Youth Gangs in International Perspective

Youth Gangs in International Perspective
Author: Finn-Aage Esbensen,Cheryl L. Maxson
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 322
Release: 2011-12-14
Genre: Social Science
ISBN: 9781461416593

Download Youth Gangs in International Perspective Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle

As a steady source of juvenile delinquents and an incubator for future adult offenders, the youth gang has long been a focus of attention, from their origins and prevalence to intervention and prevention strategies. But while delinquent youth form gangs worldwide, youth gang research has generally focused on the U.S. Youth Gangs in International Perspective provides a needed corrective by offering significant studies from across Europe, as well as Trinidad-Tobago and Israel. The book spans the diversity of the field in the cultural and scholarly traditions represented and methods used, analyzing not only the social processes under which gangs operate and cohere, but also the evolution of the research base, starting with the Eurogang Program’s definition of the term youth gang. Cross-national and gender issues are discussed, as are measurement concerns and the possibility that the American conception of the youth gang is impeding European understanding of these groups. Among the topics covered: Gang dynamics through the lens of social identity theory. Defining gangs in youth correctional settings. Gang gender composition and youth delinquency. From Stockholm: a holistic approach to gang intervention. Gang membership as a turning point in the life course. The impact of globalization, immigration, and social process on neo-Nazi youth gangs. Filling a critical gap in the literature, Youth Gangs in International Perspective will find a wide audience among criminologists, policymakers specializing in youth crime, and researchers and graduate students in criminology, political science, and youth studies.

Youth Gangs in International Perspective

Youth Gangs in International Perspective
Author: Finn-Aage Esbensen,Cheryl L. Maxson
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 322
Release: 2014-03-03
Genre: Social Science
ISBN: 1489991808

Download Youth Gangs in International Perspective Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle

As a steady source of juvenile delinquents and an incubator for future adult offenders, the youth gang has long been a focus of attention, from their origins and prevalence to intervention and prevention strategies. But while delinquent youth form gangs worldwide, youth gang research has generally focused on the U.S. Youth Gangs in International Perspective provides a needed corrective by offering significant studies from across Europe, as well as Trinidad-Tobago and Israel. The book spans the diversity of the field in the cultural and scholarly traditions represented and methods used, analyzing not only the social processes under which gangs operate and cohere, but also the evolution of the research base, starting with the Eurogang Program’s definition of the term youth gang. Cross-national and gender issues are discussed, as are measurement concerns and the possibility that the American conception of the youth gang is impeding European understanding of these groups. Among the topics covered: Gang dynamics through the lens of social identity theory. Defining gangs in youth correctional settings. Gang gender composition and youth delinquency. From Stockholm: a holistic approach to gang intervention. Gang membership as a turning point in the life course. The impact of globalization, immigration, and social process on neo-Nazi youth gangs. Filling a critical gap in the literature, Youth Gangs in International Perspective will find a wide audience among criminologists, policymakers specializing in youth crime, and researchers and graduate students in criminology, political science, and youth studies.

Youth Gangs

Youth Gangs
Author: James C. Howell,U.s. Department of Justice
Publsiher: Createspace Independent Pub
Total Pages: 19
Release: 1998
Genre: Social Science
ISBN: IND:30000056265352

Download Youth Gangs Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle

The United States has seen rapid proliferation of youth gangs since 1980. During this period, the number of cities with gang problems increased from an estimated 286 jurisdictions with more than 2,000 gangs and nearly 100,000 gang members in 1980 (Miller, 1992) to about 4,800 jurisdictions with more than 31,000 gangs and approximately 846,000 gang members in 1996(Moore and Terrett, in press). An 11-city survey of eighth graders found that 9 percent were currently gang members, and 17 percent said they had belonged to a gang at some point in their lives (Esbensen and Osgood, 1997).Other studies reported comparable percentages and also showed that gang members were responsible for a large proportion of violent offenses. In the Rochester site of the OJJDP-funded Program of Research on the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency, gang members (30 percent of the sample) self-reported committing 68 percent of all violent offenses (Thornberry, 1998). In the Denver site, adolescent gang members (14 percent of the sample) self-reported committing 89 percent of all serious violent offenses (Huizinga, 1997). In another study, supported by OJJDP and several other agenciesand organizations, adolescent gang members in Seattle (15 percent of the sample) self-reported involvement in 85 percent of robberies committed by the entire sample (Battin et al., 1998).This Bulletin reviews data and research to consolidate available knowledge on youth gangs that are involved in criminal activity. Following a historical perspective, demographic information ispresented. The scope of the problem is assessed, including gang problems in juvenile detention and correctional facilities. Several issues are then addressed by reviewing gang studies to provide aclearer understanding of youth gang problems.An extensive list of references is provided for further review.

