Weather related Power Outages and Electric System Resiliency

Weather related Power Outages and Electric System Resiliency
Author: Richard J. Campbell,Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 15
Release: 2012
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: OCLC:825076761

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High winds, especially when combined with precipitation from seasonal storms, can cause damage to electricity utility systems, resulting in service interruptions to large numbers of electricity customers. While most such power outages are caused by damage from trees and tree limbs falling on local electricity distribution lines and poles, major power outages tend to be caused by damage to electricity transmission lines which carry bulk power long distances. Depending on the severity of the storm and resulting impairment, power outages can last a few hours or extend to periods of several days, and have real economic effects. Power outages can impact businesses (primarily through lost orders and damage to perishable goods and inventories), and manufacturers (mainly through downtime and lost production, or equipment damage). Data from various studies lead to cost estimates from storm-related outages to the U.S. economy at between $20 billion and $55 billion annually. Data also suggest the trend of outages from weather-related events is increasing. Suggested solutions for reducing impacts from weather-related outages include improved tree-trimming schedules to keep rights-of-way clear, placing distribution and some transmission lines underground, implementing Smart Grid improvements to enhance power system operations and control, inclusion of more distributed generation, and changing utility maintenance practices and metrics to focus on power system reliability. However, most of these potential solutions come with high costs which must be balanced against the perceived benefits. A number of options exist for Congress to consider which could help reduce storm-related outages. These range from improving the quality of data on storm-related outages, to a greater strategic investment in the U.S. electricity grid. Congress could empower a federal agency to develop standards for the consistent reporting of power outage data. While responsibility for the reliability of the bulk electric system is under the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (as per the Energy Policy Act of 2005), no central responsibility exists for the reliability of distribution systems. One possible option could be to bring distribution systems under the Electric Reliability Organization for reliability purposes. Recovery after storm-related outages might be enhanced by a federal role in formalizing the review or coordination of electric utility mutual assistance agreements (MAAs). This would not necessarily mean federal approval of MAAs, but may help in the cooperative coordination of additional federal and state resources, especially in a wide, multi-state weather event. While there has been much discussion of transmission system inadequacies and inefficiencies, many distribution systems are in dire need of upgrades or repairs. The cost of upgrading the U.S. grid to meet future uses is expected to be high, with the American Society of Civil Engineers estimating a need of $673 billion by 2020. While the federal government recently made funding available of almost $16 billion for specific Smart Grid projects and new transmission lines under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, there has not been a comprehensive effort to study the needs, set goals, and provide targeted funding for modernization of the U.S. grid as part of a long-term national energy strategy. Such an effort would also require decisions about the appropriate roles of government and the private sector. Power delivery systems are most vulnerable to storms and extreme weather events. Improving the overall condition and efficiency of the power delivery system can only serve to improve the resiliency of the system, and help hasten recovery from weather-related outages. Ultimately, however, electric utilities are responsible for this infrastructure. They are in the business of selling electricity, and they cannot sell electricity if their power delivery systems are out of service.

Enhancing the Resilience of the Nation s Electricity System

Enhancing the Resilience of the Nation s Electricity System
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems,Committee on Enhancing the Resilience of the Nation's Electric Power Transmission and Distribution System
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 170
Release: 2017-10-25
Genre: Science
ISBN: 9780309463072

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Americans' safety, productivity, comfort, and convenience depend on the reliable supply of electric power. The electric power system is a complex "cyber-physical" system composed of a network of millions of components spread out across the continent. These components are owned, operated, and regulated by thousands of different entities. Power system operators work hard to assure safe and reliable service, but large outages occasionally happen. Given the nature of the system, there is simply no way that outages can be completely avoided, no matter how much time and money is devoted to such an effort. The system's reliability and resilience can be improved but never made perfect. Thus, system owners, operators, and regulators must prioritize their investments based on potential benefits. Enhancing the Resilience of the Nation's Electricity System focuses on identifying, developing, and implementing strategies to increase the power system's resilience in the face of events that can cause large-area, long-duration outages: blackouts that extend over multiple service areas and last several days or longer. Resilience is not just about lessening the likelihood that these outages will occur. It is also about limiting the scope and impact of outages when they do occur, restoring power rapidly afterwards, and learning from these experiences to better deal with events in the future.

