Trends and Changes in Hydroclimatic Variables

Trends and Changes in Hydroclimatic Variables
Author: Ramesh Teegavarapu
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 416
Release: 2018-09-14
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780128109861

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Trends and Changes in Hydroclimatic Variables: Links to Climate Variability and Change discusses the change detection and trend analysis methods used to assess hydroclimatic variables in a changing climate. Changes and trends in hydroclimatic variables are assessed using state-of-the-art methods, such as non-linear trend estimation (including spline smoothing and local regression) and handling persistence (or serial auto-correlation in data) for assessing trends in different hydroclimatic variables (e.g. pre-whitening methods). This book offers a variety of real-life case studies and problem-solving techniques for a field that is rapidly evolving. Users will find methods to evaluate points where time series characteristics change and non-homogeneity in time series. In addition, it covers the subject of climate variability and change in an immense level of detail, including changes on precipitation, streamflow and sea levels. Examines statistical methods for trend analysis, providing an excellent reference book for scholars, scientists, students and professionals Offers an exhaustive treatment of several hydroclimatic variables in one book, providing readers with a comprehensive understanding of changes in hydroclimatic variables over time and space Presents case studies dealing with changes in hydroclimatic variables in different geographical regions of the world Focuses on climate variability and change, including an extensive assessment of trends and their associated links to climate variability and change

Analyzing Trends in Temperature Streamflow and Precipitation Over Southern Ontario and Qu bec Using the Discreet Wavelet Transform

Analyzing Trends in Temperature  Streamflow and Precipitation Over Southern Ontario and Qu  bec Using the Discreet Wavelet Transform
Author: Deasy Nalley
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2013
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: OCLC:921889608

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"Analysis on hydroclimatic variables can provide information on how the climate has evolved over time. This can be accomplished through time series analysis. Trend analysis in hydroclimatic variables is challenging due to their non-stationary nature and the presence of noise and stochastic components in them. The principal objective of this study is to detect and analyze trends in mean surface air temperature, total precipitation and mean streamflow obtained from several stations in Ontario and Quebec, Canada. To accomplish this, we co-utilized the wavelet transform (WT) technique (more specifically, the discrete wavelet transform (DWT)) and the Mann-Kendall (MK) trend test. The time series used were decomposed via the DWT in order to separate their high-frequency and low-frequency components, prior to testing their statistical significance with the MK trend test. The trend (i.e. slowly changing processes) is assumed to be contained in the low-frequency component of the data. The trends in temperature, precipitation and flow are assessed on different bases: monthly, seasonal, and annual. Temperature trends for the different seasons (i.e. winter, spring, summer, and autumn) were also assessed. In this study, we demonstrated the use of WT in extracting information contained in the time series that is not obvious in the raw data. The advantages of the WT technique are highlighted by its ability to extract time-frequency information contained in the analyzed time series manifested in the form of periodicities ranging from intra-annual to decadal events. A new criterion is also proposed in this study where the relative error of the MK Z-values between the approximation component of the last decomposition level and the original data was used to determine the number of decomposition levels of the analyzed time series, the type of Daubechies (db) mother wavelet, and the border condition to be used in the DWT procedure.The procedures contained in the methodology for trend analysis outlined in this study have not been explored in the existing literature. First of all, we tested for the presence of a significant autocorrelation in a time series prior to applying the MK test, which is often ignored in many trend detection studies. The time series were then decomposed via the DWT; the MK trend test and sequential MK test were then applied in order to determine the most significant periodic mode affecting the observed trends. In this study, three versions of MK test were used, depending on the characteristics of the analyzed data. The original MK test was used on data that exhibit neither seasonality patterns nor significant autocorrelations. Seasonal MK test by Hirsch and Slack (1984) was used on the time series exhibiting seasonality cycles (with or without significant autocorrelations). Modified MK test by Hamed and Rao (1998) was used on data with significant autocorrelations. Finally, combining the application of the DWT and MK test in trend assessment in hydroclimatic time series (especially in the context of Canadian studies) has not been explored. Therefore, the results obtained in this study contribute to furthering the overall understanding of climatic change in Southern Ontario and Quebec. Although the trends in the different variables studied are affected by different time periodicities, the study found that generally positive trends are more dominant. Among the most important findings of this study are: (i) all temperature data show positive values, which implies warming trends (ii) precipitation and flow trends are affected by fluctuations of up to four years, and (iii) annual positive trends in temperature may be attributed mostly by winter and summer warming. This suggests that if the temperature trends remain in the positive direction, other hydroclimatic indices may also experience significant changes in the future." --