Youth Gangs in International Perspective

Youth Gangs in International Perspective
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 332
Release: 2011-12-14
Genre: Electronic Book
ISBN: 1461416604

Download Youth Gangs in International Perspective Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle

Gangs and Youth Subcultures

Gangs and Youth Subcultures
Author: Kayleen Hazlehurst,Cameron Hazlehurst
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 354
Release: 2018-01-16
Genre: Family & Relationships
ISBN: 9781351290623

Download Gangs and Youth Subcultures Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle

Gangs are growing in many different social, economic, and political environments coupled with an alarming breakdown of public order. Failures to contain or reduce gang crime in European, Asian, South American, African, and North American cities may be symptoms of fundamental problems threatening the fabric of many societies. The spread of gangs to suburbia and remote locations is a palpable, worldwide threat. But despite nearly a century of scholarly inquiry into street gangs and youth subcultures, no single work systematically reflects on comparative international experiences with gangs. Gangs and Youth Subcultures takes up this challenge. Kayleen Hazlehurst and Cameron Hazlehurst argue that theories of gang behavior in immigrant communities and the influence of transnational crime syndicates are better tested in more than one host society. Similar phenomena would be better understood if placed in a comparative context. To this purpose, the editors assembled expert scholars and policy advisers from North America, Europe, South Africa, and Australasia. Gangs and Youth Subculture lays the groundwork for an explanation of why gangs continue to grow in strength and influence, and why they have spread to remote locations.Kayleen Hazlehurst and Cameron Hazlehurst present new findings and innovative preventive strategies in a clear, concise fashion. No other work brings together experts on gangs and youth subcultures from so many countries. As such, this trailblazing book will interest scholars and teachers of criminology and sociology, justice system administrators, as well as law enforcement officers and youth workers internationally.

Global Perspectives on Youth Gang Behavior Violence and Weapons Use

Global Perspectives on Youth Gang Behavior  Violence  and Weapons Use
Author: Harding, Simon
Publsiher: IGI Global
Total Pages: 425
Release: 2016-02-02
Genre: Education
ISBN: 9781466699397

Download Global Perspectives on Youth Gang Behavior Violence and Weapons Use Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle

Youth violence has become a concern as gangs become a popular option for urban children and teenagers and weapons use among young populations becomes more prevalent. Exploring the psychological motivations and foundations upon which such violence is developed and cultivated can assist in better understanding the modern dilemma of violence, weapons use, and gang behavior among children, teenagers, and young adults. Global Perspectives on Youth Gang Behavior, Violence, and Weapons Use reconsiders the traditional understandings of youth violence in various forms, such as gang activities, criminal behavior, and weapons use. Focusing on the psychosocial elements of violence among children, teenagers, and young adults, this timely publication is ideally designed for use by policy makers and government executives, professionals, educators, and graduate-level students involved in psychology, criminology, social work, and criminal justice studies.

YOUTH GANGS

YOUTH GANGS
Author: Robert J. Franzese,Herbert C. Covey,Scott Menard
Publsiher: Charles C Thomas Publisher
Total Pages: 380
Release: 2016-04-11
Genre: Gangs
ISBN: 9780398091071

Download YOUTH GANGS Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle

In the quarter century since the first edition of this book, scholarship on gangs in general, and especially youth gangs, has grown exponentially. This massive expansion of the literature on youth gangs, especially in the past decade, warranted this expanded and updated fourth edition. The first chapter has an expanded discussion of definitional issues, plus recent data from the National Youth Gang Survey, material on the evolving economic nature of gangs, and gang use of internet and social media. The second chapter continues by examining gang violence and drug involvement, and the extent to which they are intercorrelated, with new material on victimization of gang members and gang involvement in drug use and sales. Chapter 3 focuses on racial and ethnic decadences in gangs and the important role of race and ethnicity on gang membership and gang behavior in the U.S. The fourth chapter examines female gangs and gang membership and the changes that have taken place in the nature and extent of female gang membership over time. The fifth and sixth chapters place contemporary American gangs in the historical and international perspective. Chapter 5 includes a new section on youth gangs in the new millennium, and Chapter 6 has been reorganized, particularly to reflect the burgeoning research on European and other international gangs since the turn of the millennium. Chapter 7 has been expanded to include recent developments in the actual and potential application of biosocial, psychological, and life course developmental theories to gangs. Chapter 8 provides a comprehensive, multilevel theory of gangs with updates including new propositions, and new evidence for both the new and old propositions, based on more recent work in theory development and theory testing for gangs. The ninth and tenth chapters’ revisions focus on legislative and justice system efforts to deter gang crime and membership. Chapter 10 also focuses on intervention and assistance programs outside the justice system, including discussion of the Gang Resistance Education and Training program. The final chapter concludes by considering the future of youth gangs in the U.S. and elsewhere in light of historical and cross-national evidence, theory, and experience with gang interventions and programs, considering more recent developments in those areas, and whether they justify any change and for what would be expected of the future of youth gangs.