Power Grid Resiliency for Adverse Conditions

Power Grid Resiliency for Adverse Conditions
Author: Nicholas Abi-Samra
Publsiher: Artech House
Total Pages: 280
Release: 2017-09-30
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781630814946

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Written by a leading expert in the field, this practical book offers a comprehensive understanding of the impact of extreme weather and the possible effects of climate change on the power grid. The impact and restoration of floods, winter storms, wind storms, and hurricanes as well as the effects of heat waves and dry spells on thermal power plants is explained in detail. This book explores proven practices for successful restoration of the power grid, increased system resiliency, and ride-through after extreme weather and provides readers with examples from super storm Sandy. This book presents the effects of lack of ground moisture on transmission line performance and gives an overview of line insulation coordination, stress-strength analysis, and tower insulation strength, and then provides readers with tangible solutions. Structural hardening of power systems against storms, including wind pressure, wood poles, and vegetation management is covered. Moreover, this book provides suggestions for practical implementations to improve future smart grid resiliency.

Research in Mathematics and Public Policy

Research in Mathematics and Public Policy
Author: Mary Lee,Aisha Najera Chesler
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 134
Release: 2020-12-03
Genre: Mathematics
ISBN: 9783030587482

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This volume features a variety of research projects at the intersection of mathematics and public policy. The topics included here fall in the areas of cybersecurity and climate change, two broad and impactful issues that benefit greatly from mathematical techniques. Each chapter in the book is a mathematical look into a specific research question related to one of these issues, an approach that offers the reader insight into the application of mathematics to important public policy questions. The articles in this volume are papers inspired by a Workshop for Women in Mathematics and Public Policy, held January 22-25, 2019 at the Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics and the Luskin Center at the University of California, Los Angeles. The workshop was created to promote and develop women at all levels of their careers as researchers in mathematics and public policy. The idea was modeled after other successful Research Collaboration Conferences for Women, where junior and senior women come together at week-long conferences held at mathematics institutes to work on pre-defined research projects. The workshop focused on how mathematics can be used in public policy research and was designed to foster collaborative networks for women to help address the gender gap in mathematics and science.

Evaluating Climate Change Impacts

Evaluating Climate Change Impacts
Author: Vyacheslav Lyubchich,Yulia Gel,K. Halimeda Kilbourne,Thomas James Miller,Nathaniel K. Newlands,A. Smith
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 382
Release: 2020-10-07
Genre: Mathematics
ISBN: 9781351190824

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Evaluating Climate Change Impacts discusses assessing and quantifying climate change and its impacts from a multi-faceted perspective of ecosystem, social, and infrastructure resilience, given through a lens of statistics and data science. It provides a multi-disciplinary view on the implications of climate variability and shows how the new data science paradigm can help us to mitigate climate-induced risk and to enhance climate adaptation strategies. This book consists of chapters solicited from leading topical experts and presents their perspectives on climate change effects in two general areas: natural ecosystems and socio-economic impacts. The chapters unveil topics of atmospheric circulation, climate modeling, and long-term prediction; approach the problems of increasing frequency of extreme events, sea level rise, and forest fires, as well as economic losses, analysis of climate impacts for insurance, agriculture, fisheries, and electric and transport infrastructures. The reader will be exposed to the current research using a variety of methods from physical modeling, statistics, and machine learning, including the global circulation models (GCM) and ocean models, statistical generalized additive models (GAM) and generalized linear models (GLM), state space and graphical models, causality networks, Bayesian ensembles, a variety of index methods and statistical tests, and machine learning methods. The reader will learn about data from various sources, including GCM and ocean model outputs, satellite observations, and data collected by different agencies and research units. Many of the chapters provide references to open source software R and Python code that are available for implementing the methods.

Low Carbon Energy Technologies in Sustainable Energy Systems

Low Carbon Energy Technologies in Sustainable Energy Systems
Author: Grigorios L. Kyriakopoulos
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 418
Release: 2021-01-08
Genre: Business & Economics
ISBN: 9780128230879

