The Value of BCG and TNF in Autoimmunity

The Value of BCG and TNF in Autoimmunity
Author: Denise Faustman
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 164
Release: 2014
Genre: Science
ISBN: 0127999647

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The Value of BCG and TNF in Autoimmunity provides an overview of current research and thinking related to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) induction and the use of the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine as potential treatment approaches to diverse forms of autoimmunity. BCG, commonly known as an anti-tuberculosis vaccine, is being explored in worldwide clinical trials as an approach to the treatment of certain forms of autoimmunity. The scope of research behind this therapeutic approach spans from the basic science of TNF signaling to research in diverse autoimmune disciplines, such as type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Overall, the book focuses on the lessons that can be learned from the researchers' individual experiences and data, and provides a rationale for bringing the inexpensive, generic BCG vaccine to the forefront of clinical trials in different forms of autoimmunity. Editor awarded 2005: Oprah Achievement Award," Top Health Breakthrough by a Female Scientist" Brings into one resource the international scientific literature on a unique way to treat autoimmunity Provides a different perspective on treatment approaches for certain autoimmune conditions Discusses TNF induction, rather than anti-TNF, as a therapeutic pathway for autoimmunity treatment

The Value of BCG and TNF in Autoimmunity

The Value of BCG and TNF in Autoimmunity
Author: Denise Faustman
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 200
Release: 2018-08-01
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780081025901

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The Value of BCG and TNF in Autoimmune Diseases, Second Edition provides an overview on the current research related to TNF induction and the use of the BCG vaccine as a potential treatment approach to diverse forms of autoimmunity, allergies, infections and neurologic diseases. Since the initial conference (2013) and first edition of this book (2014), the field of BCG research has grown considerably. This new edition contains updates on MS and diabetes, and features at least eight additional chapters on new prevention and treatment trials in autoimmunity and allergy, along with a new understanding of the genetics of BCGs. Brings a different perspective on treatment approaches for certain autoimmune conditions Gives insight into the how the BCG vaccine impacts gene expression and the durability of the BCG vaccines in long lasting clinic effects Discusses TNF induction, rather than anti-TNF, as a therapeutic pathway for autoimmunity treatment Covers new topics, such as the Epigenetics of tuberculosis, BCG in neurological disease, BCG in early childhood and allergy, BCG in large prevention trials, Gene expression of BCG and re-methylation of genes, and more

Nutrition and Cardiovascular Health

Nutrition and Cardiovascular Health
Author: Paramjit S. Tappia,Heather Blewett
Publsiher: MDPI
Total Pages: 278
Release: 2020-06-17
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9783039288878

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There is unequivocal experimental, epidemiological, and clinical evidence demonstrating a correlation between diet and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). While nutritionally-poor diets can have a significant negative impact on cardiovascular health, dietary interventions with specific nutrients and/or functional foods are considered cost-effective and efficient components of prevention strategies. It has been estimated that nutritional factors may be responsible for approximately 40% of all CVD. Indeed, in one of the seminal studies conducted on modifiable risk factors and heart health (the INTERHEART study), >90% of all myocardial infarctions were attributed to preventable environmental factors with nutrition identified as one of the important determinants of CVD. There is an increasing public interest in and scientific investigation into establishing dietary approaches that can be undertaken for the prevention and treatment of CVD. This Special Issue provides an insight into the influential role of nutrition and dietary habits on cardiovascular health and disease, as well as their mechanisms of therapeutic and preventive action.

Heterologous Immunity Implications and Applications in Vaccines and Immunotherapies

Heterologous Immunity  Implications and Applications in Vaccines and Immunotherapies
Author: Babita Agrawal,Stephanie Yanow,Shakti Singh
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2020-08-27
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: 9782889639656

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Clinical Perspectives and Targeted Therapies in Apoptosis

Clinical Perspectives and Targeted Therapies in Apoptosis
Author: Rupinder K. Sodhi,Jitender Madan
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 432
Release: 2020-10-15
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780128157633

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Clinical Perspectives and Targeted Therapies in Apoptosis: Drug Discovery, Drug Delivery, and Disease Prevention provides comprehensive coverage, from basic cell biology, to modern assessment techniques for apoptosis in all major disease areas. Chapters provide an introduction to the fundamentals of cell biology, biochemical mechanisms, and the pathophysiological consequences of apoptosis. In addition, the book covers the tools and techniques used to quantify apoptosis and the significance of apoptosis in drug discovery, drug delivery, and its applications in disease prevention. Finally, the book provides a comprehensive compilation of the apoptosis targeting drugs that recently underwent clinical trials. This combination of fundamentals, along with applications in drug discovery, drug delivery, and clinical research make this book a useful resource for those in both academia and industry who are engaged in pharmaceutical, biomedical and biotechnology research. Offers standard and innovative therapeutic approaches to modulate apoptosis in clinical interventions, such as cardiovascular diseases, immune disorders, cancer chemotherapy and neurological ailments Covers cutting-edge laboratory techniques and traditional protocols to determine apoptosis, both in vitro and in vivo Examines clinical study reports of new drug moieties that are explored for various pathological conditions associated with apoptosis