Gang Transitions and Transformations in an International Context

Gang Transitions and Transformations in an International Context
Author: Cheryl L. Maxson,Finn-Aage Esbensen
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 314
Release: 2016-06-09
Genre: Social Science
ISBN: 9783319296029

Download Gang Transitions and Transformations in an International Context Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle

This unique volume explores why and how youth join and leave gangs, as a lens for exploring intervention and prevention through comparative, international research. The book explores three key questions: how do youth gangs form and how do they change over time? Why do youth join street gangs, and why do they leave? How can we use this knowledge to foster more effective interventions for gang problems? Drawing from research conducted in ten different countries (Belgium, Canada, Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and Venezuela)and a variety of disciplines, sixteen original chapters provide unique insights into: 1) patterns of gang participation and how it impacts individual behavior 2) individual transitions and their impact on gang transformations 3) fostering gang transition and transformation. This work will be of interest to researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, particularly with an interest in youth gangs, developmental and life-course criminology, criminal careers, and criminal networks, as well as related fields such as sociology, psychology, and comparative law, and public health.​

Global Gangs

Global Gangs
Author: Jennifer M. Hazen,Dennis Rodgers
Publsiher: U of Minnesota Press
Total Pages: 312
Release: 2014-08-01
Genre: Political Science
ISBN: 9781452941813

Download Global Gangs Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle

Gangs, often associated with brutality and senseless destructive violence, have not always been viewed as inherently antagonistic. The first studies of gangs depicted them as alternative sources of order in urban slums where the state’s authority was lacking, and they have subsequently been shown to be important elements in some youth life cycles. Despite their proliferation there is little consensus regarding what constitutes a gang. Used to denote phenomena ranging from organized crime syndicates to groups of youths who gather spontaneously on street corners, even the term “gang” is ambiguous. Global Gangs offers a greater understanding of gangs through essays that investigate gangs spanning across nations, from Brazil to Indonesia, China to Kenya, and from El Salvador to Russia. Volume editors Jennifer M. Hazen and Dennis Rodgers bring together contributors who examine gangs from a comparative perspective, discussing such topics as the role the apartheid regime in South Africa played in the emergence of gangs, the politics behind child vigilante squads in India, the relationship between immigration and gangs in France and the United States, and the complex stigmatization of youths in Mexico caused by the arbitrary deployment of the word “gang.” Featuring an afterword by renowned U.S. gang researcher Sudhir Venkatesh, this volume provides a comprehensive look into the experience of gangs across the world and in doing so challenges conventional notions of identity. Contributors: Enrique Desmond Arias, George Mason U; José Miguel Cruz, Florida International U; Steffen Jensen, DIGNITY–Danish Institute Against Torture; Gareth A. Jones, London School of Economics and Political Science; Marwan Mohammed, École Normale Supérieure, Paris; Jacob Rasmussen, Roskilde U; Loren Ryter, U of Michigan; Rustem R. Safin, National Research Technological U, Russia; Alexander L. Salagaev, National Research Technological U, Russia; Atreyee Sen, U of Manchester; Mats Utas, Nordic Africa Institute; Sudhir Venkatesh, Columbia U; James Diego Vigil, U of California, Irvine; Lening Zhang, Saint Francis U.

Oxford Textbook of Violence Prevention

Oxford Textbook of Violence Prevention
Author: Peter D. Donnelly,Catherine L. Ward
Publsiher: Oxford Textbooks in Public Hea
Total Pages: 400
Release: 2015
Genre: Medical
ISBN: 9780199678723

Download Oxford Textbook of Violence Prevention Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle

The Oxford Textbook Violence Prevention brings together an international team of experts to provide an extensive global account of the global mortality and morbidity burden caused by violence through examining the causes of violence, and what can be done to prevent and reduce violence.

The Eurogang Paradox

The Eurogang Paradox
Author: Malcolm Klein,Hans-Jürgen Kerner,Cheryl Maxson,E. Weitekamp
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 341
Release: 2012-12-06
Genre: Social Science
ISBN: 9789401008822

Download The Eurogang Paradox Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle

This is the first comprehensive collection of original research reports on the status of street gangs and problematic youth groups in Europe, as well as a set of special, state-of-the-art reports on the current status of American street gang research and its implications for the European gang situation. Professionals and students will find these papers easy to comprehend yet fully informative on comparative street gang studies.

