The Cellular Secretome and Organ Crosstalk

The Cellular Secretome and Organ Crosstalk
Author: Juergen Eckel
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2018-06-12
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780128097199

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The Cellular Secretome and Organ Crosstalk focuses on the release of peptides and proteins from different organs and their specific functions in metabolic regulation and cell- and organ crosstalk. The book is written for experts in the field, however, for each topic, helpful references are included. The book also includes technical sections that summarize the state-of-the-art of secretome and crosstalk analysis. This book fulfills the need for a resource that comprehensively describes the current knowledge of secretome biology in health and disease. Communication between different organs involves lipids and other small molecules and a host of proteins and peptides comprising the secretome of different organs (organokinome). More than 600 adipokines have been identified, and an increasing number of hepatokines and myokines have recently been discovered with mostly unknown physiological impact. Importantly, an aberrant signature of the organokinome may be critically underlying a variety of metabolic diseases and may determine the individual susceptibility to disease development. Summarizes our current knowledge on the secretome of different cells and tissues Dissects auto-, para- and endocrine functions of major secreted peptides and proteins Analyzes the secretory malfunction of different cells and its impact for disease development Authored by a leader in the field, presenting a coherent view on this very complex topic

Scientific Principles of Adipose Stem Cells

Scientific Principles of Adipose Stem Cells
Author: Lauren Kokai,Kacey Marra,J. Peter Rubin
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 484
Release: 2021-09-01
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780128193778

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Scientific Principles of Adipose Stem Cells provides readers with in-depth and expert knowledge on adipose stem cells, their developmental biologic origins, foundational research on ASC signaling mechanisms and immunomodulatory properties, and clinical insights into applications in regenerative medicine. Topics covered include basic adipose stem cell developmental biology and mechanisms of regulating self-renewal and activation in the stem cell niche, important methods for isolation and characterizing ASCs, and data on the impact on human demographics (age, sex, BMI) on ASC phenotype. A section devoted to ASC biology, ASCs for stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine, and ASCs in tissue engineering applications are also included. The book is written for scientists and clinicians who are broadly familiar with stem cells and basic cell biology principles and those seeking advanced information on adipose stem cells. Coverage of basic adipose stem cell developmental biology (maturation process during embryogenesis) and mechanisms of regulating self-renewal and activation in the stem cell niche Includes important methods for isolation and characterizing ASCs, as well as known data any impact of human demographics (age, sex, BMI) on ASC phenotype An entire section dedicated to ASC biology, additional sections will be devoted to ASCs for stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine, as well as ASCs in tissue engineering applications

The Role of the Muscle Secretome in Health and Disease

The Role of the Muscle Secretome in Health and Disease
Author: Céline Aguer,Emanuele Loro,Domenico Di Raimondo
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2020-11-19
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9782889661305

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Physical Exercise for Human Health

Physical Exercise for Human Health
Author: Junjie Xiao
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 459
Release: 2020-04-27
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9789811517921

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This book shares the latest findings on exercise and its benefits in preventing and ameliorating numerous diseases that are of worldwide concern. Addressing the role of exercise training as an effective method for the prevention and treatment of various disease, the book is divided into eleven parts: 1) An Overview of the Beneficial Effects of Exercise on Health and Performance, 2) The Physiological Responses to Exercise, 3) Exercise and Metabolic Diseases, 4) Exercise and Cardiovascular Diseases, 5) Exercise and Musculoskeletal Diseases, 6) Exercise and Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases, 7) Exercise and the Respiration System, 8) Exercise and Immunity, 9) Exercise and HIV/AIDS, 10) Exercise and Neuropsychiatric Disorders, and 11) Future Prospects. Given its scope, the book will be particularly useful for researchers and students in the fields of physical therapy, physiology, medicine, genetics and cell biology, as well as researchers and physicians with a range of medical specialties.