Climate Change Sensitive Water Resources Management

Climate Change Sensitive Water Resources Management
Author: Ramesh S.V. Teegavarapu,Elpida Kolokytha,Carlos de Oliveira Galvão
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 172
Release: 2020-12-18
Genre: Nature
ISBN: 9781000293951

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The book provides an overview of climate change-sensitive water resources management with consideration of adaptation approaches, the assessment of climate change impacts, current contemporary management techniques, and ecological responses. Comprehensive assessments and studies from eight countries using innovative approaches that aid water management under evolving climates are documented. Topics ranging from hydrologic design to management and policy responses to climate change are discussed, which demonstrate updated theories that highlight methods, tools, and experiences on the topic of water resources under climate change. The generic approaches discussed, and their applications to different climate change-related problems, make this book appealing to a global readership. The practical and applied methodologies presented in the book and through insightful case studies discussed will provide readers worldwide with ready-to-use information to manage water resources sustainably under evolving climate. This book is ideally suited for water resource managers, scientists, professionals from water management agencies, graduate students, and national laboratory agencies responsible for water and environmental management.

Connecting Mountain Hydroclimate Through the American Cordilleras

Connecting Mountain Hydroclimate Through the American Cordilleras
Author: Alfonso Fernandez,Michel Baraer,Bryan G. Mark
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2021-05-18
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9782889667741

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Hydroclimatology

Hydroclimatology
Author: Marlyn L. Shelton
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 426
Release: 2009
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780521848886

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Hydroclimatology provides a systematic structure for analysing how the climate system causes time and space variations (both global and local) in the hydrologic cycle. Changes in the relationship between the climate system and the hydrologic cycle underlie floods, drought and possible future influences of global warming on water resources. Land-based data, satellite data, and computer models contribute to our understanding of the complex time and space variations of physical processes shared by the climate system and the hydrologic cycle. Blending key information from the fields of climatology and hydrology - which are not often found in a single volume - this is an ideal textbook for students in atmospheric science, hydrology, Earth and environmental science, geography, and environmental engineering. It is also a useful reference for academic researchers in these fields.

Spatial and Temporal Variations in Hydroclimatic Variables Affecting Streamflow Across Western Canada

Spatial and Temporal Variations in Hydroclimatic Variables Affecting Streamflow Across Western Canada
Author: Hayley Christina Linton,University of Victoria (B.C.). Department of Geography
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2014
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: OCLC:894364557

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A large portion of the freshwater in western Canada originates as snowpack from the northern Rocky Mountains. The temperature and precipitation in these areas controls the amount of snow accumulated and stored throughout the winter, and the amount and timing of melt that occurs during the spring freshet. Therefore, a better understanding of past and future changes to the extent of snowpack and timing of melt can modify the timing of peak river flow on a continental scale. Trends in temperature, precipitation, snow accumulation, and snowmelt are examined using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test on a high resolution gridded climate dataset over western Canada for the period 1950-2010. In addition, projected changes in temperature, precipitation, snow water equivalent, and snowmelt are examined through comparison of the current (1971-2000) and future (2041-2070) time periods incorporating several regional climate models. The temporal and spatial analyses of these key hydroclimatic variables indicate that changes vary greatly over space and time. Results reveal that while both maximum and minimum temperature have increased in the past 60 years, minimum temperature has increased more than maximum temperature and is likely to continue doing so in the future. This trend is particularly evident during the colder months of the year, and at higher elevations, contributing to earlier spring melt. Between 1950 and 2010, precipitation has decreased throughout the colder months of the year and increased in the warmer months, particularly in the northern half of the study area. Future projections show increased precipitation, specifically in the north. Throughout the historical period snow accumulation has experienced decreases across the study area and through all months of the year, except for increases at high elevations. In the coldest months of the year snow accumulation is projected to increase in high elevation and northern areas while decreasing across the rest of study area in the future. Snowmelt results indicate slight increases in mid-winter melt events and an earlier onset of the spring freshet; this change is expected to continue into the future period. This study provides a summary of detected trends and potential future changes in key hydroclimatic variables across western Canada with regard to the effects these changes can have on the spring freshet and streamflow, and thus water resources, throughout the study area.