Challenging Criminological Theory

Challenging Criminological Theory
Author: Francis T. Cullen
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 436
Release: 2017-07-12
Genre: Social Science
ISBN: 9781351529600

Download Challenging Criminological Theory Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle

This volume is divided into five sections that, when taken together, offer an informative account of the impact of Ruth Rosner Kornhauser's Social Sources of Delinquency on the development of American criminological thought. This classic book was her major contribution to the field. Section I tells the story of Kornhauser's brief but influential academic career. Section II probes deeply into the specific ways in which she challenged criminological theory and the subsequent responses that were forthcoming. Section III then presents commentary on specific lines of inquiry inspired by Kornhauser's book and orientation to criminological theory. Section IV explores recent efforts to move beyond Kornhauser's insights on communities and crime. Section V concludes with three critical essays contending that Social Sources of Delinquency paid insufficient attention to criminal motivation, the role of opportunity in offending, and gangs and girls. This volume—authored by prominent scholars—shows that Kornhauser's way of thinking about crime continues to be a starting point for much criminological theory today.

Street Gangs Throughout the World

Street Gangs Throughout the World
Author: Herbert Covey
Publsiher: Charles C Thomas Publisher
Total Pages: 282
Release: 2021-07-01
Genre: Social Science
ISBN: 9780398093723

Download Street Gangs Throughout the World Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle

This new third edition provides an update on what is known about street gangs throughout the world and summarizes some of the major works on street gang phenomena. It focuses on those countries that have a greater presence in the literature. Chapter 1 introduces the reader to the topic of street gangs throughout the world. Chapter 2 identifies some of the challenges faced by scholars when studying gangs in different countries. Chapter 3 reviews some of the basic research on street gangs in the United States and Canada. Chapter 4 covers what is known about street gangs in Europe and Russia. Chapter 5 reviews the literature on street gangs in one of the hottest areas of the world for gangs, Central America. In addition, this chapter examines South American and Caribbean gangs. Street gangs in Brazil, El Salvador, Guatemala, Jamaica, Brazil, Mexico, Nicaragua, Trinidad, and other countries are covered. The presence of street gangs and gang violence in these and other countries has been identified as a major factor in the mass migration of refugees to the United States. Chapter 6 reports on the street gangs of Africa. Research on gangs in South Africa goes back decades and the country has a unique history on how gangs evolved. Other countries, such as Egypt, Nigeria, and Kenya are developing a body of literature that highlights the distinctive nature of gangs and gang members in these countries. Chapter 7 addresses street gangs in Asia, including China, India, Hong Kong (post-reunification), Japan, and other countries. This chapter provides rare glimpses of gangs in China, a relatively secretive country. Although different in many ways from gangs in Asia, information is also included here about gangs in Australia and New Zealand. Practitioners in the criminal justice and juvenile justice fields will find this book to be a valuable resource.

The Handbook of Gangs

The Handbook of Gangs
Author: Scott H. Decker,David C. Pyrooz
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 592
Release: 2015-09-28
Genre: Social Science
ISBN: 9781118726877

Download The Handbook of Gangs Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle

Pulling together the most salient, current issues in the field today, The Handbook of Gangs provides a significant assessment by leading scholars of key topics related to gangs, gang members, and responses to gangs. • Chapters cover a wide array of the most prominent issues in the field of gangs, written by scholars who have been leaders in developing new ways of thinking about the topics • Delivers cutting-edge reviews of the current state of research and practice and addresses where the field has been, where it is today and where it should go in the future • Includes extensive coverage of the individual theories of delinquency and provides special emphasis on policy and prevention program implications in the study of gangs • Offers a broad understanding of how other countries deal with gangs and their response to gangs, including Great Britain, Latin America, Australia and Europe • Chapters covering the legacies of four pioneers in gang research—Malcolm W. Klein, Walter B. Miller, James F. Short Jr., and Irving A. Spergel

Gangs in the Era of Internet and Social Media

Gangs in the Era of Internet and Social Media
Author: Chris Melde,Frank Weerman
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 325
Release: 2020-08-13
Genre: Social Science
ISBN: 9783030472146

Download Gangs in the Era of Internet and Social Media Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle

The ubiquity of the internet and social media has influenced the lives of people across the globe, including young people involved in street gangs and troublesome youth groups. This development raises important questions about the causes, features, and consequences of online gang behavior, as well as the consequences of this new phenomenon for gang prevention and intervention. In this edited volume, members of an international network of gang researchers, the Eurogang Program of Research, present findings and insights from recent academic gang studies focused on the use of internet and social media. It focuses on online features of gangs and the consequences of social media for the study of these groups. The second section of the book focuses on the meaning of online media for the prevention, monitoring and intervention of gangs, and for gang disengagement processes. This is the first volume focused on the role of internet and social media in the study of gangs. Providing much needed insights into online gang processes, it will appeal to students and researchers interested in gangs and juvenile delinquency, and to professionals, practitioners, and policy-makers working on preventing or reducing gang involvement and delinquent behavior.