The Effects of Drug Abuse on the Human Nervous System

The Effects of Drug Abuse on the Human Nervous System
Author: Bertha Madras,Michael Kuhar
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 624
Release: 2013-11-15
Genre: Psychology
ISBN: 9780124186859

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Drug use and abuse continues to thrive in contemporary society worldwide and the instance and damage caused by addiction increases along with availability. The Effects of Drug Abuse on the Human Nervous System presents objective, state-of-the-art information on the impact of drug abuse on the human nervous system, with each chapter offering a specific focus on nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamine, MDMA, sedative-hypnotics, and designer drugs. Other chapters provide a context for drug use, with overviews of use and consequences, epidemiology and risk factors, genetics of use and treatment success, and strategies to screen populations and provide appropriate interventions. The book offers meaningful, relevant and timely information for scientists, health-care professionals and treatment providers. A comprehensive reference on the effects of drug addiction on the human nervous system Focuses on core drug addiction issues from nicotine, cocaine, methamphetamine, alcohol, and other commonly abused drugs Includes foundational science chapters on the biology of addiction Details challenges in diagnosis and treatment options

Drugs Brains and Behavior

Drugs  Brains  and Behavior
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 29
Release: 2007
Genre: Brain
ISBN: MINN:31951D025861296

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"Drugs, Brains, and Behavior" is an online textbook written by C. Robin Timmons and Leonard W. Hamilton. The book was previously published by Prentice Hall, Inc. in 1990 as "Principles of Behavioral Pharmacology." The authors attempt to develop an understanding of the interpenetration of brain, behavior and environment. They discuss the chemistry of behavior in both the literal sense of neurochemistry and the figurative sense of an analysis of the reactions with the environment.

Alcohol and the Nervous System

Alcohol and the Nervous System
Author: Edith V. Sullivan,Adolf Pfefferbaum
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 704
Release: 2014-10-08
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780444626226

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Alcohol is the most widely used drug in the world, yet alcoholism remains a serious addiction affecting nearly 20 million Americans. Our current understanding of alcohol's effect on brain structure and related functional damage is being revolutionized by genetic research, basic neuroscience, brain imaging science, and systematic study of cognitive, sensory, and motor abilities. Volume 125 of the Handbook of Clinical Neurology is a comprehensive, in-depth treatise of studies on alcohol and the brain covering the basic understanding of alcohol's effect on the central nervous system, the diagnosis and treatment of alcoholism, and prospect for recovery. The chapters within will be of interest to clinical neurologists, neuropsychologists, and researchers in all facets and levels of the neuroscience of alcohol and alcoholism. The first focused reference specifically on alcohol and the brain Details our current understanding of how alcohol impacts the central nervous system Covers clinical and social impact of alcohol abuse disorders and the biomedical consequences of alcohol abuse Includes section on neuroimaging of neurochemical markers and brain function

Drugs Addiction and the Brain

Drugs  Addiction  and the Brain
Author: George F. Koob,Michael A. Arends,Michel Le Moal
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 350
Release: 2014-07-12
Genre: Psychology
ISBN: 9780123869593

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Drugs, Addiction, and the Brain explores the molecular, cellular, and neurocircuitry systems in the brain that are responsible for drug addiction. Common neurobiological elements are emphasized that provide novel insights into how the brain mediates the acute rewarding effects of drugs of abuse and how it changes during the transition from initial drug use to compulsive drug use and addiction. The book provides a detailed overview of the pathophysiology of the disease. The information provided will be useful for neuroscientists in the field of addiction, drug abuse treatment providers, and undergraduate and postgraduate students who are interested in learning the diverse effects of drugs of abuse on the brain. Full-color circuitry diagrams of brain regions implicated in each stage of the addiction cycle Actual data figures from original sources illustrating key concepts and findings Introduction to basic neuropharmacology terms and concepts Introduction to numerous animal models used to study diverse aspects of drug use. Thorough review of extant work on the neurobiology of addiction

Imaging of the Human Brain in Health and Disease

Imaging of the Human Brain in Health and Disease
Author: Philip Seeman,Bertha Madras
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 532
Release: 2013-11-15
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780124186842

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Brain imaging technology remains at the forefront of advances in both our understanding of the brain and our ability to diagnose and treat brain disease and disorders. Imaging of the Human Brain in Health and Disease examines the localization of neurotransmitter receptors in the nervous system of normal, healthy humans and compares that with humans who are suffering from various neurologic diseases. Opening chapters introduce the basic science of imaging neurotransmitters, including sigma, acetylcholine, opioid, and dopamine receptors. Imaging the healthy and diseased brain includes brain imaging of anger, pain, autism, the release of dopamine, the impact of cannabinoids, and Alzheimer's disease. This book is a valuable companion to a wide range of scholars, students, and researchers in neuroscience, clinical neurology, and psychiatry, and provides a detailed introduction to the application of advanced imaging to the treatment of brain disorders and disease. A focused introduction to imaging healthy and diseased brains Focuses on the primary neurotransmitter release Includes sigma, acetylcholine, opioid, and dopamine receptors Presents the imaging of healthy and diseased brains via anger, pain, autism, and Alzheimer's disease