Current Challenges for Targeting Brown Fat Thermogenesis to Combat Obesity

Current Challenges for Targeting Brown Fat Thermogenesis to Combat Obesity
Author: Takeshi Yoneshiro,Matthias Johannes Betz,Patrick C. N. Rensen,Rosalia Rodriguez-Rodriguez
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2020-12-28
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9782889662821

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The Biology and Therapeutic Application of Mesenchymal Cells Set

The Biology and Therapeutic Application of Mesenchymal Cells   Set
Author: Kerry Atkinson
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 1048
Release: 2017-01-17
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9781118907511

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The Biology and Therapeutic Application of Mesenchymal Cells comprehensively describes the cellular and molecular biology of mesenchymal stem cells and mesenchymal stromal cells, describing their therapeutic potential in a wide variety of preclinical models of human diseases and their mechanism of action in these preclinical models. Chapters also discuss the current status of the use of mesenchymal stem and stromal cells in clinical trials in a wide range of human diseases and disorders, for many of which there are limited, or no other, therapeutic avenues. • Provides coverage on both the biology of mesenchymal stem cells and stromal cells, and their therapeutic applications • Describes the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem and stromal cells in a wide variety of preclinical models of human diseases and their mechanism of action in these preclinical models • Discusses the current status of mesenchymal stem and stromal cells in clinical trials in a wide range of human diseases and disorders, for many of which there are limited, or no other, therapeutic avenues • Written and edited by leaders in the field The Biology and Therapeutic Application of Mesenchymal Cells is an invaluable resource for those studying stem cells, cell biology, genetics, gene or cell therapy, or regenerative medicine. About the Author Kerry Atkinson, MBBS MD DTM&H FRCP FRACP, is an Adjunct Professor at the University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research in Brisbane, Australia, an Adjunct Professor in the Stem Cell Laboratories, Queensland University of Technology at the Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia and a Specialist in Internal Medicine at the Salisbury Medical Centre, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

A New Component of Skeletal Muscle Secretome Impact on Beta Cells and Prevent TNF a and Cytomix Effect on Beta cells

A New Component of Skeletal Muscle Secretome Impact on Beta Cells and Prevent TNF a and Cytomix Effect on Beta cells
Author: Bouzakri Karim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2017
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: OCLC:1163836788

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A new positive component of skeletal muscle secretome impact on beta cells and prevent TNF-alpha and cytomix effect on beta cells.Karim Bouzakri, Julien Cherfan, Harzo Hamdard, Carole Mura, Claude Peronet, and Michel Pinget.UMR DIATHEC, EA 7294, Centre Europu00e9en du2019Etude du Diabu00e8te, Universitu00e9 de Strasbourg (UdS), Boulevard Renu00e9 Leriche 67200 Strasbourg, FranceBackground and aims: Inter-organ crosstalk including possible communication between skeletal muscle and beta cells is an important component of normal physiology that may contribute towards the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Indeed, skeletal muscle cells secrete different sets of soluble proteins (myokines) which could act positively or negatively (in health and disease respectively) on the function of distant tissues including pancreatic islets. We have observed that conditioned medium from skeletal muscle of healthy individuals has positive effects on beta cell function. A new myokine, was identified as a cytokine regulated by muscle fiber type. The major aim of this study was to explore the impact of our new myokine (Myo X) on primary sorted beta cells under control conditions and after exposure to TNF-u03b1 or insulin resistance condition medium from skeletal muscle cells.Materials and methods: All studies were performed using sorted rat primary beta cells and human islets exposed to Myo X for 24h. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and glucagon secretion was measured by radioimmunoassay and ELISA after 1h at 2.8 mmol/l and/or 1h at 16.7mmol/l glucose. Cell death and proliferation were measured by TUNEL assay and BrdU incorporation respectively. To study the potential beneficial/protective effects of our myokine, beta cells were exposed to it for 24h alone or with addition 20 ng/ml TNF-u03b1 alone or insulin resistance condition medium from skeletal muscle cells. Data are mean u00b1 SE for 5-8 independent experiments.Results: Myo X treatment of rat primary beta cells and human islets for 24h increased GSIS (control: 12.4 u00b1 3.2% content/h; 1u00b5g/ml Myo X: 15.08 u00b1 3.8%*; 10 u00b5g/ml Myo X: 14.1 u00b1 1.8%*; *p