Precipitation

Precipitation
Author: Jesus Rodrigo Comino
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 588
Release: 2021-08-21
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780128232873

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Precipitation: Earth Surface Responses and Processes provides readers with a general and indispensable overview of processing rainfall processes through radar techniques, numerical models, geostatistical tools, photogrammetric methods, plots, indexes of connectivity or rainfall simulations. The handbook follows a clear and consistent format, and is structured as follows: Introduction (State-of-the-Art); Part 1. Rainfall and climate/atmosphere; Part 2. Models and applications; Part 3. Rainfall as a key actor playing the main role affecting different ecosystems. Part 3: Rainfall affecting the earth surface from different scales and landforms; Part 4: Rainfall and stormwater quality management in urban and rural areas. Precipitation is a key factor needed for understanding landscape evolution and ecosystem services. Knowing the main precipitation composition, mechanisms and processes allows for efficient land management plans and ecosystem restoration activities. However, precipitation shows different responses under specific environments depending on the climate (from the arid to the polar areas), parent material, scale (from the raindrops to catchment scale), intensity, landscape morphologies (soil sealing, rills, gullies or rivers) or human activities (agriculture or urban areas). Precipitation: Earth Surface Responses and Processes bring this information together and provides indispensable material in a holistic manner for students, scientists and lecturers from different environmental disciplines such as climatology, meteorology, geomorphology, hydrology, soil science, geography, engineering, or ecology. Includes observations on a range of earth surface processes, from climate to coastal marine ecosystems Presents key case studies in each chapter, enhancing the applicability of each chapter Introduces precipitation as a key factor to understand earth mechanisms and processes

Innovative Trend Methodologies in Science and Engineering

Innovative Trend Methodologies in Science and Engineering
Author: Zekâi Şen
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 349
Release: 2017-01-23
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9783319523385

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This book covers all types of literature on existing trend analysis approaches, but more than 60% of the methodologies are developed here and some of them are reflected to scientific literature and others are also innovative versions, modifications or improvements. The suggested methodologies help to design, develop, manage and deliver scientific applications and training to meet the needs of interested staff in companies, industries and universities including students. Technical content and expertise are also provided from different theoretical and especially active roles in the design, development and delivery of science in particular and economics and business in general. It is also ensured that, wherever possible and technically appropriate, priority is given to the inclusion and integration of real life data, examples and processes within the book content. The time seems right, because available books just focus on special sectors (fashion, social, business). This book reviews all the available trend approaches in the present literature on rational and logical bases.

Encyclopedia of Snow Ice and Glaciers

Encyclopedia of Snow  Ice and Glaciers
Author: Vijay P. Singh,Pratap Singh,Umesh K. Haritashya
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 1253
Release: 2011-06-29
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9789048126422

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The earth’s cryosphere, which includes snow, glaciers, ice caps, ice sheets, ice shelves, sea ice, river and lake ice, and permafrost, contains about 75% of the earth’s fresh water. It exists at almost all latitudes, from the tropics to the poles, and plays a vital role in controlling the global climate system. It also provides direct visible evidence of the effect of climate change, and, therefore, requires proper understanding of its complex dynamics. This encyclopedia mainly focuses on the various aspects of snow, ice and glaciers, but also covers other cryospheric branches, and provides up-to-date information and basic concepts on relevant topics. It includes alphabetically arranged and professionally written, comprehensive and authoritative academic articles by well-known international experts in individual fields. The encyclopedia contains a broad spectrum of topics, ranging from the atmospheric processes responsible for snow formation; transformation of snow to ice and changes in their properties; classification of ice and glaciers and their worldwide distribution; glaciation and ice ages; glacier dynamics; glacier surface and subsurface characteristics; geomorphic processes and landscape formation; hydrology and sedimentary systems; permafrost degradation; hazards caused by cryospheric changes; and trends of glacier retreat on the global scale along with the impact of climate change. This book can serve as a source of reference at the undergraduate and graduate level and help to better understand snow, ice and glaciers. It will also be an indispensable tool containing specialized literature for geologists, geographers, climatologists, hydrologists, and water resources engineers; as well as for those who are engaged in the practice of agricultural and civil engineering, earth sciences, environmental sciences and engineering, ecosystem management, and other relevant subjects.