Disease Control Priorities Third Edition Volume 6

Disease Control Priorities  Third Edition  Volume 6
Author: Prabhat Jha
Publsiher: Disease Control Priorities
Total Pages: 506
Release: 2017-12-04
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 1464805261

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Infectious diseases are the leading cause of death globally, particularly among children and young adults. The spread of new pathogens and the threat of antimicrobial resistance pose particular challenges in combating these diseases. Major Infectious Diseases identifies feasible, cost-effective packages of interventions and strategies across delivery platforms to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS, other sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, malaria, adult febrile illness, viral hepatitis, and neglected tropical diseases. The volume emphasizes the need to effectively address emerging antimicrobial resistance, strengthen health systems, and increase access to care. The attainable goals are to reduce incidence, develop innovative approaches, and optimize existing tools in resource-constrained settings.

Immunotherapy of Type 1 Diabetes

Immunotherapy of Type 1 Diabetes
Author: Domenico Andreani,Hubert Kolb,Paolo Pozzilli
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 251
Release: 1989
Genre: Diabetes
ISBN: UOM:39015015329371

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Recent national, European and international diabetes meetings have seen controversial discussions on the potential benefit and also on ethical aspects of immune intervention in patients with Type 1 diabetes or in persons with a high risk of developing the disease.

The Role of TNF TNFR2 Signal in Immunosuppressive Cells and its Therapeutic Implications

The Role of TNF TNFR2 Signal in Immunosuppressive Cells and its Therapeutic Implications
Author: Xin Chen,Magdalena Plebanski
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2020-01-20
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: 9782889633067

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CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an indispensable role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis and prevention of autoimmune diseases, and represent a major cellular mechanism of tumor immune evasion. Targeting of Tregs has great potential in the treatment of some major human diseases, including autoimmunity, transplant rejection, GvHD, and cancer, and are critical controllers of immunity to infectious pathogens. It is expected they will also be central to the control of allergic and inflammatory diseases. Understanding the biological pathways crucial for the regulation of Treg activity is a prerequisite for harnessing the immense therapeutic potential of Tregs. TNF is generally believed to be a master pro-inflammatory cytokine, and anti-TNF therapy has become a mainstay treatment for some autoimmune diseases. However, experimental evidence indicates that TNF preferentially activates Tregs, resulting in the expansive proliferation, phenotypic stability, and enhanced suppressive capacity of these immune suppressors. This effect of TNF is mediated by TNFR2, which is preferentially expressed by human and mouse Tregs. Furthermore, expression of TNFR2 is able to identify the most suppressive subset of Tregs. Although counterintuitive and contradictory to earlier reports, these findings have been supported by increasing experimental evidence from both human and mouse studies. These recent studies revealing the Treg-promoting effect of TNF not only leads to the redefinition of the immunological biology of this pleiotropic cytokine, they are also helpful in designing novel therapies in the treatment of cancer, autoimmune diseases, and GvHD, as well as enhancing current vaccines and immunomodulators. In this article collection, current knowledge on the cellular and molecular aspects of the Treg-stimulatory effect of the TNF-TNFR2 pathway will be discussed. An insight of the physiological and pathological roles of such effects of TNF in an inflammatory reaction and immune response will be provided. The seemingly contradictory Treg-promoting effect of TNF and immunosuppressive effect of anti-TNF therapy will be analyzed. Recent efforts to translate such discoveries into therapeutic benefits will be introduced. The novel strategies in the treatment of cancer and GvHD, by down- or up-regulation of Treg activity through targeting TNFR2, will be highlighted. In addition to Tregs, TNFR2 has also been found to play a key role in the accumulation and immunosuppressive function of myeloid-derived suppressive cells (MDSCs) and Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Therefore, the current understanding of the role of TNF-TNFR2 signal in other type of immunosuppressive cells, as well as its clinical and therapeutic implications, have also been considered.

Immunization Safety Review

Immunization Safety Review
Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention,Immunization Safety Review Committee
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 152
Release: 2002-07-02
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780309169882

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By two years of age, healthy infants in the United States can receive up to 20 vaccinations to protect against 11 diseases. Although most people know that vaccines effectively protect against serious infectious diseases, approximately one-quarter of parents in a recent survey believe that infants get more vaccines than are good for them, and that too many immunizations could overwhelm an infant's immune system. The Immunization Safety Review Committee reviewed the evidence regarding the hypothesis that multiple immunizations increase the risk for immune dysfunction. Specifically, the committee looked at evidence of potential biological mechanisms and at epidemiological evidence for or against causality related to risk for infections, the autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes, and allergic disorders.