Myokines Adipokines Cytokines in Muscle Pathophysiology

Myokines  Adipokines  Cytokines in Muscle Pathophysiology
Author: Valentina Di Felice,Dario Coletti,Marilia Seelaender
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2020-12-24
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9782889662722

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Muscle Regeneration

Muscle Regeneration
Author: Alexander Mauro,Richard Bischoff
Publsiher: Raven Press (ID)
Total Pages: 560
Release: 1979
Genre: Muscles
ISBN: UOM:39015015064226

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The Plasticity of Skeletal Muscle

The Plasticity of Skeletal Muscle
Author: Kunihiro Sakuma
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 292
Release: 2017-03-01
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9789811032929

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This book discusses recent advances and various topics in plasticity of skeletal muscle from the perspectives of morphology, biological function, and clinical applications. Skeletal muscle is a highly plastic organ to adapt to environmental various demands, appears to endocrine various myokines, which flow into blood to protect the recognizing function of brain and inhibit the appearance of several cancer tumorigenesis. The book deals with current stem-cell based, pharmacological, and nutritional therapies for muscle wasting (sarcopenia, cachexia, and muscular dystrophy). It also explains the roles of biological mediators such as PGC-1, transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPC), and AMPK in modulating muscle function. The functional roles of ubiquitin-proteasome system, autophagy-dependent signaling in muscle homeostasis, ribosome biogenesis, and redox regulation of mechanotransduction to modulate skeletal muscle mass are also covered. It is an essential resource for physicians, researchers, post-docs as well as graduate students in the field of sports science including rehabilitation therapy, exercise physiology, exercise biochemistry, and molecular biology dealing with skeletal muscle.

Extracellular Matrix Degradation

Extracellular Matrix Degradation
Author: William C. Parks,Robert Mecham
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 255
Release: 2011-04-07
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9783642168611

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Regulated turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important component of tissue homeostasis. In recent years, the enzymes that participate in, and control ECM turnover have been the focus of research that touches on development, tissue remodeling, inflammation and disease. This volume in the Biology of Extracellular Matrix series provides a review of the known classes of proteases that degrade ECM both outside and inside the cell. The specific EMC proteases that are discussed include cathepsins, bacterial collagenases, matrix metalloproteinases, meprins, serine proteases, and elastases. The volume also discusses the domains responsible for specific biochemical characteristics of the proteases and the physical interactions that occur when the protease interacts with substrate. The topics covered in this volume provide an important context for understanding the role that matrix-degrading proteases play in normal tissue remodeling and in diseases such as cancer and lung disease.

Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Abdominal Obesity

Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Abdominal Obesity
Author: Ronald Ross Watson
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 560
Release: 2014-02-26
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780124079342

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Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Abdominal Obesity focuses on the important roles that exercise, dietary changes, and foods play in promoting as well as reducing visceral fat. Nutritionists, dieticians, and healthcare providers seeking to address the abdominal obesity epidemic will use this comprehensive resource as a tool in their long-term goal of preventing chronic diseases, especially heart, vascular, and diabetic diseases. Experts from a broad range of disciplines are involved in dealing with the consequences of excessive abdominal fat: cardiology, diabetes research, studies of lipids, endocrinology and metabolism, nutrition, obesity, and exercise physiology. They have contributed chapters that define a range of dietary approaches to reducing risk and associated chronic diseases. They begin by defining visceral obesity and its major outcomes; they also discuss the importance and the challenges of dietary approaches to reduce abdominal obesity, as compared to clinical approaches, with major costs and risks. Offers detailed, well-documented reviews outlining the various dietary approaches to visceral obesity with their benefits and failures Includes chapters on types of foods, exercise, and supplements in reducing obesity and its chronic clinical companions, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease Helps nutritionists, dieticians, and healthcare providers approach patients in making decision about nutritional therapies and clinical treatments for abdominal obesity, from an evidence-based perspective

