I describe a variety of design and construction techniques which have turned out to be useful over the years. The content of the book is based on the three-hour-per-week lecture course which I have given several times at the University of Bayreuth between 1983 and 1991. It should be particularly suited for advanced stu dents whose intended masters (diploma) or Ph.D. subject is experimental condensed matter physics at low temperatures. However, I believe that the book will also be of value to experienced scientists, since it describes sev eral very recent advances in experimental low temperature physics and technology, for example, new developments in nuclear refrigeration and thermometry.

Cryogenic Helium Refrigeration for Middle and Large Powers

Cryogenic Helium Refrigeration for Middle and Large Powers
Author: Guy Gistau Baguer
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 691
Release: 2020-10-27
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9783030516772

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This book offers a practical introduction to helium refrigeration engineering, taking a logical and structured approach to the design, building, commissioning, operation and maintenance of refrigeration systems. It begins with a short refresher of cryogenic principles, and a review of the theory of heat exchangers, allowing the reader to understand the importance of the heat exchanger role in the various thermodynamic cycle structures. The cycles are considered from the simplest (Joule Thomson) to the most complicated ones for the very large refrigeration plants and, finally, those operating at temperatures lower than 4.5 K. The focus then turns to the operation, ability and limitations of the main components, including room temperature cycle screw compressors, heat exchangers, cryogenic expansion turbines, cryogenic centrifugal compressors and circulators. The book also describes the basic principles of process control and studies the operating situations of helium plants, with emphasis on high level efficiency. A major issue is helium purity, and the book explains why helium is polluted, how to purify it and then how to check its purity, to ensure that all components are filled with pure helium prior to starting. Although the intention of the book is not to design thermodynamic cycles, it is of interest to a designer or operator of a cryogenic system to perform some simplified calculations to get an idea of how components or systems are behaving. Throughout the book, such calculations are generally performed using Microsoft® Excel and the Gaspak® or Hepak® software.

Physics of Cryogenics

Physics of Cryogenics
Author: Bahman Zohuri
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 726
Release: 2017-11-17
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780128145203

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Physics of Cryogenics: An Ultralow Temperature Phenomenon discusses the significant number of advances that have been made during the last few years in a variety of cryocoolers, such as Brayton, Joule-Thomson, Stirling, pulse tube, Gifford-McMahon and magnetic refrigerators. The book reviews various approaches taken to improve reliability, a major driving force for new research areas. The advantages and disadvantages of different cycles are compared, and the latest improvements in each of these cryocoolers is discussed. The book starts with the thermodynamic fundamentals, followed by the definition of cryogenic and the associated science behind low temperature phenomena and properties. This book is an ideal resource for scientists, engineers and graduate and senior undergraduate students who need a better understanding of the science of cryogenics and related thermodynamics. Defines the fundamentals of thermodynamics that are associated with cryogenic processes Provides an overview of the history of the development of cryogenic technology Includes new, low temperature tables written by the author Deals with the application of cryogenics to preserve objects at very low temperature Explains how cryogenic phenomena work for human cell and human body preservations and new medical approaches

Cryogenic Process Engineering

Cryogenic Process Engineering
Author: Klaus D. Timmerhaus,Thomas M. Flynn
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 612
Release: 2013-06-29
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9781468487565

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Cryogenics, a term commonly used to refer to very low temperatures, had its beginning in the latter half of the last century when man learned, for the first time, how to cool objects to a temperature lower than had ever existed na tu rally on the face of the earth. The air we breathe was first liquefied in 1883 by a Polish scientist named Olszewski. Ten years later he and a British scientist, Sir James Dewar, liquefied hydrogen. Helium, the last of the so-caBed permanent gases, was finally liquefied by the Dutch physicist Kamerlingh Onnes in 1908. Thus, by the beginning of the twentieth century the door had been opened to astrange new world of experimentation in which aB substances, except liquid helium, are solids and where the absolute temperature is only a few microdegrees away. However, the point on the temperature scale at which refrigeration in the ordinary sense of the term ends and cryogenics begins has ne ver been weB defined. Most workers in the field have chosen to restrict cryogenics to a tem perature range below -150°C (123 K). This is a reasonable dividing line since the normal boiling points of the more permanent gases, such as helium, hydrogen, neon, nitrogen, oxygen, and air, lie below this temperature, while the more common refrigerants have boiling points that are above this temperature. Cryogenic engineering is concerned with the design and development of low-temperature systems and components.