Neural Mechanisms of Addiction

Neural Mechanisms of Addiction
Author: Mary Torregrossa
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 306
Release: 2018-08-24
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780128123317

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Neural Mechanisms of Addiction is the only book available that synthesizes the latest research in the field into a single, accessible resource covering all aspects of how addiction develops and persists in the brain. The book summarizes our most recent understanding on the neural mechanisms underlying addiction. It also examines numerous biobehavioral aspects of addiction disorders, such as reinforcement learning, reward, cognitive dysfunction, stress, and sleep and circadian rhythms that are not covered in any other publication. Readers with find the most up-to-date information on which to build a foundation for their future research in this expanding field. Combining chapters from leading researchers and thought leaders, this book is an indispensable guide for students and investigators engaged in addiction research. Transcends multiple neural, neurochemical and behavioral domains Summarizes advances in the field of addiction research since the advent of optogenetics Discusses the most current, leading theories of addiction, including molecular mechanisms and dopamine mechanisms

Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements Examining Safety

Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements  Examining Safety
Author: Leslie Pray,Food and Nutrition Board,Planning Committee for a Workshop on Potential Health Hazards Associated with Consumption of Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements,Ann L. Yaktine,Diana Pankevich,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Institute of Medicine
Publsiher: National Academy Press
Total Pages: 212
Release: 2014-04-23
Genre: Health & Fitness
ISBN: 0309297494

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"Caffeine in Food and Dietary Supplements" is the summary of a workshop convened by the Institute of Medicine in August 2013 to review the available science on safe levels of caffeine consumption in foods, beverages, and dietary supplements and to identify data gaps. Scientists with expertise in food safety, nutrition, pharmacology, psychology, toxicology, and related disciplines; medical professionals with pediatric and adult patient experience in cardiology, neurology, and psychiatry; public health professionals; food industry representatives; regulatory experts; and consumer advocates discussed the safety of caffeine in food and dietary supplements, including, but not limited to, caffeinated beverage products, and identified data gaps. Caffeine, a central nervous stimulant, is arguably the most frequently ingested pharmacologically active substance in the world. Occurring naturally in more than 60 plants, including coffee beans, tea leaves, cola nuts and cocoa pods, caffeine has been part of innumerable cultures for centuries. But the caffeine-in-food landscape is changing. There are an array of new caffeine-containing energy products, from waffles to sunflower seeds, jelly beans to syrup, even bottled water, entering the marketplace. Years of scientific research have shown that moderate consumption by healthy adults of products containing naturally-occurring caffeine is not associated with adverse health effects. The changing caffeine landscape raises concerns about safety and whether any of these new products might be targeting populations not normally associated with caffeine consumption, namely children and adolescents, and whether caffeine poses a greater health risk to those populations than it does for healthy adults. This report delineates vulnerable populations who may be at risk from caffeine exposure; describes caffeine exposure and risk of cardiovascular and other health effects on vulnerable populations, including additive effects with other ingredients and effects related to pre-existing conditions; explores safe caffeine exposure levels for general and vulnerable populations; and identifies data gaps on caffeine stimulant effects.

Pathways of Addiction

Pathways of Addiction
Author: Institute of Medicine,Committee on Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 328
Release: 1996-10-01
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 0309175380

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Drug abuse persists as one of the most costly and contentious problems on the nation's agenda. Pathways of Addiction meets the need for a clear and thoughtful national research agenda that will yield the greatest benefit from today's limited resources. The committee makes its recommendations within the public health framework and incorporates diverse fields of inquiry and a range of policy positions. It examines both the demand and supply aspects of drug abuse. Pathways of Addiction offers a fact-filled, highly readable examination of drug abuse issues in the United States, describing findings and outlining research needs in the areas of behavioral and neurobiological foundations of drug abuse. The book covers the epidemiology and etiology of drug abuse and discusses several of its most troubling health and social consequences, including HIV, violence, and harm to children. Pathways of Addiction looks at the efficacy of different prevention interventions and the many advances that have been made in treatment research in the past 20 years. The book also examines drug treatment in the criminal justice setting and the effectiveness of drug treatment under managed care. The committee advocates systematic study of the laws by which the nation attempts to control drug use and identifies the research questions most germane to public policy. Pathways of Addiction provides a strategic outline for wise investment of the nation's research resources in drug abuse. This comprehensive and accessible volume will have widespread relevance--to policymakers, researchers, research administrators, foundation decisionmakers, healthcare professionals, faculty and students, and concerned individuals.