Muscle and Exercise Physiology

Muscle and Exercise Physiology
Author: Jerzy A. Zoladz
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 618
Release: 2018-11-05
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780128145944

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Muscle and Exercise Physiology is a comprehensive reference covering muscle and exercise physiology, from basic science to advanced knowledge, including muscle power generating capabilities, muscle energetics, fatigue, aging and the cardio-respiratory system in exercise performance. Topics presented include the clinical importance of body responses to physical exercise, including its impact on oxygen species production, body immune system, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, cardiac energetics and its functional reserves, and the health-related effects of physical activity and inactivity. Novel topics like critical power, ROS and muscle, and heart muscle physiology are explored. This book is ideal for researchers and scientists interested in muscle and exercise physiology, as well as students in the biological sciences, including medicine, human movements and sport sciences. Contains basic and state-of-the-art knowledge on the most important issues of muscle and exercise physiology, including muscle and body adaptation to physical training, the impact of aging and physical activity/inactivity Provides both the basic and advanced knowledge required to understand mechanisms that limit physical capacity in both untrained people and top class athletes Covers advanced content on muscle power generating capabilities, muscle energetics, fatigue and aging

Control of Energy Metabolism

Control of Energy Metabolism
Author: Britton Chance,Ronald W. Estabrook,John R. Williamson
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 454
Release: 2014-05-12
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9781483271668

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Control of Energy Metabolism: A Colloquium of the Johnson Research Foundation focuses on the processes, reactions, and approaches involved in the control of energy metabolism. The selection first offers information on the respiratory chain as a model for metabolic control in multi-enzyme systems, dynamics and control in cellular reactions, and computer-based analysis of biochemical data. The text then explores purification and properties of rabbit skeletal muscle phosphofructokinase; multiple forms of heart phosphofructokinase; and mechanisms of inhibition and activation of phosphofructokinase in Novikoff ascites tumor cells. Discussions focus on the properties of purified phosphofructokinase; effect of heart extracts on reactivation of phosphofructokinase; active and inactive forms of phosphofructokinase; and effect of hexose phosphate and adenylic nucleotides on reactivation of phosphofructokinase. The manuscript takes a look at enzyme and metabolite profiles; coordinated stimulation of hexokinase and phosphofructokinase by phosphate in a reconstituted system of glycolysis; control of hexokinase in ascites tumor glycolysis; and cation flux across the mitochondrial membrane as a possible pacemaker of tissue metabolism. The selection is a vital reference for biochemists and researchers interested in the control of energy metabolism.

Pericyte Biology in Different Organs

Pericyte Biology in Different Organs
Author: Alexander Birbrair
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 277
Release: 2019-04-01
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9783030110932

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The present book is an attempt to describe the most recent developments in the area of pericyte biology which is one of the emergent hot topics in the field of molecular and cellular biology today. Here, we present a selected collection of thirteen detailed chapters on what we know so far about pericytes in distinct organs in physiological and pathological conditions. Further, it provides an update on the most novel functions attributed to these cells and will introduce a newer generation of researchers and scientists to the importance of these cells, ranging from their discovery in different organs through current state-of-the-science. It will be invaluable for both advanced cell biology students as well as researchers in cell biology, stem cells and vascular research. This volume explores pericytes' physiologic roles in different tissues, ranging from the pancreas, lungs and liver through skeletal muscle, gut, retina and more. Together with its companion volumes Pericyte Biology in Disease and Pericyte Biology – Novel Concepts, Pericyte Biology in Different Organs presents a comprehensive update on the latest information and most novel functions attributed to pericytes. To those researchers newer to this area, it will be useful to have the background information on these cells' unique history. It will be invaluable for both advanced cell biology students as well as researchers in cell biology, stem cells and researchers or clinicians involved with specific organs.