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Low Carbon Energy Technologies for Sustainable Energy Systems examines, investigates, and integrates current research aimed at operationalizing low carbon technologies within complex transitioning energy economies. Scholarly research has traditionally focused on the technical aspects of exploitation, R&D, operation, infrastructure, and decommissioning, while approaches which can realistically inform their reception and scale-up across real societies and real markets are piecemeal and isolated in separate literatures. Addressing both the technical foundations of each technology together with the sociotechnical ways in which they are spread in markets and societies, this work integrates the technoeconomic assessment of low carbon technologies with direct discussion on legislative and regulatory policies in energy markets. Chapters address issues, such as social acceptance, consumer awareness, environmental valuation systems, and the circular economy, as low carbon technologies expand into energy systems sustainability, sensitivity, and stability. This collective research work is relevant to both researchers and practitioners working in sustainable energy systems. The combination of these features makes it a timely book that is useful and attractive to university students, researchers, academia, and public or private energy policy makers. Combines socio-cultural perspectives, environmental sustainability, and economic feasibility in the analysis of low carbon energy technologies Assesses regulatory governance impacting the environmental protection and the social cohesion of environmentally-directed energy markets Reviews the carbon trade exchange, attributing economic value to carbon and enabling its trading perspectives by people, companies or countries invested in low carbon technologies

Geomagnetic Disturbances Impacts on Power Systems

Geomagnetic Disturbances Impacts on Power Systems
Author: Olga Sokolova,Nikolay Korovkin,Masashi Hayakawa
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 268
Release: 2021-03-04
Genre: Technology & Engineering
ISBN: 9781000350579

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Geomagnetic Disturbances Impacts on Power Systems: Risk Analysis & Mitigation Strategies provides a full risk assessment tool for assessing power systems confronted geomagnetic disturbances (GMDs) and specifies mitigation opportunities for various stakeholders. “This book deals comprehensively with the threat of solar storms on the world’s power systems. It provides a context to GMDs with respect to other natural hazards, and describes methods to evaluate a particular grid’s risk factors in a straightforward fashion. This is extremely useful to power grid operators, as they are not experts in the field of space weather, but they must be able to deal with its impacts. This is the critical message of this extremely valuable book.” – William A. Radasky, Ph.D., P.E., IEEE Life Fellow, Metatech Corporation, California USA Aimed at risk engineers, policy-makers, technical experts and non-specialists such as power system operators, this book seeks to provide an insight into the GMD as a natural hazard and to perform the risk assessment of its potential impacts on the power systems as critical infrastructures. The reader gets familiar with how the Sun can endanger ground-based technological systems and the physics of solar activity manifestation on the Earth as Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs). The reaction of power systems to GMDs and mitigation strategies aiming at reducing and controlling the risks are then addressed. The GMD mitigation strategies, the power systems critical factors analysis, the high-risk zones identification and an estimation of economic loss, which is a valuable input for the (re)insurance sector, are also brought to the attention of the reader. Thereby, this book provides a full risk assessment tool for assessing power systems confronted with space weather risks. Key features: • Brings together interdisciplinary perspectives on the topic in one, cohesive book • Practical guideline on mitigation actions for diverse users and even non-specialists • Dealing comprehensively with the threat of geomagnetic disturbance on the worlds power systems • Introducing unique methods to evaluate a particular system risk factors in a straightforward fashion Authors Olga Sokolova, Ph.D., is a risk analyst and electrical engineer with expertise in the domain of critical infrastructure risk assessment to natural catastrophes. Nikolay Korovkin, Ph.D., is a full professor and head of Theoretic Electrical Engineering Department at Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU). Masashi Hayakawa, Ph.D., is an emeritus professor of the University of Electro-Communications, and also CEO of Hayakawa Institute of Seismo Electromagnetics, Co.Ltd.

The Energy Internet

The Energy Internet
Author: Wencong Su,Alex Huang
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 398
Release: 2018-10-26
Genre: Business & Economics
ISBN: 9780081022153

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The Energy Internet: An Open Energy Platform to Transform Legacy Power Systems into Open Innovation and Global Economic Engines is an innovative concept that changes the way people generate, distribute and consume electrical energy. With the potential to transform the infrastructure of the electric grid, the book challenges existing power systems, presenting innovative and pioneering theories and technologies that will challenge existing norms on generation and consumption. Researchers, academics, engineers, consultants and policymakers will gain a thorough understanding of the Energy Internet that includes a thorough dissemination of case studies from the USA, China, Japan, Germany and the U.K. The book's editors provide analysis of various enabling technologies and technical solutions, such as control theory, communication, and the social and economic aspects that are central to obtaining a clear appreciation of the potential of this complex infrastructure. Presents the first complete resource on the innovative concept of the Energy Internet Provides a clear analysis of the architecture of the Energy Internet to ensure an understanding of the technologies behind generating, distributing and consuming electricity in this way Includes a variety of global case studies of real-world implementation and pilot projects to thoroughly demonstrate the theoretical, technological and economic considerations