Magnesium in the Central Nervous System

Magnesium in the Central Nervous System
Author: Robert Vink,Mihai Nechifor
Publsiher: University of Adelaide Press
Total Pages: 342
Release: 2011
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780987073051

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The brain is the most complex organ in our body. Indeed, it is perhaps the most complex structure we have ever encountered in nature. Both structurally and functionally, there are many peculiarities that differentiate the brain from all other organs. The brain is our connection to the world around us and by governing nervous system and higher function, any disturbance induces severe neurological and psychiatric disorders that can have a devastating effect on quality of life. Our understanding of the physiology and biochemistry of the brain has improved dramatically in the last two decades. In particular, the critical role of cations, including magnesium, has become evident, even if incompletely understood at a mechanistic level. The exact role and regulation of magnesium, in particular, remains elusive, largely because intracellular levels are so difficult to routinely quantify. Nonetheless, the importance of magnesium to normal central nervous system activity is self-evident given the complicated homeostatic mechanisms that maintain the concentration of this cation within strict limits essential for normal physiology and metabolism. There is also considerable accumulating evidence to suggest alterations to some brain functions in both normal and pathological conditions may be linked to alterations in local magnesium concentration. This book, containing chapters written by some of the foremost experts in the field of magnesium research, brings together the latest in experimental and clinical magnesium research as it relates to the central nervous system. It offers a complete and updated view of magnesiums involvement in central nervous system function and in so doing, brings together two main pillars of contemporary neuroscience research, namely providing an explanation for the molecular mechanisms involved in brain function, and emphasizing the connections between the molecular changes and behavior. It is the untiring efforts of those magnesium researchers who have dedicated their lives to unraveling the mysteries of magnesiums role in biological systems that has inspired the collation of this volume of work.

Drugs and Human Behavior

Drugs and Human Behavior
Author: Denise De Micheli,André Luiz Monezi Andrade,Richard Alecsander Reichert,Eroy Aparecida da Silva,Bruno de Oliveira Pinheiro,Fernanda Machado Lopes
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 568
Release: 2021-04-30
Genre: Psychology
ISBN: 9783030628550

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This book presents the main concepts and tools for the adoption of a biopsychosocial approach to psychotropic substances use and abuse management, prevention and treatment. It aims to provide resources for the design and implementation of health strategies and public policies to deal with psychotropic substances use in a way that fully recognizes the complex articulations between its biological, psychological and social aspects, taking these three dimensions into account to develop both health and social care policies and strategies aimed at psychotropic substance users. The book is organized in five parts. Part one presents a historical overview of psychotropic substances use throughout human history and introduces key concepts to understand the phenomenon from a biopsychosocial perspective. The next three parts approach psychotropic substances use from one of the interrelated dimensions of the biopsychosocial perspective: part two focuses on the neurobiological aspects; part three, on the psychological aspects; and part four, on the social aspects and its implications for public policy design. Finally, a fifth part is dedicated to special topics related to psychotropic substances use. Drugs and Human Behavior: Biopsychosocial Aspects of Psychotropic Substances Use is a guide to public agents, health professionals and social workers interested in adopting the biopsychosocial perspective to develop and implement both health and social care strategies and policies based on an interdisciplinary approach and aimed at dealing with psychotropic substance users in a more humanized way.

Maternal Substance Abuse and the Developing Nervous System

Maternal Substance Abuse and the Developing Nervous System
Author: Ian S. Zagon,Theodore A. Slotkin
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 377
Release: 1992-09-07
Genre: Medical
ISBN: UOM:39015059214018

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The purpose of this book is to review the basic science and clinical findings concerning maternal substance abuse and the developing nervous system of unborn children. The short-term but vitally significant repercussions of such exposure on biological development, with particular reference to the nervous system, are discussed. The book also discusses the profound influence of maternal substance abuse on behavior in adulthood, which is caused by subtle changes in the chemistry or structure of the developing nervous system. The subject will not only be of interest to clinical and basic science researchers and teachers in the field of maternal substance abuse, but also to individuals in psychology, social work, cellular and molecular biolgoy, embryology, neuroscience, pharmacology, and in clinical professions such as pediatrics, neonatology, and obstetrics. The breadth of topics covered includes alcohol, cocaine, opiates, nicotine, benzodiazepines, marijuana, and the role of stress and hormones. Emphasis is placed on the relationship of the effects of substance abuse on neurotrophic factors and receptors. Shows how abused substances act directly or indirectly to mimic or influence the action of neurotrophic factors Explains that the transient expression of peptides, neurotransmitters, and receptors can be markedly disturbed by drugs Demonstrates that animal and tissue culture studies are consistent with clinical observations and important in understanding and ameliorating adverse actions of drugs in early life