Absolute Rheumatology Review

Absolute Rheumatology Review
Author: Petros Efthimiou
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 478
Release: 2019-09-13
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9783030230227

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This book provides a concise and up-to-date review of key rheumatology topics along with extensive practice questions to assist in preparing for the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Rheumatology Certification Exam. Each chapter focuses on a single disease and starts with a short review (primarily tables and figures) to highlight the main points and key issues. The review is followed by 10-20 board-style multiple choice questions with detailed explanations for each topic. The chapters and associated preparation questions are written by established experts from top institutions in the United States. The book concludes with a 50-question practice test reflecting the format used by the ABIM Board Certification Exam. Absolute Rheumatology Review is an essential resource for not only graduate students, residents, and fellows in rheumatology and internal medicine studying for board exams but also rheumatologists, physicians, and related professionals preparing for recertification.

Immunotherapy A Novel Facet of Modern Therapeutics

Immunotherapy     A Novel Facet of Modern Therapeutics
Author: Sujata P. Sawarkar,Vandana S. Nikam,Shariq Syed
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 262
Release: 2020-12-16
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9789811590382

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This book illustrates the significance and relevance of immunotherapy in modern-day therapeutics. Focusing on the application of immunotherapy in oncology, neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases, it discusses the drug delivery systems, and pre-clinical and clinical methodologies for immunotherapy-based drugs. It also comprehensively reviews various aspects of immunotherapy, such as regulatory affairs, quality control, safety, and pharmacovigilance. Further, the book discusses the in vitro validation of therapeutic strategies prior to patient application and management of immunotherapy-related side effects and presents case studies demonstrating the design and development (pre-clinical to clinical) of immunotherapy for various diseases. It also describes various design considerations and the scale-up synthesis of immunotherapeutics and screening methods. Lastly, it explores the important aspect of cost-effectiveness and rational immunotherapy strategies.

Testicular Autoimmunity

Testicular Autoimmunity
Author: Masahiro Itoh
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 232
Release: 2017-07-31
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9784431544609

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This book addresses various aspects of testicular autoimmunity. It has long been suspected that testicular autoimmunity could be one of the causes of idiopathic male infertility. However, it is very difficult to estimate the incidence of testicular autoimmunity in men, as most male patients first realize they are infertile when they start trying to conceive a child, and there is a possibility that their testes may already exhibit the end stage of testicular autoimmunity, in which lymphocytic inflammation and immunoglobulin deposition in their testes subsided long ago and only the spermatogenic disorder remains. Therefore, autopsy or biopsy for testicular tissues in men before the end stage of testicular autoimmunity and investigations using testicular autoimmunity model animals are needed to determine the epidemiology of testicular autoimmunity. Accordingly, the book discusses “the immunological fragility of testis” with regard to male infertility, reviewing autopsy data in men and presenting experimental data using murine models of autoimmune orchitis that has been induced by immunizing with viable syngeneic testicular germ cells alone. Testicular autoimmunity in animals is also discussed. In summary, the book provides a wealth of valuable information, not only for researchers who are interested in immunologic male infertility, but also for clinical professionals who treat these patients at hospitals.

Management of Infections in the Immunocompromised Host

Management of Infections in the Immunocompromised Host
Author: Brahm H. Segal
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 445
Release: 2018-06-18
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9783319776743

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This book provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art review of the concepts vital to a modern treatment of common and opportunistic infections in the immunocompromised host. Chapters are written by experts in the field, and include their views on gaps in the field and future directions of research. This book begins with an overview of the normally functioning immune system followed by a detailed discussion of the major primary immunodeficiencies. Specific chapters are dedicated to providing practical knowledge in the prevention and treatment of infections in specific immunocompromised patients, including those with cancer, transplant recipients, HIV infection, and autoimmune disorders. Emphasis is placed on diagnostic evaluation, antimicrobial selection that includes consideration of the threat of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens, and immunotherapy tailored to specific patients. Finally, dedicated chapters on stem cell transplantation for patients with primary immunodeficiencies, adoptive cellular immunotherapy, and gene therapy will provide readers with insight into these rapidly evolving and cutting edge therapies.Management of Infections in the Immunocompromised Host is a valuable resource for infectious diseases specialists, immunologists, oncologists, hematologists, general physicians, students, researchers, and all other working with immunocompromised patients.

Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn Infant

Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn Infant
Author: Jack S. Remington,Jerome O. Klein
Publsiher: W B Saunders Company
Total Pages: 1147
Release: 1983
Genre: Medical
ISBN: UOM:39015004416007

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Principles and Methods for Assessing Autoimmunity Associated with Exposure to Chemicals

Principles and Methods for Assessing Autoimmunity Associated with Exposure to Chemicals
Author: International Labour Organisation,World Health Organization,United Nations Environment Programme
Publsiher: World Health Organization
Total Pages: 333
Release: 2006
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9789241572361

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This new volume in the Environmental Health Criteria series provides a framework for the evaluation of the role of chemical risk factors in the development of autoimmune diseases. In addition to a general introduction to autoimmune mechanisms and clinical expression of autoimmune diseases, a discussion of mechanisms of chemical-associated autoimmune responses precedes information on a range of chemical and other agents. Animal models and human testing for autoimmune disease and the application of information in risk assessment are presented. This book will be useful to biology and toxicology scientists and researchers, as well as to regulatory authorities, industry, and the general risk assessment community.