Dynamic Simulation and Virtual Reality in Hydrology and Water Resources Management

Dynamic Simulation and Virtual Reality in Hydrology and Water Resources Management
Author: Ramesh S.V. Teegavarapu,Chandramouli V. Chandramouli
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 198
Release: 2021-07-27
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9781000414271

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Dynamic Simulation and Virtual Reality in Hydrology and Water Resources Management focuses on the understanding, use, and application of system dynamics simulation and virtual reality approaches for modeling the spatial and temporal behavior of natural and managed hydro-environmental systems. The book discusses concepts of systems thinking and system dynamics approach, and it furthers understanding of the dynamic behavior of natural and engineering systems using feedbacks and dynamic simulation. Numerous examples of models built using different system dynamics simulation modeling environments are provided. It also introduces concepts related to computer animation and virtual reality–based immersive modeling. Applications of systems dynamics, simulation with animation, and virtual reality approaches for modeling and management of hydro-environmental systems are illustrated through case studies. This text is ideal for water resources professionals, graduate students, hydrologic modelers, and engineers who are interested in systems thinking, dynamic simulation, and virtual reality modeling approaches. It will serve as a valuable reference for engineering professionals who model, manage, and operate hydrosystems. Engineering educators will find the book immensely useful to enhance the learning experiences of students. Dr. Ramesh S. V. Teegavarapu is a professor at Florida Atlantic University with expertise in modeling water resources and environmental systems, hydroinformatics, and climate change. Dr. Chandramouli V. Chandramouli is a professor at Purdue University Northwest. His expertise is in water resources and environmental modeling integrating artificial intelligence techniques.

Hydrologic Time Series Analysis

Hydrologic Time Series Analysis
Author: Deepesh Machiwal,Madan Kumar Jha
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 280
Release: 2012-03-05
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9789400718616

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There is a dearth of relevant books dealing with both theory and application of time series analysis techniques, particularly in the field of water resources engineering. Therefore, many hydrologists and hydrogeologists face difficulties in adopting time series analysis as one of the tools for their research. This book fills this gap by providing a proper blend of theoretical and practical aspects of time sereies analysis. It deals with a comprehensive overview of time series characteristics in hydrology/water resources engineering, various tools and techniques for analyzing time series data, theoretical details of 31 available statistical tests along with detailed procedures for applying them to real-world time series data, theory and methodology of stochastic modelling, and current status of time series analysis in hydrological sciences. In adition, it demonstrates the application of most time series tests through a case study as well as presents a comparative performance evaluation of various time series tests, together with four invited case studies from India and abroad. This book will not only serve as a textbook for the students and teachers in water resources engineering but will also serve as the most comprehensive reference to educate researchers/scientists about the theory and practice of time series analysis in hydrological sciences. This book will be very useful to the students, researchers, teachers and professionals involved in water resources, hydrology, ecology, climate change, earth science, and environmental studies.

Regional Hydrological Impacts of Climatic Change Impact assessment and decision making

Regional Hydrological Impacts of Climatic Change  Impact assessment and decision making
Author: Thorsten Wagener,Stewart W. Franks
Publsiher: International Assn of Hydrological Sciences
Total Pages: 356
Release: 2005
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 1901502082

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First considers the assessment of the hydrological impacts of future climate and then addresses decision making for mitigation/adaptation strategies, given the uncertainties associated with predictions by water resources and hydrological extremes models.

Climate Change and Water Resources Management

Climate Change and Water Resources Management
Author: Levi D. Brekke
Publsiher: DIANE Publishing
Total Pages: 65
Release: 2009-11
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: 9781437920499

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Many challenges, including climate change, face the Nation¿s water managers. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has provided estimates of how climate may change, but more understanding of the processes driving the changes, the sequences of the changes, and the manifestation of these global changes at different scales could be beneficial. Since the changes will likely affect fundamental drivers of the hydrological cycle, climate change may have a large impact on water resources and water resources managers. The purpose of this interagency report is to explore strategies to improve water management by tracking, anticipating, and responding to climate change. Charts and tables.

Advances of Science and Technology

Advances of Science and Technology
Author: Mulugeta Admasu Delele,Mekuanint Agegnehu Bitew,Abebech Abera Beyene,Solomon Workneh Fanta,Addisu Negash Ali
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 547
Release: 2021
Genre: Application software
ISBN: 9783030806187

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This two-volume set constitutes the refereed post-conference proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Advancement of Science and Technology, ICAST 2020, which took place in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, in October 2020.The 74 revised full papers were carefully reviewed and selected from more than 200 submissions of which 157 were sent out for peer review. The papers present economic and technologic developments in modern societies in 6 tracks: Chemical, food and bio-process engineering; Electrical and computer engineering; IT, computer science and software engineering; Civil, water resources, and environmental engineering; Mechanical and industrial engineering; Material science and engineering.

The Baltic Sea Region in Transition

The Baltic Sea Region in Transition
Author: Marcus Reckermann,Markus Meier,Martin Stendel
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2021-06-23
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9782889661923

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