Effects of Peri Adolescent Licit and Illicit Drug Use on the Developing CNS Part I

Effects of Peri Adolescent Licit and Illicit Drug Use on the Developing CNS Part I
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 366
Release: 2021-10-23
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780128208069

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Effects of Peri-Adolescent Licit and Illicit Drug Use on the Developing CNS, Volume 161 in the International Review on Neurobiology series, highlights new advances in the field, with this new volume presenting interesting chapters on topics including Cannabis Exposure During Adolescence: A Uniquely Sensitive Period for Neurobiological Effects, The Stoned-Age: A Systematic Review of the Neurobiological Effects of Adolescent Cannabinoid Exposure on Preclinical Animal Models, Genetic Influences Impacting Nicotine Use and Abuse During Adolescence: Insights from Human and Animal Studies, the Impact of Adolescent Nicotine Exposure on Adulthood Alcohol Consumption: The Role of Neuropeptides, and much more. Additional chapters cover The Role of Sex in the Persistent Effects of Adolescent Alcohol Exposure on Behavior and Neurobiology in Rodents, The Effects of Peri-Adolescent Alcohol Use on the Developing Hippocampus, Regulation of Glutamate Signaling in the Extended Amygdala by Adolescent Alcohol Exposure, Peri-Adolescent Binge Drinking Effects on Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Neuroepigenetic Consequences of Adolescent Ethanol Exposure, Adolescent Neuroimmunity and Its Interaction with Alcohol, and much more. Provides the authority and expertise of leading contributors from an international board of authors Presents the latest release in the International Review on Neurobiology series Updated release includes the latest information on the Effects of Peri-Adolescent Licit and Illicit Drug Use on the Developing Central Nervous System

Drug Abuse in Adolescence

Drug Abuse in Adolescence
Author: Denise De Micheli,André Luiz Monezi Andrade,Eroy Aparecida da Silva,Maria Lucia Oliveira de Souza Formigoni
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 200
Release: 2015-07-03
Genre: Psychology
ISBN: 9783319177953

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Focusing on two central themes--the psychobiological evolution from youth to adult and the effects of drugs on the developing central nervous system--this important reference elucidates the mechanisms of chemical dependency in adolescents. Its multidisciplinary coverage analyzes addiction across major domains of human functioning against the backdrop of hormonal, cognitive, and other changes that accompany the transition to adulthood. Chapters discuss legal as well as illicit drugs, examine age-related social contexts, and present the latest findings on links between drug use and mental disorders. Throughout, the contributors make clear that education is more valuable to understanding--and preventing--substance abuse than are prohibition and zero-tolerance thinking. Included among the topics: Cognitive development, learning, and drug use. Neurobiology of the action of drugs of abuse. Findings in adolescents with substance dependence based on neuroimaging tests. Alcohol abuse in adolescents: relevance of animal models. Effects of chronic drug abuse on the chronobiology of sleep in adolescents. Neurological and cognitive disorders arising from the chronic use of drugs of abuse. The multiple lenses for understanding its subject and the sensitivity with which causal nuances are treated make Neuroscience of Drug Abuse in Adolescence an invaluable resource for clinical and child psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and addiction counselors.

Theories on Drug Abuse

Theories on Drug Abuse
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 488
Release: 1980
Genre: Drug abuse
ISBN: PURD:32754081426136

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Internet Addiction

Internet Addiction
Author: Christian Montag,Martin Reuter
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 392
Release: 2017-03-27
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9783319462769

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The second edition of this successful book provides further and in-depth insight into theoretical models dealing with Internet addiction, as well as includes new therapeutical approaches. The editors also broach the emerging topic of smartphone addiction. This book combines a scholarly introduction with state-of-the-art research in the characterization of Internet addiction. It is intended for a broad audience including scientists, students and practitioners. The first part of the book contains an introduction to Internet addiction and their pathogenesis. The second part of the book is dedicated to an in-depth review of neuroscientific findings which cover studies using a variety of biological techniques including brain imaging and molecular genetics. The third part of the book focuses on therapeutic interventions for Internet addiction. The fourth part of the present book is an extension to the first edition and deals with a new emerging potential disorder related to Internet addiction – smartphone addiction. Moreover, in this second edition of the book new content has been added. Among others, the reader will find an overview of theoretical models dealing with Internet addiction, results from twin studies in the context of Internet addiction and additional insights into therapeutic approaches to Internet addiction.